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Preface | p. xv |
Epigram | p. xvii |
The Single Case in Basic and Applied Research: An Historical Perspective | p. 1 |
Introduction | p. 1 |
Beginnings in Experimental Physiology and Psychology | p. 2 |
Origins of the Group Comparison Approach | p. 4 |
The influence of inferential statistics | p. 6 |
Development of Applied Research: The Case Study Method | p. 8 |
Early reports of percentage of success in treated groups | p. 10 |
The development of the group comparison approach in applied research | p. 11 |
Limitations of Early Group Comparison Approaches | p. 13 |
Ethical objections and practical problems | p. 13 |
Averaging of results | p. 14 |
Generality of findings | p. 14 |
Intersubject variability | p. 15 |
Early Alternative Approaches to Applied Research | p. 15 |
Naturalistic studies | p. 16 |
Process research | p. 18 |
The Scientist-Practitioner Split | p. 19 |
A Return to the Individual | p. 20 |
The role of the case study | p. 22 |
The representative case | p. 22 |
Shapiro's methodology in the clinic | p. 23 |
Quasi-experimental designs | p. 24 |
Chassan and intensive designs | p. 25 |
The Experimental Analysis of Behavior | p. 26 |
General Issues in a Single-Case Approach | p. 31 |
Introduction | p. 31 |
Variability | p. 32 |
Variability in basic research | p. 32 |
Variability in applied research | p. 33 |
Clinical vs. statistical significance | p. 34 |
Highlighting variability in the individual | p. 35 |
Repeated measures | p. 35 |
Rapidly changing designs | p. 36 |
Experimental Analysis of Sources of Variability Through Improvised Designs | p. 37 |
Subject fails to improve | p. 37 |
Subject improves "spontaneously" | p. 38 |
Subject displays cyclical variability | p. 40 |
Searching for "hidden" sources of variability | p. 41 |
Behavior Trends and Intrasubject Averaging | p. 42 |
Relation of Variability to Generality of Findings | p. 45 |
Generality of Findings | p. 46 |
Types of generality | p. 46 |
Problems in generalizing from a single-case | p. 47 |
Some Limitations of Group Designs in Establishing Generality of Findings | p. 48 |
Random sampling and inference in applied research | p. 48 |
Problems in generalizing from the group to the individual | p. 49 |
Improving generality of findings to the individual through homogeneous groups: logical generalization | p. 51 |
Homogeneous Groups Versus Replication of a Single-Case Experiment | p. 52 |
Direct replication and treatment/no-treatment control group design | p. 52 |
Systematic and clinical replication and factorial designs | p. 55 |
Blurring the Distinction Between Design Options | p. 57 |
General Procedures in Single-Case Research | p. 61 |
Introduction | p. 61 |
Repeated Measurement | p. 62 |
Practical implications and limitations | p. 62 |
Choosing a Baseline | p. 65 |
Baseline stability | p. 65 |
Examples of baselines | p. 67 |
Changing One Variable at a Time | p. 73 |
Correct and incorrect applications | p. 73 |
Exceptions to the rule | p. 74 |
Issues in drug evaluation | p. 80 |
Reversal and Withdrawal | p. 81 |
The reversal design | p. 82 |
Reversal and withdrawal designs compared | p. 83 |
Withdrawal of treatment | p. 83 |
Limitations and problems | p. 87 |
Length of Phases | p. 88 |
Individual and relative length | p. 88 |
Carryover effects | p. 91 |
Cyclic variation | p. 93 |
Evaluation of Irreversible Procedures | p. 94 |
Exceptions | p. 95 |
Assessing Response Maintenance | p. 97 |
Behavior Assessment | p. 99 |
Selection of Behavior to Assess | p. 102 |
Social significance | p. 102 |
Clinical significance | p. 104 |
Organizational significance | p. 104 |
Personal significance | p. 104 |
Measurement of Behavior | p. 105 |
Primary measures: behavioral dimensionals of proximal, directly observed behavior | p. 105 |
Temporality dimensions | p. 106 |
Repeatability dimensions | p. 107 |
Products of behavior | p. 110 |
Behavior rating scales | p. 111 |
Self-reports | p. 113 |
Physiological measures | p. 115 |
Settings for Assessment | p. 120 |
Contrived versus naturalistic settings and observations | p. 120 |
A continuum of contrivance | p. 121 |
Defining the behaviors to be observed | p. 124 |
Selecting observers | p. 125 |
Technically enhanced observation | p. 127 |
Training observers | p. 128 |
Reliability and validity | p. 129 |
The Assessment of Function | p. 131 |
Summary and Conclusions | p. 134 |
Basic A-B-A Withdrawal Designs | p. 135 |
Introduction | p. 135 |
Limitations of the case study approach | p. 135 |
A-B Design | p. 136 |
A-B with follow-up | p. 138 |
A-B with multiple target measures and follow-up | p. 140 |
A-B with follow-up and booster treatment | p. 142 |
A-B-A Design | p. 145 |
A-B-A from the adult literature | p. 146 |
A-B-A from child literature | p. 147 |
A-B-A-B Design | p. 149 |
A-B-A-B from child literature | p. 149 |
A-B-A-B when phase change is not under complete experimental control | p. 151 |
A-B-A-B with unexpected improvement in baseline | p. 153 |
A-B-A-B with monitoring of concurrent behaviors | p. 155 |
A-B-A-B with no feedback to experimenter | p. 156 |
B-A-B Design | p. 158 |
B-A-B with group data | p. 159 |
B-A-B from rogerian framework | p. 161 |
A-B-C-B Design | p. 162 |
A-B-C-B from the child literature | p. 163 |
A-B-C-B in a group application and follow-up | p. 164 |
Extensions of the A-B-A Design, Uses in Drug Evaluation and Interaction Design Strategies | p. 167 |
Extensions and Variations of the A-B-A Withdrawal Design | p. 167 |
A-B-A-B-A-B Design | p. 168 |
Comparing Separate Treatment Variables/Components | p. 169 |
A-B-A-C-A-C'-A design | p. 169 |
Parametric Variations of the Same Treatment Variable/Component | p. 172 |
A-B-A-B-B[subscript 1]-B[subscript 2]-B[subscript 3]-B[subscript N] design | p. 172 |
A-B- B[subscript 1]-B[subscript 2]-A-B[subscript 1] design | p. 173 |
Drug Evaluations | p. 175 |
Issues specific to drug evaluations | p. 176 |
Design options | p. 178 |
Strategies for Studying Interaction Effects | p. 185 |
Changing Criterion Designs | p. 198 |
Multiple Baseline Designs | p. 201 |
Introduction | p. 201 |
Multiple Baseline Designs | p. 202 |
Types of multiple baseline designs | p. 204 |
Multiple baseline design across behaviors | p. 205 |
Multiple baseline design across subjects | p. 218 |
Multiple baseline across settings | p. 228 |
Variations of Multiple Baseline Designs | p. 234 |
Nonconcurrent multiple baseline design | p. 234 |
Multiple-probe technique | p. 235 |
Issues in Drug Evaluations | p. 239 |
Alternating Treatments Design | p. 243 |
Introduction | p. 243 |
History and terminology | p. 245 |
Procedural Considerations | p. 246 |
Multiple-treatment interference | p. 247 |
Counterbalancing relevant experimental factors | p. 252 |
Number and sequencing of alternations | p. 253 |
Examples of Alternating Treatments Designs | p. 254 |
Comparing treatment and no treatment conditions | p. 254 |
Comparing multiple treatments | p. 258 |
Advantages of the Alternating Treatments Design | p. 266 |
Visual Analysis of the Alternating Treatments Designs | p. 267 |
Simultaneous Treatment Design | p. 268 |
Statistical Analyses for Single-Case Experimental Designs | p. 271 |
Introduction and Overview | p. 271 |
Single-Subject Experiments and Time-Series Data | p. 273 |
The nature of time-series data | p. 273 |
Mathematical and graphical description of a time series | p. 274 |
The problem of autocorrelation | p. 275 |
Autocorrelation and human behavior | p. 278 |
General comments | p. 279 |
Specific Statistical Tests | p. 279 |
Conventional t and F tests | p. 279 |
Randomization tests | p. 281 |
Interrupted time-series analysis (ITSA) | p. 287 |
Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) Models | p. 288 |
Model building process | p. 291 |
Intervention (impact) analysis | p. 294 |
ITSA modeling strategies | p. 296 |
Box-Jenkins-Tiao strategy (Box & Tiao, 1965) | p. 296 |
Full series modeling strategy | p. 296 |
Interrupted time-series experiment (ITSE) | p. 297 |
Example | p. 298 |
Intervention analysis | p. 299 |
Other statistical tests | p. 301 |
Revusky's R[subscript n] (test of ranks) | p. 302 |
Split-middle technique | p. 302 |
Double bootstrap method | p. 303 |
Evaluation of statistical tests: which test to choose? | p. 303 |
Summary and Conclusion | p. 304 |
Beyond the Individual: Direct, Systematic, and Clinical Replication Procedures | p. 307 |
Introduction | p. 307 |
Direct Replication | p. 308 |
Definition of direct replication | p. 308 |
two successful replications | p. 309 |
four successful replications with design alterations during replications | p. 312 |
mixed results in a multiple baseline design | p. 316 |
simultaneous replication in a group | p. 319 |
Guidelines for direct replication | p. 321 |
Systematic Replication | p. 322 |
Definition of systematic replication | p. 322 |
Example: differential attention in children | p. 323 |
Comment on replication | p. 333 |
Guidelines for systematic replication | p. 333 |
Clinical Replication | p. 336 |
Definition of clinical replication | p. 337 |
Example: clinical replication with autistic children | p. 337 |
Benchmarking | p. 339 |
Practice Research Networks | p. 340 |
Advantages of Replication of Single-Case Experiments | p. 341 |
Hiawatha Designs an Experiment | p. 343 |
References | p. 347 |
Subject Index | p. 375 |
Name Index | p. 383 |
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