9780393978759

Social Psychology

by ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780393978759

  • ISBN10:

    0393978753

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2005-12-09
  • Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

Three major figures from the field of social psychology lead us on an exploration to better understand our social lives. This elegantly written book returns to the classic roots of the field by placing the focus on understanding phenomena from our everyday lives. Theories and experiments are then used to explain these everyday phenomena. Along the way, the authors draw on some of the classic ideas in the field like the power of the situation and the centrality of the fundamental attribution error to explain how we view our world and interact with others. Evolution, culture, emotion, gender, and social neuroscience resonate throughout to reveal how contemporary approaches are providing us with a more comprehensive understanding of the ways in which our social worlds work. This book is certain to be the standard survey for many years to come.

Author Biography

Dacher Keltner is Professor of Psychology and the Director of the Center for the Development of Peace and Well-Being at the University of California at Berkeley.

Table of Contents

Preface xxi
Introduction
2(43)
Characterizing Social Psychology
5(3)
Explaining Behavior
5(2)
Comparing Social Psychology to Related Disciplines
7(1)
Proximal and Distal Influences in Social Psychology
8(1)
The Power of the Situation
8(6)
The Milgram Experiment
10(2)
Seminarians as Samaritans
12(1)
Channel Factors
12(1)
The Fundamental Attribution Error
13(1)
The Role of Construal
14(5)
Interpreting Reality
4(13)
Schemas
17(1)
Stereotypes
18(1)
Automatic and Controlled Processing
19(3)
Types of Unconscious Processing
20(1)
Functions of Unconscious Processing
21(1)
Evolution and Human Behavior: How We are the Same
22(6)
Human Universals
23(2)
Group Living, Language, and Theory of Mind
25(1)
Parental Investment
26(1)
Avoiding the Naturalistic Fallacy
27(1)
Culture and Human Behavior: How We are Different
28(9)
Cultural Differences in Self-Definition
28(4)
Individualism Versus Collectivism in the Workplace
32(1)
Dick and Jane, Deng and Janxing
33(1)
Who Are You?
34(1)
Some Qualifications
35(1)
Culture and Evolution as Tools for Understanding Situations
36(1)
Doing Research
37(5)
Theories and Hypotheses
37(1)
Correlational and Experimental Research
37(3)
Other Kinds of Research
40(2)
Summary
42(1)
Critical Thinking About Basic Principles
42(1)
Further Reading
43(2)
PART ONE Connecting to Others
45(166)
Groups
46(40)
The Nature and Purpose of Group Living
48(2)
Social Facilitation
50(11)
Initial Research
50(1)
Resolving the Contradictions
51(5)
Mere Presence or Evaluation Apprehension?
56(3)
Current Perspectives
59(1)
Practical Applications
60(1)
Deindividuation and the Psychology of Mobs
61(10)
Emergent Properties of Groups
62(1)
Deindividuation and the Group Mind
63(7)
Self-Awareness and Individuation
70(1)
Group Decision Making
71(13)
Groupthink
72(4)
Group Decisions: Risky or Conservative?
76(3)
Group Polarization
79(3)
Polarization in Modern Life
82(2)
Summary
84(1)
Critical Thinking About Basic Principles
85(1)
Further Reading
85(1)
Attraction
86(42)
Studying Attraction
88(1)
Propinquity
89(9)
Studies of Propinquity and Attraction
89(3)
Explanations of Propinquity Effects
92(6)
Similarity
98(6)
Studies of Similarity and Attraction
98(3)
But Don't ``Opposites Attract''?
101(1)
Why Does Similarity Promote Attraction?
102(2)
Physical Attractiveness
104(18)
Impact of Physical Attractiveness
105(3)
Why Does Physical Attractiveness Have Such Impact?
108(7)
Sex Differences in Mate Preferences and Perceived Attractiveness
115(7)
Theoretical Integration
122(3)
The Reward Perspective on Interpersonal Attraction
123(1)
The Social Exchange Perspective on Interpersonal Attraction
124(1)
Summary
125(1)
Critical Thinking About Basic Principles
126(1)
Further Reading
127(1)
Relationships
128(40)
Characterizing Relationships
131(1)
The Importance of Relationships
132(9)
The Need to Belong
133(2)
Relationships and the Sense of Self
135(3)
Relationships and Social Cognition
138(2)
Relationships and Affective Life
140(1)
The Origins of How We Relate to Others
141(5)
Attachment Theory
142(1)
Attachment Styles
143(3)
Different Ways of Relating to Others
146(10)
Basis of Different Kinds of Relationships
147(2)
Exchange and Communal Relationships
149(2)
Power and Hierarchical Relationships
151(5)
Romantic Relationships
156(10)
Marital Dissatisfaction
157(4)
Creating Stronger Romantic Bonds
161(5)
Summary
166(1)
Critical Thinking About Basic Principles
167(1)
Further Reading
167(1)
The Social Self
168(43)
Foundations of the Self-Concept
171(12)
Biological Dispositions
171(3)
Family Influence and Sibling Dynamics
174(3)
Context and the Sense of Self
177(2)
Culture and the Self-Concept
179(2)
Gender and the Self-Concept
181(2)
Self-Knowledge
183(8)
The Organizational Function of Self-Knowledge
183(3)
The Motivational Function of Self-Knowledge
186(1)
The Self as a Standard in Social Perception
186(2)
Illusions and Biases About the Self
188(3)
Self-Evaluation
191(11)
Trait and State Self-Esteem
192(1)
Contingencies of Self-Worth
193(1)
Social Acceptance and Self-Esteem
194(1)
Motives for Self-Evaluation
195(3)
Culture and Self-Esteem
198(2)
Culture Change and Self-Esteem
200(1)
Possible Dangers of High Self-Esteem
201(1)
Self-Presentation
202(6)
Ideas About the Public Self
204(1)
Self-Handicapping: Protecting Your Own Face
204(2)
Self-Presentation and Language
206(2)
Summary
208(1)
Critical Thinking About Basic Principles
209(1)
Further Reading and Films
209(2)
PART TWO Influencing Others
211(124)
Social Influence
212(44)
What is Social Influence?
215(1)
Conformity
216(14)
Automatic Mimicry and the Chameleon Effect
216(2)
Informational Social Influence and Sherif's Conformity Experiment
218(2)
Normative Social Influence and Asch's Conformity Experiment
220(2)
Factors Affecting Conformity Pressures
222(7)
The Influence of Minority Opinion on the Majority
229(1)
Obedience to Authority
230(10)
The Setup of the Milgram Experiments
231(1)
Opposing Forces
232(3)
Would You Have Obeyed?
235(5)
Compliance
240(11)
Reason-Based Approaches
241(4)
Emotion-Based Approaches
245(6)
Resisting Social Influence
251(2)
Summary
253(1)
Critical Thinking About Basic Principles
254(1)
Further Reading
255(1)
Attitudes and Persuasion
256(40)
The Basics of Attitudes
259(3)
The Three Components of Attitudes
259(2)
Measuring Attitudes
261(1)
Functions of Attitudes
262(7)
The Utilitarian Function of Attitudes
263(1)
The Ego-Defensive Function of Attitudes
264(2)
The Value-Expressive Function of Attitudes
266(2)
The Knowledge Function of Attitudes
268(1)
Persuasion and Attitude Change
269(13)
A Two-Process Approach to Persuasion
270(3)
The Who, What, and Whom of Persuasion
273(9)
The Media and Persuasion
282(5)
The Surprisingly Weak Effects of the Media
283(2)
The Media and Conceptions of Social Reality
285(2)
Resistance to Persuasion
287(6)
Attentional Biases and Resistance
287(3)
Previous Commitments and Resistance
290(1)
Knowledge and Resistance
291(1)
Attitude Inoculation
291(2)
Summary
293(1)
Critical Thinking About Basic Principles
294(1)
Further Reading and Films
295(1)
Attitudes and Behavior
296(39)
Predicting Behavior from Attitudes
299(10)
Attitudes Sometimes Conflict with Other Powerful Determinants of Behavior
300(2)
Attitudes Are Sometimes Inconsistent
302(2)
Attitudes Are Sometimes Based on Secondhand Information
304(1)
Mismatched Attitudes and Actual Attitude Targets
305(2)
``Automatic Behavior'' That Bypasses Conscious Attitudes
307(2)
Predicting Attitudes from Behavior
309(15)
Cognitive Consistency Theories
309(2)
Experiencing and Reducing Dissonance
311(7)
When Does Inconsistency Produce Dissonance?
318(3)
Self-Affirmation and Dissonance
321(1)
Is Dissonance Universal?
321(3)
Self-Perception Theory
324(9)
Inferring Attitudes
324(1)
Evidence of Self-Directed Inference
325(2)
Testing for Arousal
327(1)
Reconciling the Dissonance and Self-Perception Accounts
328(4)
A Final Caution
332(1)
Summary
333(1)
Critical Thinking About Basic Principles
334(1)
Further Reading
334(1)
PART THREE Social Thought
335(136)
Causal Attribution
336(44)
Why Social Psychologists Study Causal Attribution
340(4)
The Pervasiveness and Importance of Attribution
340(1)
Explanatory Style and Attribution
341(3)
The Processes of Causal Attribution
344(9)
Attribution and Single-Instance Observation
344(2)
Attribution and Covariation
346(2)
Attribution and Imagining an Alternate Chain of Events
348(5)
Errors and Biases in Attribution
353(17)
The Self-Serving Bias
353(3)
The Fundamental Attribution Error
356(10)
The Actor-Observer Difference in Causal Attributions
366(4)
Culture and the Fundamental Attribution Error
370(6)
Cultural Differences in Attending to Context
370(2)
Causal Attribution for Independent and Interdependent Peoples
372(1)
Priming Culture
373(1)
Dispositions: Fixed or Flexible?
374(2)
Beyond the Internal/External Dimension
376(1)
Summary
377(1)
Critical Thinking About Basic Principles
378(1)
Further Reading
379(1)
Social Judgment
380(48)
Why Study Social Judgment?
382(1)
The Information Available for Judgment
383(12)
Biases in Information Presented Firsthand
383(6)
Biases in Information Presented Secondhand
389(6)
How Information is Presented
395(6)
Order Effects
395(2)
Framing Effects
397(4)
Prior Knowledge and Knowledge Structures
401(8)
How Do Schemas Influence Judgment?
402(2)
How Is Incoming Information Mapped onto Preexisting Schemas?
404(5)
Reason, Intuition, and Heuristics
409(16)
The Availability Heuristic
410(4)
The Representativeness Heuristic
414(9)
The Joint Operation of Availability and Representativeness
423(2)
Summary
425(2)
Critical Thinking About Basic Principles
427(1)
Further Reading
427(1)
Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination
428(43)
Characterizing Intergroup Bias
432(5)
Modern Racism and Sexism
433(1)
Benevolent Racism and Sexism
434(1)
Measures to Assess True Attitudes
435(2)
The Economic Perspective
437(6)
Realistic Group Conflict Theory
437(1)
The Robbers Cave Experiment
438(3)
Evaluating the Economic Perspective
441(2)
The Motivational Perspective
443(7)
The Minimal Group Paradigm
443(1)
Social Identity Theory
444(2)
Frustration-Aggression Theory
446(4)
Evaluating the Motivational Perspective
450(1)
The Cognitive Perspective
450(16)
Stereotypes and Conservation of Mental Reserves
451(1)
Construal Processes and Biased Assessments
452(6)
Immunity to Disconfirmation
458(2)
Automatic and Controlled Processing
460(4)
Evaluating the Cognitive Perspective
464(2)
Being a Member of a Stigmatized Group
466(2)
Attributional Ambiguity
466(1)
Stereotype Threat
467(1)
Summary
468(2)
Critical Thinking About Basic Principles
470(1)
Further Reading
470(1)
PART FOUR Social Sentiments
471
Emotion
472(40)
Characterizing Emotion
475(2)
Defining Emotion
475(1)
The Components of Emotion
476(1)
Universality and Cultural Specificity of Emotion
477(10)
Darwin and Emotional Expression
478(1)
Studies of the Universality of Facial Expression
479(2)
Critiques of the Universality Studies
481(1)
Cultural Specificity of Emotion
482(5)
Emotion in the Mind and Body
487(5)
William James and Emotion-Specific Physiology
487(1)
Schachter and Singer's Two-Factor Theory of Emotion
488(2)
Emotion in the Body: Evidence for ANS Specificity in Emotion
490(2)
Unconscious and Conscious Elicitation of Emotion
492(6)
Unconscious Processing in Split-Brain Patients
493(1)
Automatic Processing and the Generation of Emotion
494(1)
Complex Appraisal and the Generation of Emotion
495(1)
Dealing with Emotions
496(2)
The Rationality of Emotions
498(7)
Emotions and the Maintenance of Social Bonds
498(3)
The Effects of Emotion on Social Cognition
501(1)
Accounts of the Influence of Emotion on Cognition
501(4)
Happiness
505(4)
The Determinants of Pleasure
505(1)
Knowing What Makes Us Happy
506(1)
The Happy Life
507(2)
Summary
509(1)
Critical Thinking About Basic Principles
510(1)
Further Reading
511(1)
Aggression and Altruism
512(40)
Aggression
516(19)
Gender and Aggression
516(1)
Situational Determinants of Aggression
517(6)
Construal Processes and Aggression
523(2)
Culture and Aggression
525(6)
Evolution and Violence
531(4)
Altruism
535(15)
Situational Determinants of Altruism
535(4)
Construal Processes and Altruism
539(2)
Evolutionary Approaches to Altruism
541(3)
Empathy-Based Altruism: A Case of Pure Altruism?
544(4)
The Culture of Altruism
548(2)
Summary
550(1)
Critical Thinking About Basic Principles
551(1)
Further Reading
551(1)
Morality, Justice, and Cooperation
552
The Evolution of Morality, Justice, and Cooperation
554(2)
Morality
556(11)
Defining Morality and Moral Judgment
557(1)
Universality and Cultural Variation in Moral Judgment
558(4)
A Two-System View of Morality
562(5)
Justice
567(9)
Distributive Justice
568(4)
Procedural Justice
572(1)
Restorative Justice
573(3)
Cooperation
576(9)
The Prisoner's Dilemma Game
577(4)
Failure to Perceive Common Grounds for Cooperation
581(3)
Tit for Tat and the Elements of Cooperation
584(1)
Summary
585(1)
Critical Thinking About Basic Principles
586(1)
Further Reading
586
Glossary 1(1)
References 1(1)
Credits and Acknowledgments 1(1)
Name Index 1(1)
Subject Index 1

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