9781319208127

Speak Up! An Illustrated Guide to Public Speaking

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9781319208127

  • ISBN10:

    1319208126

  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2019-09-17
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's

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Summary

Written by professors with 40+ combined years’ experience teaching the course and a competitive background in debate, Speak Up! connects with students through lively writing, compelling real-life examples, practical guidance, and hundreds of custom-drawn illustrations that bring public speaking concepts to life. Instructors will appreciate the book’s serious coverage of concepts and theories, fascinating examples, and unique and often humorous illustrations that help students understand and retain concepts from the text.
 
This edition features new illustrations, in full color for the first time; an increased focus on civic engagement throughout; and an all-new version of our Speech Choices case study feature that leads students through all steps of the public speaking process. Video of that student’s final, full-length speech appears in LaunchPad, a comprehensive digital resource to accompany the book, alongside additional speech videos, a new video assessment program powered by GoReact, an adaptive quizzing program, and more.

Table of Contents

Brief Contents
Preface


THE BASICS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING



  1. INTRODUCING PUBLIC SPEAKING
    What Is Public Speaking?
    Why Study Public Speaking?
    Using Public Speaking as a Student
    Video 1.1: “Gender-Based Responses in Sports Chatrooms”
    Using Public Speaking in Your Career
    Using Public Speaking in Your Community
    Public Speaking: A Great Tradition
    Public Speaking: A Dynamic Discipline

    From Linear to Transactional: Evolving Views of the Public Speaking Process
    New Technologies, New Channels
    Awareness of Audiences’ Cultural Diversity
     Video 1.2: “Humanity 4 Haitian Development”
    Emphasis on Critical Thinking
    A Focus on Free, Engaged, and Ethical Communication
    Chapter Review

  2. DEVELOPING YOUR FIRST SPEECH
    Why Prepare?
    The Classical Approach to Speech Preparation
    Preparing and Delivering Your First Speech
    Analyze Your Audience
    Select Your Topic
    Determine Your Speech’s Rhetorical Purpose
    Create a Thesis Statement
    Determine Your Main Points
    Video 2.1: “Previews, Transitions, and Summaries”
    Develop Supporting Materials
    Organize and Outline the Body of Your Speech
    Outline Your Introduction and Conclusion
    Key Term: Introduction
    Key Term: Conclusion
    Incorporate Transitions
    Key Term: Transition
    Consider Your Word Choice
    Consider Presentation Aids
    Practice Your Speech
    Key Term: Extemporaneous Delivery
    Video 2.2: “Lui, Preventing Cyberbullying”
    Deliver Your Speech
    Video 2.3: “Gentz, My Hero, Marilyn Hamilton”
    Overcoming Speech Anxiety
    Prepare Early and Follow a Plan
    Practice Your Speech
    Take Care of Yourself
    Visualize Success
    Use Relaxation Techniques
    Check Out Some Apps
    Volunteer to Speak First
    Never Defeat Yourself
    Chapter Review
    Video 2.4: “Garza, How to Buy a Guitar”

  3. SPEECH ETHICS
    Codes of Ethics: Absolute, Situational, and Culturally Relative
    Legal Speech vs. Ethical Speech
    Communicating Truthfully
    Lying
    Half-Truths
    False Inference
    Acknowledging the Work of Others
    Video 3.1: “Citing Sources (Statistics and Testimony)”
    Quoting from a Source
    Video 3.2: “Citing Someone Else’s Idea”
    Paraphrasing the Work of Others
    Key Term: Paraphrasing
    Common Knowledge
    Using Sound Reasoning
    Being an Ethical Listener
    Show Courtesy
    Demonstrate an Open Mind
    Hold the Speaker Accountable
    Chapter Review

  4. LISTENING SKILLS
    The Listening Process
    Listening vs. Hearing
    Processing What You’ve Heard
    Retaining What You’ve Processed
    Listening Styles
    The Culprits behind Poor Listening
    Unprocessed Note Taking
    Nonlistening
    Interruptive Listening
    Agenda-Driven Listening
    Argumentative Listening
    Nervous Listening
    Becoming a Better Listener
    Filter Out Distractions
    Focus on the Speaker
    Show That You Are Paying Attention
    Maximizing Your Audience’s Listening
    Anticipate Ineffective Listening before Your Speech
    Encourage Active Listening during Your Speech
    Listening When You Are in the Audience
    Chapter Review

  5. AUDIENCE ANALYSIS
    Understanding Situational Characteristics

    Size
    Time
    Location
    Mobility
    Incorporating Demographics
    Key Term Video: Demographics
    Age
    Video 5.1: “Poplin, The Importance of Community Service and Civic Engagement”
    Gender Composition
    Video 5.2: “Singh, The Importance of Playing Sports Has Grown over Time”
    Sexual Orientation
    Race and Ethnicity
    Religious Orientation
    Socioeconomic Background
    Political Affiliation
    Putting the Demographic Pieces Together
    Seeking Common Ground
    Video 5.3: “Kim, The Non-monetary Use of Gold”
    Identifying Prior Exposure
    Identifying Audience Disposition
    Gathering Information about Your Audience
    Surveying Your Audience
    Interviewing Your Audience
    Considering and Observing Your Audience
    Situational Audience Analysis
    Chapter Review

  6. SELECTING YOUR TOPIC
    Developing a Set of Potential Topics
    Research
    Brainstorming
    Word Association
    Mind Mapping
    Selecting the Best Topic
    Consider the Assignment
    Consider Your Audience
    Consider Your Knowledge and Interests
    Video 6.1 “Humanity 4 Haitian Development”
    Consider the Speech Context
    Choose a Topic and Stick with It
    Refining Your Topic
    Decide Your Rhetorical Purpose
    Narrow Your Topic
    Video 6.2: “Overused Topic (Needs Improvement)”
    Drafting Your Specific Purpose
    Drafting Your Thesis Statement

    Key Term: Thesis Statement
    Video 6.3: “Thesis Statement” and “Thesis Statement: Needs Focus (Needs Improvement)”
    Chapter Review
    Video 6.4: “Gentz, My Hero, Marilyn Hamilton”

  7. RESEARCHING YOUR SPEECH
    Research Is Essential
    Video 7.1: “Roth, Emergency in the Emergency Room”
    Research Works Best When You Have a Plan
    Inventory Your Research Needs
    Find the Sources You Need
    Keep Track of Your Sources
    Key Term Video: Citation
    Evaluating a Source’s Credibility
    Expertise
    Objectivity
    Observational Capacity
    Recency
    Video 7.2: “Citing Sources (Statistics and Testimony)”
    Conducting Library Research
    Books
    Periodicals
    Newspapers
    Reference Works
    Government Documents
    Using the Internet
    Benefits of Internet Research
    Disadvantages of Internet Research
    Evaluating the Credibility of Online Sources
    Credibility of Social Media
    Searching the World Wide Web
    Interviewing Sources
    Prepare for Your Interview
    Set Up Your Interview
    Plan Your Interview Questions
    Conduct the Interview
    Evaluate Your Notes
    Presenting Evidence in Your Speeches
    Clearly Cite Your Source
    Present the Information Accurately
    Key Term Video: Paraphrase
    Video 7.3: “Citing Sources (Statistics)”
    Chapter Review
    Video 7.4: “Kruckenberg, John Kanzius and the Quest to Cure Cancer”

  8. USING SUPPORTING MATERIALS FOR YOUR SPEECH
    Key Term: Supporting Materials
    Why Use Supporting Materials?
    Building Audience Interest
    Enhancing Audience Understanding
    Strengthening Audience Memory
    Winning Audience Agreement
    Evoking Audience Emotion
    Types of Supporting Materials
    Examples
    Key Term: Example
    Definitions
    Testimony
    Key Term: Testimony
    Video 8.1: “Royzpal, Litter”
    Statistics
    Key Term: Statistic
    Video 8.2: “Citing Sources (Statistics and Facts)”
    Narratives
    Key Term: Narrative
    Analogies
    Key Term: Analogy
    Guidelines for Using Supporting Materials
    Choose the Most Credible Proof
    Use a Variety of Supporting Materials
    Appeal to Different Learning Styles
    Avoid Long Lists
    Consider Your Audience
    Video 8.3: “Examples (Humorous)”
    Respect the Available Time
    Chapter Review
    Video 8.4: “Kim, The Nonmonetary Uses of Gold”

  9. ORGANIZING YOUR SPEECH
    Selecting Your Main Points
    Consider Your Purpose
    Take Your Audience into Account
    Select an Appropriate Number of Main Points
    Organizing Your Supporting Materials
    Subordination and Coordination
    Video 9.1: “Without Liberty and Justice for All”
    When a Subpoint Doesn’t Fit
    Arranging Your Main Points
    Spatial Pattern
    Key Term: Spatial Pattern
    Chronological (Temporal) Pattern
    Key Term: Chronological (Temporal) Pattern
    Causal Pattern
    Key Term: Causal Pattern
    Comparison Pattern
    Categorical (Topical) Pattern
    Key Term: Categorical (Topical) Pattern
    Video 9.2: “Singh, The Importance of Playing Sports Has Grown over Time”
    Persuasive Speech Patterns
    Using Organizing Words, Phrases, and Sentences
    Transitions
    Key Term: Transition
    Video 9.3: “Patterns of Arrangement: Causal”
    Signposts
    Internal Previews and Internal Summaries
    Chapter Review
    Video Activity 9.4: “List, Gender-Based Responses in Sports Chat Rooms”

  10. INTRODUCTIONS AND CONCLUSIONS
    Introducing Your Speech
    Gain Your Audience’s Attention
    Key Term: Attention-Getter
    Key Term: Rhetorical Question
    Video 10.1: “Anecdote (Personal) in an Informative Introduction”
    Signal Your Thesis
    Show Your Audience What’s in It for Them
    Establish Your Credibility
    Preview Your Main Points
    Key Term: Preview
    Video 10.2: “Attention-Getter, Support, Creative Preview”
    Concluding Your Speech
    Transition to Your Conclusion
    Summarize Your Main Points
    Finish with a Memorable Clincher
    Key Term: Clincher
    Video 10.3: “Clincher: Evokes Response”
    Chapter Review
    Video Activity 10.4: “Full Introduction: Attention-Getter, Thesis, and Preview” and “Full Conclusion”

  11. OUTLINING YOUR SPEECH
    Two Stages of Outlining

    The Detailed Outline
    The Speaking Outline
    Key Term: Extemporaneous Delivery
    Creating Your Detailed Outline
    Outlining the Body of Your Speech
    Key Term: Transition
    Video 11.1: “Roth, Emergency in the Emergency Room”
    Outlining Your Introduction
    Key Term: Introduction
    Outlining Your Conclusion
    Key Term: Conclusion
    Video 11.2: “Without Liberty and Justice for All”
    Creating a List of References
    Inserting the Title, Specific Purpose, and Thesis
    A Sample Detailed Outline
    Creating Your Speaking Outline
    Elements of Your Speaking Outline
    Video 11.3: “Rate: Too Fast (Needs Improvement)”
    The Medium for Your Speaking Outline
    A Sample Speaking Outline
    Chapter Review
    Video 11.4 “DuBoise, Central Texas Coalition against Human Trafficking”

  12. LANGUAGE AND STYLE
    The Importance of Language and Word Choice
    Differences between Oral and Written Language
    Denotative and Connotative Meaning
    Denotative Meaning
    Connotative Meaning
    Presenting Your Message Clearly
    Understandable Language
    Concrete Words
    Proper Use of Words
    Concise Language
    Expressing Your Ideas Effectively
    Repetition
    Hypothetical Examples
    Personal Anecdotes
    Vivid Language
    Video 12.1: “Roth, Emergency in the Emergency Room”
    Figurative Language
    Key Term: Figurative Language
    Key Term: Antithesis
    Key Term: Simile
    Key Term: Metaphor
    Video 12.2: “Gender-Based Responses in Sports Chatrooms” (simile)
    Video 12.3: “Gender-Based Responses in Sports Chatrooms” (metaphor)
    Choosing Respectful and Unbiased Language
    Avoid Stereotypes
    Use Gender-Neutral References
    Make Appropriate References to Ethnic Groups
    Steer Clear of Unnecessary References to Ethnicity, Religion, Gender, or Sexuality
    A Note on Appropriate Language and Political Correctness
    Chapter Review

  13. DELIVERING YOUR SPEECH
    Key Term: Delivery
    Selecting the Right Mode of Delivery

    Reading from a Manuscript
    Memorizing from a Manuscript
    Speaking from an Outline
    Impromptu Speaking
    Key Term: Impromptu Delivery
    Using Verbal Delivery Skills
    Volume
    Key Term: Volume
    Tone
    Rate of Delivery
    Key Term: Rate of Delivery
    Video 13.1: “Rate Too Fast (Needs Improvement)”
    Projection
    Articulation
    Pronunciation
    Key Term: Pronunciation
    Pausing
    Key Term: Verbal Filler
    Using Nonverbal Delivery Skills
    Eye Contact
    Key Term: Eye Contact
    Gestures
    Key Term: Gesture
    Video 13.2: “Gestures: Overly Scripted (Needs Improvement)”
    Physical Movement
    Key Term: Physical Movement
    Proxemics
    Personal Appearance
    Key Term: Personal Appearance
    Chapter Review

  14. USING PRESENTATION AIDS
    Why Use Presentation Aids?
    Presentation Aids Can Make Your Speech More Interesting
    Presentation Aids Can Simplify a Complex Topic
    Presentation Aids Can Help Your Audience Remember Your Speech
    Types of Presentation Aids
    The Speaker
    Assistants
    Objects
    Visual Images
    Graphs
    Text-Based Visuals
    Audio and Video
    Using Technology Wisely
    Using Presentation Software
    Key Term: Presentation Software
    Using Other Technology
    Guidelines for Developing Presentation Aids
    Consider the Forum
    Consider Your Audience
    Make Sure Your Aids Support Your Points
    Keep Your Aids Simple and Clear
    Rehearse with Your Presentation Aids
    Video 14.1: “Presentation Software: Checking Beforehand (Needs Improvement)”
    Using Presentation Aids during Your Speech
    Make Sure Everyone Can See and Hear Your Aids
    Control Audience Interaction with Your Aids
    Maintain Eye Contact
    Video 14.2: “Presentation Software (Needs Improvement)”
    Remember the Purpose of Your Aids
    Chapter Review

  15. MEDIATED PUBLIC SPEAKING
    The Rise of Mediated Communication

    The Expansion of Mediated Public Speaking
    Prerecorded and Real-Time Presentations
    Advantages of Mediated Presentations
    General Advantages
    Advantages of Prerecorded Speeches
    Advantages of Real-Time Technologies
    Video 15.1: “McAlister, Arsenic in Our Water Supply”
    Challenges of Mediated Presentations

    Loss of Naturalness
    Loss of Immediacy
    Decreased Nonverbal Communication
    Diminished Feedback
    Difficulty Managing Distractions
    Technological Difficulties
    Optimizing Delivery and Messages in Mediated Presentations
    Delivery Considerations
    Message Adaptations
    Practicing Delivery and Recording
    Recording Your Classroom Speech
    Camera
    Setting and Background
    Video 15.2: “Attention-Getter (Needs Improvement)”
    Attire
    Camera Positioning
    Video 15.3: “Fallacy: Red Herring (Needs Improvement)”
    Special Considerations for Real-Time Presentations
    Practicing with Your Equipment to Make Sure It Works
    Selecting a Robust Internet Connection
    Using Group Chat/Video and Screen Sharing
    Creating Opportunities for Audience Interaction
    Soliciting Feedback through an Alternative Medium
    Chapter Review
    Video Activity 15.4: “Gentz, My Hero, Marilyn Hamilton”

  16. INFORMATIVE SPEAKING
    Techniques for Informing

    Definition
    Key Term: Definition
    Explanation
    Key Term: Explanation
    Description
    Key Term: Description
    Demonstration
    Key Term: Demonstration
    Video 16.1: “Garza, How to Buy a Guitar”
    Narrative
    Key Term: Narrative
    Video 16.2: “Conveying Information: Narrative (Needs Improvement)”
    Types of Informative Speeches
    Objects
    Individuals or Groups
    Events
    Processes
    Video 16.3: “Conveying Information: Description”
    Ideas
    Developing Your Informative Speech
    Analyzing Your Audience
    Key Term: Demographics
    Selecting a Technique
    Focusing on Your Goal to Inform
    Clarifying and Simplifying Your Message
    Sample Informative Speech

    Rachel Parish, Spider Silk: A Miracle Material Derived from . . . Goats?
    Chapter Review

  17. PERSUASIVE SPEAKING
    The Nature of a Persuasive Speech

    Persuasive Speeches Attempt to Influence Audience Members
    Persuasive Speeches Advocate Fact, Value, or Policy Claims
    Key Term: Fact Claim
    Key Term: Policy Claim
    Video 17.1: “Claims: Policy” and “Claims: Fact”
    The Nature of Persuasion

    Two Paths to Persuasion
    The Importance of Central Route Processing
    Which Route Will Audience Members Follow?
    Tailoring Your Persuasive Message to the Audience
    Adapting to Audience Disposition
    Appealing to Your Audience’s Needs
    Connecting to Your Listeners’ Values
    Accounting for Audience Beliefs
    Focusing on Peripheral Beliefs
    Demonstrating How Your Audience Benefits
    Acknowledging Listeners’ Reservations
    Ethical Persuasion
    Help Your Audience Make an Informed Decision
    Research Your Facts
    Note Any Biases
    Attribute Your Research Properly
    Organizing Your Persuasive Speech
    Organizing Fact Claims
    Organizing Value Claims
    Organizing Policy Claims
    Key Term: Motivated Sequence
    Video 17.2: “Patterns of Arrangement, Monroe’s Motivated Sequence”
    Key Term: Problem-Cause-Solution Pattern
    Chapter Review
    Video Activity 17.3: “Martinez, Extra Credit You Can Live Without”

  18. METHODS OF PERSUASION
    Ethos: Your Credibility as a Speaker

    Understanding the Elements of Credibility
    Building Your Credibility
    Avoiding Loss of Your Credibility
    Logos: The Evidence and Reasoning behind Your Message
    Key Term: Logos

    Using Evidence
    Using Reasoning
    Key Term: Inductive Reasoning
    Video 18.1: “Reasoning: Inductive”
    Avoiding Logical Fallacies
    Key Term: Hasty Generalization
    Key Term: Ad Populum (Bandwagon) Fallacy
    Key Term: Ad Hominem (Personal Attack) Fallacy
    Key Term: Slippery Slope Fallacy
    Key Term: False Dilemma Fallacy
    Video 18.2: “Fallacy: Either-Or (False Dilemma): Diplomacy vs. WWIII (Needs Improvement)”
    Pathos: Evoking Your Listeners’ Emotions
    Key Term: Pathos

    Using Emotional Appeals
    Video 18.3: “Claims: Fact (Appeals to Emotion and Credibility)”
    Ensuring Ethical Use of Pathos
    Sample Persuasive Speech
    Anna Martinez, Extra Credit You Can Live Without
    Chapter Review
    Video 18.4: “Morales, Without Liberty and Justice for All”

  19. SPECIAL-OCCASION SPEAKING
    Types of Special-Occasion Speeches

    General Guidelines for Special-Occasion Speeches
    Appealing to Your Audience’s Emotions
    Video 19.1: “Gentz, My Hero, Marilyn Hamilton”
    Matching Your Delivery to the Mood of the Occasion
    Adapting to Your Audience’s Expectations
    Evoking Shared Values
    Video 19.2: “Language, Delivery, and Special-Occasion Speeches”
    Respecting Time Constraints
    Strategies for Each Type of Special-Occasion Speech
    Strategies for Speeches of Introduction
    Strategies for Speeches of Presentation
    Strategies for Speeches of Acceptance
    Strategies for Speeches to Memorialize or Eulogize
    Strategies for Speeches to Celebrate
    Strategies for After-Dinner Speeches
    Sample Special-Occasion Speech
    Joseph Tuman, Swearing-In Ceremony for New U.S. Citizens
    Chapter Review

  20. GROUP COMMUNICATION
    Effective Group Leadership

    Selecting a Leader
    Leading Meetings
    Managing Conflict
    Effective Group Membership
    Three Types of Member Roles
    Tips for Participating in a Small Group
    Group Decision Making and the Reflective-Thinking Process
    Define the Problem
    Analyze the Problem
    Establish Criteria for Solving the Problem
    Generate Possible Solutions
    Select the Best Solution
    Delivering Group Presentations
    Symposium
    Panel Discussion
    Single Group Representative
    Chapter Review

  21. CIVIC ENGAGEMENT
    Civic Engagement and Its Importance to Society
    How Civic Engagement Benefits You
    Forums and Venues for Civic Engagement
    Applying Public Speaking Skills to Civic Engagement
    Invention
    Audience Analysis
    Organization
    Language and Style
    Chapter Review

APPENDIX A: SPEECH CHOICES OUTLINE AND FULL-LENGTH SPEECH
How Emigrants Use Smartphones: Speech Outline
How Emigrants Use Smartphones: Full-Length Speech
Why Student Athletes Should Be Paid: Speech Outline
Student Athletes Should Be Paid: Full-Length Speech
 
APPENDIX B: ADDITIONAL SAMPLE SPEECHES
Sample Special Occasion Speech
John McCain, Liberty Medal Ceremony
Sample Persuasive Speech
David Kruckenberg, Child Slavery and the Production of Chocolate
Sample Persuasive Speech
Michelle Bachelet, Reclaiming Public Spaces for the Empowerment of Women and Girls


Notes
Glossary
Index

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