SQL Fundamentals

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  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2008-09-02
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall

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Third edition of the hands-on, real-world guide to mastering SQL through using the world's top two databases: Oracle and Microsoft Access. 

Author Biography

John J. Patrick is a computer consultant and software developer specializing in relational database technology. He teaches SQL Fundamentals and other database courses at the University of California, Berkeley Extension, and has more than twenty years of experience in software development at Bank of America, Chevron, Kaiser Permanente, and other leading firms.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xxv
Storing Information in Tablesp. 1
Introductionp. 3
The Parts of a Tablep. 9
Examples of Tablesp. 19
Key Pointsp. 30
Getting Information from a Tablep. 31
The Select Statementp. 33
The Select Clausep. 37
The Where Clausep. 50
The Order By Clausep. 71
Key Pointsp. 80
Compound Conditions in the Where Clausep. 83
Compound Conditions in the Where Clausep. 85
Constant Valuesp. 95
Punctuation Mattersp. 102
Case Sensitivityp. 113
Three-Valued Logicp. 120
Error Messagesp. 122
Some Exercises Solved for Youp. 124
Key Pointsp. 131
Saving Your Resultsp. 133
Saving Your Results in a New Table or Viewp. 135
Modifying the Data in a Table with SQLp. 151
Modifying the Data in a Table with the GUIp. 161
Restrictions on Modifying the Data in a Tablep. 167
Key Pointsp. 170
The Data Dictionary and Other Oracle Topicsp. 171
Commit, Rollback, and Transactionsp. 173
Modifying Data through a Viewp. 179
The SQL Commands Page in Oraclep. 192
Using the Oracle Data Dictionary
p. 195
Key Pointsp. 207
Creating Your Own Tablesp. 209
Creating Tablesp. 211
Changing Tablesp. 226
Tables with Duplicate Rowsp. 236
Key Pointsp. 243
Formats, Sequences, and Indexesp. 245
Formatsp. 247
Sequencesp. 257
Indexesp. 262
Using the Oracle Data Dictionary
p. 266
An Exercise Solved for Youp. 278
Key Pointsp. 280
Data Integrityp. 281
Constraints on One Tablep. 283
Referential Integrityp. 289
The Delete Options and Update Options of RIp. 303
Variations of Referential Integrityp. 311
How to Code Constraints in a Create Table Statementp. 316
Key Pointsp. 319
Row Functionsp. 321
Introduction to Row Functionsp. 323
Numeric Functionsp. 334
Text Functionsp. 340
Date Functionsp. 350
Key Pointsp. 359
Using Row Functionsp. 361
Specialized Row Functionsp. 363
Using the Documentation of Row Functionsp. 372
Creating Patterns of Numbers and Datesp. 376
Key Pointsp. 397
Summarizing Datap. 399
Introduction to the Column Functionsp. 401
Maximum and Minimump. 404
Countp. 411
Sum and Averagep. 420
Other Topicsp. 428
Key Pointsp. 434
Controlling the Level of Summarizationp. 435
Dividing a Table into Groups of Rowsp. 437
Eliminating Some of the Summarized Datap. 459
Key Pointsp. 471
Inner Joinsp. 473
Introduction to Joinsp. 475
Inner Joins of Two Tablesp. 479
Variations of the Join Conditionp. 495
Applications of Joinsp. 504
Key Pointsp. 515
Outer Joinsp. 517
Introduction to Outer Joinsp. 519
Applications of Outer Joinsp. 534
Key Pointsp. 553
Union and Union Allp. 555
Union Basicsp. 557
Unconventional Unionsp. 573
Applications of a Unionp. 577
Set Intersection and Set Difference in Oraclep. 590
Key Pointsp. 595
Cross Joins, Self Joins, and Cross Tab Queriesp. 597
Cross Joinsp. 599
Self Joinsp. 613
Cross Tab Queries in Accessp. 624
Cross Tab Queries in Oraclep. 645
Key Pointsp. 650
Combining Tables in a Production Databasep. 653
Methods of Joining Three or More Tablesp. 655
Losing Informationp. 660
Caring about the Efficiency of Your Computerp. 663
Standardizing the Way That Tables Are Joinedp. 666
Key Pointsp. 671
If-Then-Else, Parameter Queries, and Subqueriesp. 673
If-Then-Else Logicp. 675
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.


SQL is one of the most important computer languages. It is the language of databases. Whenever you search for the information you need in a large library of information, the code that performs the search is likely to be using SQL. Many applications in which you share information to coordinate with other people also use SQL.It is used in more than 100 software products, and new ones are being added all the time. This book shows you how to get the most out of the databases you use. It explains how to use SQL to solve practical problems, using the most widely used SQL products, Oracle and Microsoft Access. Oracle and Access are both widely used, easily available, and run on personal computers. By learning these two products in detail, you will have all the basic skills to use any of the many products based on SQL. How the Topics Are PresentedThis book uses an informal conversational style to take you on a tour of SQL topics. Oracle and Access are placed side by side doing the same tasks, so you can see their similarities and differences. Most topics are illustrated with an example of SQL code. I have intentionally kept the tables small in these examples, which makes them easy to check and understand.Each example of SQL code begins by setting a task. Then the SQL code is given that performs that task. Whenever possible, I wrote the SQL code so that it works in both Oracle and Access. However, sometimes I could not do that, so I wrote one version of SQL code for Oracle and a different version for Access.To make this book easier to read, each example of SQL shows the beginning and ending data table(s). This allows you to check that you understand what the SQL is doing. I have tried to make these examples small so they are easy to check.Each example is often followed by notes to explain any subtle points about the SQL code or the data tables.Finally, I give you a problem to solve to check your understanding of the topic. You can decide if you want to do these problems or not. Usually they are fairly easy and require only a small modification of the SQL code in the example. If you decide to do a problem, the Web site will allow you to determine if your solution is correct.Each example of SQL code in this book is designed to be independent and stand on its own, without needing any changes performed in previous sections. This allows you to skip around in the book and read the sections in any order you want. Some people may want to read the book from beginning to end, but it is not necessary to do this.Be sure to look at the appendices for practical tips on how to run Oracle and Access. The database files and the code for all the examples are available from the Web site. In several places throughout this book, I have expressed opinions about computer technology, something that many other technical books avoid doing. These opinions are my own and I take full responsibility for them. I also reserve the right to change my mind. If I do so, I will put my revised opinion, and the reasons that have caused me to change my thinking, on the Web site for this book. The Companion Web SiteThe companion Web site for this book is a Google group called "sqlfun." The group Web address is: http://groups.google.com/group/sqlfunYou can also send e-mail to me at: sqlfun@gmail.comThis Web site contains: Oracle SQL code to build all the data tables used in this book. Access databases with all the data tables used in this book. Databases are available for several versions of Access. Ways to check your answers to problems in the book. A list of corrections, if there are any. An open area for discussions, your comments, and

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