Statistics Essentials For Dummies

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  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2010-05-17
  • Publisher: For Dummies

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?


Statistics Essentials For Dummies not only provides students enrolled in Statistics I with an excellent high-level overview of key concepts, but it also serves as a reference or refresher for students in upper-level statistics courses. Free of review and ramp-up material, Statistics Essentials For Dummies sticks to the point, with content focused on key course topics only. It provides discrete explanations of essential concepts taught in a typical first semester college-level statistics course, from odds and error margins to confidence intervals and conclusions. This guide is also a perfect reference for parents who need to review critical statistics concepts as they help high school students with homework assignments, as well as for adult learners headed back into the classroom who just need a refresher of the core concepts.The Essentials For Dummies Series Dummies is proud to present our new series, The Essentials For Dummies. Now students who are prepping for exams, preparing to study new material, or who just need a refresher can have a concise, easy-to-understand review guide that covers an entire course by concentrating solely on the most important concepts. From algebra and chemistry to grammar and Spanish, our expert authors focus on the skills students most need to succeed in a subject.

Author Biography

Deborah Rumsey, PhD, is an Auxiliary Professor and Statistics Education Specialist at The Ohio State University. She is the author of Statistics For Dummies, Statistics II For Dummies, Statistics Workbook For Dummies, and Probability For Dummies.

Table of Contents

Introductionp. 1
About This Bookp. 1
Conventions Used in This Bookp. 2
Foolish Assumptionsp. 2
Icons Used in This Bookp. 3
Where to Go from Herep. 3
Statistics in a Nutshellp. 5
Designing Studiesp. 5
Surveysp. 5
Experimentsp. 6
Collecting Datap. 7
Selecting a good samplep. 7
Avoiding bias in your datap. 8
Describing Datap. 8
Descriptive statisticsp. 8
Charts and graphsp. 9
Analyzing Datap. 10
Making Conclusionsp. 10
Descriptive Statisticsp. 13
Types of Datap. 13
Counts and Percentsp. 14
Measures of Centerp. 15
Measures of Variabilityp. 17
Percentilesp. 19
Finding a percentilep. 19
Interpreting percentilesp. 20
The Five-Number Summaryp. 21
Charts and Graphsp. 23
Pie Chartsp. 23
Bar Graphsp. 24
Time Chartsp. 26
Histogramsp. 27
Making a histogramp. 27
Interpreting a histogramp. 29
The distribution of the data in a histogramp. 29
Variability in the data from a histogramp. 29
Center of the data from a histogramp. 30
Evaluating a histogramp. 30
Boxplotsp. 31
Making a boxplotp. 31
Interpreting a boxplotp. 32
Distribution of data in a boxplotp. 32
Variability in a data set from a boxplotp. 34
Center of the data from a boxplotp. 34
The Binomial Distributionp. 35
Characteristics of a Binomialp. 35
Checking the binomial conditions step by stepp. 36
Non-binomial examplesp. 36
No fixed number of trialsp. 37
More than success or failurep. 37
Probability of success (p) changesp. 37
Trials are not independentp. 38
Finding Binomial Probabilities Using the Formulap. 38
Finding Probabilities Using the Binomial Tablep. 40
Finding probabilities when p ≤ 0.50p. 40
Finding probabilities when p > 0.50p. 41
Finding probabilities for X greater-than, less-than, or between two valuesp. 42
The Expected Value and Variance of the Binomialp. 43
The Normal Distributionp. 45
Basics of the Normal Distributionp. 45
The Standard Normal (Z) Distributionp. 46
Finding Probabilities for Xp. 48
Finding X for a Given Probabilityp. 51
Normal Approximation to the Binomialp. 53
Sampling Distributions and the Central Limit Theoremp. 55
Sampling Distributionsp. 55
The mean of sampling distributionp. 57
The standard error of a sampling distributionp. 57
Sample size and standard errorp. 58
Population standard deviation and standard errorp. 60
The shapep. 61
Distribution of X is normalp. 61
Distribution of X is unknown or not normalp. 61
Finding Probabilities for Xp. 62
The Sampling Distribution of the Sample Proportionp. 63
What proportion of students need math help?p. 64
Finding Probabilities for pp. 66
Confidence Intervalsp. 69
Making Your Best Guesstimatep. 69
The Goal: Small Margin of Errorp. 71
Choosing a Confidence Levelp. 71
Factoring In the Sample Sizep. 73
Counting On Population Variabilityp. 75
Confidence Interval for a Population Meanp. 75
Confidence Interval for a Population Proportionp. 77
Confidence Interval for the Difference of Two Meansp. 78
Confidence Interval for the Difference of Two Proportionsp. 80
Interpreting Confidence Intervalsp. 82
Spotting Misleading Confidence Intervalsp. 84
Hypothesis Testsp. 87
Doing a Hypothesis Testp. 87
Identifying what you're testingp. 88
Setting up the hypothesesp. 88
What's the alternative?p. 88
Knowing which hypothesis is whichp. 89
Finding sample statisticsp. 90
Standardizing the evidence: the test statisticp. 90
Weighing the evidence and making decisions: p-valuesp. 91
Finding the p-valuep. 92
Interpreting a p-valuep. 93
General steps for a hypothesis testp. 94
Testing One Population Meanp. 94
Testing One Population Proportionp. 96
Comparing Two Population Meansp. 97
Testing the Mean Difference: Paired Datap. 99
Testing Two Population Proportionsp. 102
You Could Be Wrong: Errors in Hypothesis Testingp. 104
A false alarm: Type-1 errorp. 105
A missed detection: Type-2 errorp. 105
The t-distributionp. 107
Basics of the t-Distributionp. 107
Understanding the t-Tablep. 108
t-distributions and Hypothesis Testsp. 109
Finding critical valuesp. 110
Finding p-valuesp. 110
t-distributions and Confidence Intervalsp. 112
Correlation and Regressionp. 113
Picturing the Relationship with a Scatterplotp. 113
Making a scatterplotp. 114
Interpreting a scatterplotp. 114
Measuring Relationships Using the Correlationp. 115
Calculating the correlationp. 116
Interpreting the correlationp. 117
Properties of the correlationp. 118
Finding the Regression Linep. 119
Which is X and which is Y?p. 119
Checking the conditionsp. 119
Understanding the equationp. 120
Finding the slopep. 121
Finding the y-interceptp. 121
Interpreting the slope and y-interceptp. 122
Interpreting the slopep. 122
Interpreting the y-interceptp. 123
The best-fitting line for the cricketsp. 123
Making Predictionsp. 124
Avoid Extrapolation!p. 125
Correlation Doesn't Necessarily Mean Cause-and-Effectp. 125
Two-Way Tablesp. 127
Organizing and Interpreting a Two-way Tablep. 127
Defining the outcomesp. 128
Setting up the rows and columnsp. 128
Inserting the numbersp. 129
Finding the row, column, and grand totalsp. 130
Finding Probabilities within a Two-Way Tablep. 131
Figuring joint probabilitiesp. 31
Calculating marginal probabilitiesp. 131
Finding conditional probabilitiesp. 132
Checking for Independencep. 134
A Checklist for Samples and Surveysp. 137
The Target Population is Well Definedp. 138
The Sample Matches the Target Populationp. 138
The Sample Is Randomly Selectedp. 139
The Sample Size Is Large Enoughp. 139
Nonresponse Is Minimizedp. 140
The importance of following upp. 140
Anonymity versus confidentialityp. 141
The Survey Is of the Right Typep. 142
Questions Are Well Wordedp. 142
The Timing Is Appropriatep. 143
Personnel Are Well Trainedp. 143
Proper Conclusions Are Madep. 144
A Checklist for Judging Experimentsp. 147
Experiments versus Observational Studiesp. 147
Criteria for a Good Experimentp. 148
Inspect the Sample Sizep. 148
Small samples - small conclusionsp. 148
Original versus final sample sizep. 149
Examine the Subjectsp. 149
Check for Random Assignmentsp. 150
Gauge the Placebo Effectp. 150
Identify Confounding Variablesp. 151
Assess Data Qualityp. 152
Check Out the Analysisp. 152
Scrutinize the Conclusionsp. 153
Overstated resultsp. 153
Ad-hoc explanationsp. 154
Generalizing beyond the scopep. 154
Ten Common Statistical Mistakesp. 155
Misleading Graphsp. 155
Pie chartsp. 155
Bar graphsp. 156
Time chartsp. 156
Histogramsp. 157
Biased Datap. 157
No Margin of Errorp. 158
Nonrandom Samplesp. 158
Missing Sample Sizesp. 159
Misinterpreted Correlationsp. 159
Confounding Variablesp. 160
Botched Numbersp. 160
Selectively Reporting Resultsp. 161
The Almighty Anecdotep. 162
Appendix: Tables for Referencep. 163
Indexp. 171
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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