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Preface | p. ix |
Basic Concepts of Measurement | p. 1 |
Measurement | p. 2 |
Levels of Measurement | p. 2 |
True and Error Scores | p. 8 |
Reliability and Validity | p. 10 |
Measurement Bias | p. 14 |
Exercises | p. 17 |
Probability | p. 21 |
About Formulas | p. 22 |
Basic Definitions | p. 23 |
Defining Probability | p. 30 |
Bayes' Theorem | p. 34 |
Enough Exposition, Let's Do Some Statistics! | p. 36 |
Exercises | p. 38 |
Inferential Statistics | p. 45 |
Probability Distributions | p. 46 |
Independent and Dependent Variables | p. 53 |
Populations and Samples | p. 54 |
The Central Limit Theorem | p. 59 |
Hypothesis Testing | p. 64 |
Confidence Intervals | p. 67 |
p-values | p. 68 |
The Z-Statistic | p. 70 |
Data Transformations | p. 72 |
Exercises | p. 75 |
Descriptive Statistics and Graphic Displays | p. 83 |
Populations and Samples | p. 83 |
Measures of Central Tendency | p. 84 |
Measures of Dispersion | p. 90 |
Outliers | p. 96 |
Graphic Methods | p. 97 |
Bar Charts | p. 100 |
Bivariate Charts | p. 111 |
Exercises | p. 117 |
Categorical Data | p. 121 |
The R×C Table | p. 122 |
The Chi-Square Distribution | p. 125 |
The Chi-Square Test | p. 127 |
Fisher's Exact Test | p. 132 |
McNemar's Test for Matched Pairs | p. 134 |
Proportions: The Large Sample Case | p. 136 |
Correlation Statistics for Categorical Data | p. 138 |
The Likert and Semantic Differential Scales | p. 145 |
Exercises | p. 147 |
The t-Test | p. 155 |
The t Distribution | p. 155 |
The One-Sample t-Test | p. 157 |
The Independent Samples t-Test | p. 160 |
Repeated Measures t-Test | p. 164 |
Unequal Variance t-Test | p. 167 |
Exercises | p. 168 |
The Pearson Correlation Coefficient | p. 173 |
Association | p. 174 |
Scatterplots | p. 175 |
The Pearson Correlation Coefficient | p. 182 |
The Coefficient of Determination | p. 187 |
Exercises | p. 188 |
Introduction to Regression and ANOVA | p. 193 |
The General Linear Model | p. 193 |
Linear Regression | p. 195 |
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) | p. 206 |
Calculating Simple Regression by Hand | p. 212 |
Exercises | p. 214 |
Factorial ANOVA and ANCOVA | p. 223 |
Factorial ANOVA | p. 223 |
ANCOVA | p. 233 |
Exercises | p. 238 |
Multiple Linear Regression | p. 243 |
Multiple Regression Models | p. 243 |
Exercises | p. 267 |
Logistic, Multinomial, and Polynomial Regression | p. 273 |
Logistic Regression | p. 273 |
Multinomial Logistic Regression | p. 279 |
Polynomial Regression | p. 282 |
Overfitting | p. 285 |
Exercises | p. 287 |
Factor Analysis, Cluster Analysis, and Discriminant Function Analysis | p. 291 |
Factor Analysis | p. 291 |
Cluster Analysis | p. 299 |
Discriminant Function Analysis | p. 302 |
Exercises | p. 305 |
Nonparametric Statistics | p. 307 |
Between-Subjects Designs | p. 308 |
Within-Subjects Designs | p. 317 |
Exercises | p. 321 |
Business and Quality Improvement Statistics | p. 325 |
Index Numbers | p. 325 |
Time Series | p. 331 |
Decision Analysis | p. 334 |
Quality Improvement | p. 339 |
Exercises | p. 347 |
Medical and Epidemiological Statistic | p. 351 |
Measures of Disease Frequency | p. 351 |
Ratio, Proportion, and Rate | p. 352 |
Prevalence and Incidence | p. 354 |
Crude, Category-Specific, and Standardized Rates | p. 357 |
The Risk Ratio | p. 362 |
The Odds Ratio | p. 367 |
Confounding, Stratified Analysis, and the Mantel-Haenszel Common Odds Ratio | p. 370 |
Power Analysis | p. 375 |
Sample Size Calculations | p. 377 |
Exercises | p. 380 |
Educational and Psychological Statistics | p. 385 |
Percentiles | p. 386 |
Standardized Scores | p. 388 |
Test Construction | p. 390 |
Classical Test Theory: The True Score Model | p. 393 |
Reliability of a Composite Test | p. 394 |
Measures of Internal Consistency | p. 395 |
Item Analysis | p. 400 |
Item Response Theory | p. 403 |
Exercises | p. 408 |
Data Management | p. 411 |
An Approach, Not a Set of Recipes | p. 412 |
The Chain of Command | p. 413 |
Codebooks | p. 413 |
The Rectangular Data File | p. 415 |
Spreadsheets and Relational Databases | p. 418 |
Inspecting a New Data File | p. 418 |
String and Numeric Data | p. 422 |
Missing Data | p. 423 |
Research Design | p. 425 |
Basic Vocabulary | p. 426 |
Observational Studies | p. 428 |
Quasi-Experimental Studies | p. 431 |
Experimental Studies | p. 436 |
Gathering Experimental Data | p. 437 |
Example Experimental Design | p. 447 |
Communicating with Statistics | p. 449 |
General Notes | p. 449 |
Critiquing Statistics Presented by Others | p. 457 |
Evaluating the Whole Article | p. 457 |
The Misuse of Statistics | p. 458 |
Common Problems | p. 459 |
Quick Checklist | p. 461 |
Issues in Research Design | p. 463 |
Descriptive Statistics | p. 466 |
Inferential Statistics | p. 470 |
Review of Basic Mathematics | p. 473 |
Introduction to Statistical Packages | p. 499 |
References | p. 513 |
Probability Tables for Common Distributions | p. 527 |
Online Resources | p. 539 |
Glossary of Statistical Terms | p. 543 |
Index | p. 553 |
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