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Street Legal

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  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2008-03-01
  • Publisher: Natl Book Network
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List Price: $79.95


This 396-page book provides specific guidance on pre-trial criminal procedure of all sorts, and explains in understandable terms what you can do and what you can't do under 4th Amendment search and seizure law. From traffic checkpoints and forceful felony arrest, from Miranda warnings to inmate and cell searches, it's all covered in this concise reference. In addition, numerous charts and guides are included throughout the book to make this as practical a guide as possible.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgmentsp. xi
Note Concerning Citationsp. xiii
About the Authorp. xv
Investigative Detentionp. 1
Introductionp. 2
Voluntary Encountersp. 2
Street contactsp. 2
Community Caretakingp. 4
Investigative Detentionp. 4
Reasonable suspicionp. 4
What constitutes a "seizure"?p. 4
What does "reasonable suspicion" mean?p. 6
Can an officer demand that a person identify himself?p. 7
How long may a reasonable suspicion detention last?p. 9
Sources of reasonable suspicionp. 9
Homeland security detentionsp. 12
Informant issuesp. 14
Detentions for Identificationp. 16
Distinguishing detention basis from frisk basisp. 17
Terry v. Ohiop. 18
Plain touch in the course of a Terry friskp. 21
Use of force to detain and to friskp. 22
Traffic Detentionsp. 25
Introductionp. 26
Initial Detentionp. 26
Reasonable suspicion of a violationp. 25
Length and scope of detentionp. 30
Pretextual Detentionsp. 34
United States v. Whrenp. 34
Tension between pretext stops and profiling stopsp. 35
Stops based on drug courier profilesp. 36
Stops based on terrorist profilesp. 37
Stops based on anonymous tips of impaired driving or other violationsp. 37
After the Initial Detentionp. 38
Questioning about non-traffic mattersp. 38
Asking about drugs and alcoholp. 40
Drug interdiction indicatorsp. 41
Seeking consent to searchp. 45
Ordering driver and occupants out of the car or to remain in the carp. 48
Stopping passengers from walking away from a traffic detentionp. 49
Identification and warrant checks for passengersp. 50
Vehicle "frisks"p. 52
Canine sniffsp. 54
Roadblocksp. 55
Michigan v. Sitzp. 55
Investigative roadblocksp. 56
Administrative traffic checkpointsp. 57
Avoiding a checkpoint as a basis for detentionp. 59
Public housing checkpointsp. 60
Roadblock ruse operationsp. 60
"Hand-off" or "wall stops"p. 61
Arrestp. 63
Introductionp. 64
Making an Arrestp. 64
Defining an arrest and when an arrest is considered to have been effectedp. 64
Defining probable causep. 67
Sources of probable cause to arrestp. 68
Constructive possession and probable cause to arrestp. 69
Misdemeanor arrestsp. 71
Felony arrestsp. 74
Use and preparation of arrest warrantsp. 74
Place of arrestp. 75
Exceptions to the rule of Payton and Steagald: Consent, exigency, and hot pursuitp. 77
Fresh pursuit and peace officer authorityp. 80
Vienna Convention arrest and detention issuesp. 81
Diplomatic immunityp. 83
Fingerprinting and photographingp. 84
Use of Forcep. 85
Force to make a felony arrestp. 86
Excessive forcep. 87
Force to make a misdemeanor arrestp. 87
Force to maintain order or gain compliancep. 87
Force in an officer's self-defensep. 88
Resisting arrestp. 89
Deadly force against a stun gun or pepper sprayp. 90
Measuring the appropriate application of forcep. 91
Force to enter a suspect's homep. 93
Force to enter a third party's homep. 95
Specialized applications of forcep. 96
Alternative force toolsp. 97
Use of force to obtain evidencep. 99
Use of force in correctional facilitiesp. 101
Reporting use of forcep. 102
Consequences of improper use of forcep. 102
Interview and Interrogationp. 105
The Fifth Amendment and Mirandap. 106
Voluntariness of the confessionp. 106
Custodyp. 111
Interrogationp. 114
"Question first, Miranda second"p. 117
Form of warningsp. 119
What constitutes an effective waiver of Miranda rightsp. 119
Voluntariness of waiver of Miranda rightsp. 120
Equivocal answers and requests for counselp. 121
Repeated attempts at interrogationp. 122
When warnings are not essentialp. 124
Jailhouse informantsp. 126
Miranda for incarcerated persons suspected of new crimesp. 127
Miranda issues for probationers/paroleesp. 128
Speaking with a formally charged and/or represented suspectp. 129
Non-testimonial evidencep. 130
Exclusionary rule applied to Miranda violationp. 131
Use of statements taken without Miranda warningsp. 131
Interrogation Flow Chartp. 132
Search and Seizurep. 133
Constitutional Parameters of Warrants and Warrantless Searchesp. 134
What constitutes a "search" under the Fourth Amendment?p. 134
Activities considered not to be searchesp. 135
Abandoned propertyp. 135
Canine sniffp. 137
Open fieldp. 138
Aerial surveillancep. 140
Plain viewp. 141
Plain smellp. 143
Plain hearingp. 144
Private citizen searchp. 145
Field testp. 146
Overview of Warrant Clause Exceptionsp. 146
Consentp. 146
Automobilep. 151
Plain touchp. 154
Search incident to a lawful arrestp. 155
Administrative searchesp. 157
Administrative searches of personal effects, desks, and lockersp. 158
Administrative security screeningp. 160
Inventory and community care-takingp. 162
Exigent circumstancesp. 163
Evanescent evidencep. 167
Special government needsp. 169
Probation and parole searchesp. 170
Inmate and cell searchesp. 171
Visitor searchesp. 172
Miscellaneous exceptionsp. 173
Interrogation Flow Chartp. 174
Search Warrantsp. 179
Search warrant terminologyp. 181
Burden of proof for warrantless searches versus warrant searchesp. 181
Defendant's burden to show material false statements or reckless disregard for the truth by the officerp. 181
Challenges to the warrantp. 182
The Fourth Amendment exclusionary rulep. 183
The "good faith" exception to the exclusionary rulep. 183
Constitutional definition of probable causep. 184
Sources of probable cause information and reliabilityp. 185
Staleness of informationp. 189
Basis of knowledge for the informationp. 191
Physical evidencep. 192
Anticipatory Search Warrantsp. 192
Particularity Requirements in Drafting Warrantsp. 193
"Particularly describing the place to be searched"p. 193
Harmony of affidavit and warrantp. 195
Use of diagrams and photographsp. 196
Obtaining a description without committing criminal trespassp. 196
Special concerns of rural addresses, apartments, multi-story buildings, businesses, automobilesp. 196
Search Warrant for "All Persons Present"p. 197
"Particularly describing the persons or things to be seized"p. 198
Targets: Evidence, Contraband, Instrumentalities, and Fruitsp. 200
Concerns with documentary evidencep. 200
The Affidavitp. 201
The affiant's professional resumep. 201
Describing the crime and connecting the crime to the items soughtp. 202
A short course in grammar and power writingp. 203
Execution Concernsp. 206
Scope of the search warrant defining the warrant searchp. 206
The area of the searchp. 207
The extent of the searchp. 208
Nighttime warrantsp. 210
Notice and no-knock warrantsp. 211
Remotely communicated warrant procedurep. 214
Protective sweep of the premisesp. 216
Searches of persons present, leaving and arrivingp. 217
Plain view discoveries during executionp. 219
Strip-searches and body cavity searchesp. 219
Computer searchesp. 220
Surreptitious entry warrantsp. 225
Who may assist in executing the warrantp. 225
Service of the warrant documentp. 227
Receipt required for all seized goodsp. 227
Return of servicep. 227
Search Warrant Flow Chartp. 229
Electronic Media Concernsp. 231
Wiretap requirementsp. 233
Minimizationp. 235
Pen registersp. 236
Stored voice mail and e-mailp. 237
One-party consensual monitoringp. 238
Computer keyboard key loggingp. 238
Silent video monitoringp. 239
Interception of cellular phone callsp. 239
Viewing pager and cell phone memoriesp. 240
Body wires and video camerasp. 240
Undisclosed audiotaping while sitting in a patrol carp. 241
Bumper beepersp. 241
Global positioning satellite tracking devicesp. 241
Parcel-tracking devicesp. 242
Cell phone trackingp. 242
Pole camerasp. 244
Canine Search and Seizurep. 245
Probable cause on a silver platterp. 246
A sniff is not a searchp. 246
Vehicle sniffsp. 248
Vehicle searchesp. 248
Impounded vehiclesp. 249
Roadblocksp. 249
Bus interdictionp. 250
Public parking lots and cars parked on public streetsp. 250
School property and parking lotsp. 251
School lockersp. 251
Package interdictionp. 252
Vehicle sniffsp. 253
Currency sniffsp. 253
Homesp. 254
Jail and prison sniffsp. 255
Boat interdictionp. 255
Storage lockersp. 255
Sniffs of personsp. 256
Detaining a vehicle to wait for a detector dogp. 256
Establishing reliability of the detector dogp. 257
Tracking dog evidencep. 259
Arson-detector dog evidencep. 259
Canine Use of Forcep. 261
Find and bite, or find and bark?p. 262
Liability for a service dog bitep. 263
Are police service dogs equal to deadly force?p. 264
Misdemeanorsp. 265
Feloniesp. 268
Warningsp. 269
Unintended bitesp. 270
Liability protectionp. 271
Appendicesp. 273
Homicide and Violent Assault First Responder Checklistp. 273
Officer-Involved Fatality Checklistp. 278
In-Custody Death Checklistp. 283
Asset Forfeiture Investigationp. 289
Basic Spanishp. 294
VCCR Mandatory Notification Nationsp. 311
State Department Contact Informationp. 314
Sample Descriptions and Nexus Paragraphsp. 315
Telephonic Warrant Formp. 321
Affiant Training and Experience Resume Guidep. 324
Location Description Guidesp. 325
Quick Checklist for Search Warrant Affidavitp. 327
Table of Casesp. 329
Indexp. 377
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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