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Summary
For a two-course sequence in concrete design for upper-level engineering students. Revised to adhere to the latest American Concrete Institute (ACI) Code requirements for the design of structural concrete, this comprehensive textbook fills the gap between industrial and educational requirements by helping students understand the practical aspects of the modern design of concrete structures. Presenting the analysis and design of both reinforced and prestressed concrete elements, Structural Concrete is exceptionally logical and easy to read.
Author Biography
M. Nadim Hassoun is a professor emeritus of Civil Engineering at South Dakota State University.
Table of Contents
Preface to the First Edition. Preface to the Second Edition. Notation. Conversion Factors. 1. Introduction.
Structural Concrete. Historical Background. Advantages and Disadvantages of Reinforced Concrete. Codes of Practice. Design Philosophy and Concepts. Units of Measurement. Loads. Safety Provisions. Structural Concrete Elements. Structural Concrete Design. Accuracy of Calculations. Concrete High-Rise Buildings.
2. Properties of Reinforced Concrete.
Factors Affecting the Strength of Concrete. Compressive Strength. Stress-Strain Curves of Concrete. Tensile Strength of Concrete. Flexural Strength (Modulus of Rupture) of Concrete. Shear Strength. Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete. Poisson's Ratio. Shear Modulus. Modular Ratio. Volume Changes of Concrete. Creep. Unit Weight of Concrete. Fire Resistance. High-Performance Concrete. Lightweight Concrete. Fibrous Concrete. Steel Reinforcement.
3 Strength Design Method: Flexural Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beams.
Introduction. Assumptions. Behavior of Simply Supported Reinforced Concrete Beam Loaded to Failure. Types of Flexural Failure. Load Factors. Capacity-Reduction Factor. Significance of Analysis and Design Expressions. Equivalent Compressive Stress Distribution. Singly Reinforced Rectangular Section in Bending. Adequacy of Sections. Minimum Percentage of Steel. Bundled Bars. Rectangular Sections with Compression Reinforcement. Analysis of T and I-Sections. Dimensions of Isolated T -Shaped Sections. Inverted L-Shaped Sections. Sections of Other Shapes. More Than One Row of Steel Bars in the Section. Analysis of Sections Using Tables. Additional Examples. Examples Using SI Units.
4 Strength Design Method: Flexural Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams.
Introduction. Rectangular Sections with Tension Reinforcement Only. Spacing of Reinforcement and Concrete Cover. Rectangular Sections with Compression Reinforcement. Design of T -Sections. Additional Examples. Examples Using SI Units.
5 Elastic Concept: Flexural Analysis of Beams.
Assumptions. Transformed Area Concept. Cracking Moment. Rectangular Sections in Bending with Tension Reinforcement. Rectangular Sections with Compression Reinforcement. Analysis of T -Sections. Nonrectangular Sections in Bending.
6 Deflection and Control of Cracking.
Deflection of Structural Concrete Members. Long-Time Deflection. Allowable Deflection. Deflection Due to Combinations of Loads. Cracks in Flexural Members. ACI Code Requirements.
7 Development Length of Reinforcing Bars.
Introduction. Development of Bond Stresses. Development Length in Tension. Development Length in Compression. Summary of the Computation of Id in Tension. Critical Sections in Flexural Members. Standard Hooks (ACI Code, Sections 12.5 and 7.1). Splices of Reinforcement. Moment-Resistance Diagram (Bar Cutoff Points).
8 Shear and Diagonal Tension.
Introduction. Shear Stresses in Concrete Beams. Behavior of Beams Without Shear Reinforcement. Moment Effect on Shear Strength. Beams with Shear Reinforcement. ACI Code Shear Design Requirements. Design of Vertical Stirrups. Design Summary. Shear Force Due to Live Loads. Shear Stresses in Members of Variable Depth. Deep Flexural Members. Examples Using SI Units.
9 One Way Slabs.
Types of Slabs. Design of One-Way Solid Slabs. Design Limitations According to the ACI Code. Temperature and Shrinkage Reinforcement. Reinforcement Details. Distribution of Loads from One-Way Slabs to Supporting Beams. One-Way Joist Floor System.
10 Axially Loaded Columns.
Introduction. Types of Columns. Behavior of Axially Loaded Columns. ACI Code Limitations. Spiral Reinforcement. Design Equations. Axial Tension. Long Columns.
11 Members in Compression and Bending.
Introduction. Design Assumption for Columns. Load-Moment Interaction Diagram. Safety Provisions. Balanced Condition-Rectangular Sections. Columns Sections Under Eccentric Loading. Strength of Columns When Tension Controls. Strength of Columns When Compression Controls. Interaction Diagram Example. Rectangular Columns with Side Bars. Load Capacity of Circular Columns. Analysis and Design of Columns Using Charts. Design of Columns Under Eccentric Loading. Biaxial Bending. Circular Columns with Uniform Reinforcement Under Biaxial Bending. Square and Rectangular Columns Under Biaxial Bending. Parme Load Contour Method. Equation of Failure Surface. SI Examples.
12 Slender Columns.
Introduction. Effective Column Length (Klu). Effective Length Factor (K). Member Stiffness (EI). Limitation of the Slenderness Ratio (Klu/r). Moment-Magnifier Design Method.
13 Footings.
Introduction. Types of Footings. Distribution of Soil Pressure. Design Considerations. Plain Concrete Footings. Combined Footings. Footings Under Eccentric Column Loads. Footings Under Biaxial Moment. Slabs on Ground. Footings on Piles. SI Equations.
14 Retaining Walls.
Introduction. Types of Retaining Walls. Forces on Retaining Walls. Active and Passive Soil Pressures. Effect of Surcharge. Friction on the Retaining Wall Base. Stability Against Overturning. Proportions of Retaining Walls. Design Requirements. Drainage. Basement Walls.
15 Design for Torsion.
Introduction. Torsional Moments in Beams. Torsional Stresses. Torsional Moment in Rectangular Sections. Combined Shear and Torsion. Torsion Theories for Concrete Members. Torsional Strength of Plain Concrete Members. Torsion in Reinforced Concrete Members (ACI Code Procedure). Summary of ACI Code Procedures.
16 Continuous Beams and Frames.
Introduction. Maximum Moments in Continuous Beams. Building Frames. Portal Frames. General Frames. Design of Frame Hinges. Introduction to Limit Design. The Collapse Mechanism. Principles of Limit Design. Upper and Lower Bounds of Load Factors. Limit Analysis. Rotation of Plastic Hinges. Summary of Limit Design Procedure. Moment Redistribution.
17 Design of Two-Way Slabs.
Introduction. Types of Two-Way Slabs. Economical Choice of Concrete Floor Systems. Design Concepts. Column and Middle Strips. Minimum Slab Thickness to Control Deflection. Shear Strength of Slabs. Analysis of Two Way Slabs by the Direct Design Method. Design Moments in Columns. Transfer of Unbalanced Moments to Columns. Waffle Slabs. Equivalent Frame Method.
18 Stairs.
Introduction. Types of Stairs. Examples.
19 Beams Curved in Plan.
Introduction. Uniformly Loaded Circular Beams. Semicircular Beam Fixed at End Supports. Fixed-End Semicircular Beam Under Uniform Loading. Circular Beam Subjected to Uniform Loading. Circular Beam Subjected to a Concentrated Load at Midspan. V-Shaped Beams Subjected to Uniform Loading. V-Shaped Beams Subjected to a Concentrated Load at the Centerline of the Beam.
20 Introduction to Prestressed Concrete.
Prestressed Concrete. Materials and Allowable Stresses. Loss of Prestress. Elastic Analysis of Flexural Members. Strength Design of Flexural Members. Cracking Moment. Deflection. Design for Shear. Preliminary Design of Prestressed Concrete Flexural Members. End-Block Stresses.
21 Computer Programs and Flowcharts.
Introduction. Computer Programs. Flowcharts.
22 Unified Design Method.
Introduction. Definitions. Strength-Reduction Factor. Moment Redistribution of Negative Moments in Continuous Flexural Members. Design of Concrete Sections by the Unified Design Method.
Preface to the Second Edition The second edition of this book revises the previous text to conform to the latest American Concrete Institute (ACI) Code 318-99. It also includes additional sections, revisions, and editing of various chapters of the book. In Chapter 1, Section 1.11 has been added to help the student understand the accuracy of calculations in engineering design. Additional examples are introduced in Chapters 3 and 4 to elaborate on the behavior of reinforced concrete beams at failure and to combine structural analysis with concrete design. In Chapter 6, the section on crack control has been revised to conform to the ACI Code limits on distribution of flexural reinforcement. The code also made some changes in the shear for circular sections and spiral lap splices and introduced a limit on column slenderness ratio. These changes are covered in Chapters 8,10 and 12, respectively. An additional section on Coulomb theory for soil pressure has been introduced in Chapter 13. Revisions are also made in the design for torsion (Chapter 15) and in bars layout and extensions in two-way slabs without beams (Chapter 17). A new section on partially prestressed concrete has been added to Chapter 20. Structural aid tables are added as Appendix C to help the student and reader to determine the moment, shear, and deflection for simple and continuous beams. The book also contains numerous examples in International System (SI) units, summaries at the end of each chapter, and flow charts (in Chapter 21). I would like to extend my sincere thanks to the reviewers for their constructive comments to revise the book in this final second edition. Finally, the book is written to provide basic and reference materials on the analysis and design of reinforced concrete members in a simple, practical, and logical approach. Because this is a required course for seniors in civil engineering, I believe it will be accepted by reinforced concrete instructors at different universities as well as designers who can make use of the information in this book in their practical design of reinforced concrete structures. A solutions manual is provided. Software for the design of different reinforced concrete members is also available on a ftp site maintained by the publisher. Instructors should have received login instructions for themselves and their students from their Prentice Hall Engineering sales representative. All other users of the text should e-mail publisher at Prentice Hall at www.prenhall.com/hassoun to request login information. Preface to the First Edition The main objective of a course on reinforced concrete design is to develop, in the engineering student, the ability to analyze and design a reinforced concrete member subjected to different types of forces in a simple and logical manner using the basic principles of statics and some empirical formulas based on experimental results. Once the analysis and design procedure is fully understood, its application to different types of structures becomes simple and direct, provided that the student has a good background in structural analysis. The material presented in this book is based on the requirements of the American Concrete Institute (ACI) Building Code (318-95). Also, information has been presented on material properties, including volume changes of concrete, stress-strain behavior, creep, and elastic and nonlinear behavior of reinforced concrete. Concrete structures are widely used in the United States and almost all over the world. The progress in the design concept has increased in the last few decades, emphasizing safety, serviceability, and economy. To achieve economical design of a reinforced concrete member, specific restrictions, rules, and formulas are presented in the codes to ensure both safety and reliability of the structure. Engineering firms expect civil engineering graduates to
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