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SuperVision and Instructional Leadership A Developmental Approach

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  • Edition: 10th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2017-01-08
  • Publisher: Pearson
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Note: This is the bound book only and does not include access to the Enhanced Pearson eText. To order the Enhanced Pearson eText packaged with a bound book, use ISBN 0134290089.

The new edition of SuperVision and Instructional Leadership continues the innovative approach that has made it so widely popular, and includes a number of new content changes that bring the subject matter thoroughly up to date. Long recognized as a leading text in the field, this book calls for a collegial approach to instructional supervision; considers the knowledge necessary for successful supervision; discusses interpersonal skills, including different approaches to supervision and how they are used in developmental supervision; presents the technical skills of supervision, such as observing, assessing, planning, implementing, and evaluating; describes the technical tasks of supervision; and deals with the cultural tasks of supervision. A variety of learning aids ensure understanding of the theories and concepts. The Enhanced Pearson eText features embedded videos and chapter quizzes.


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Author Biography

Carl D. Glickman is Professor Emeritus of Education at the University of Georgia. He began his career as a Teacher Corp intern in the rural south and later was a principal of award-winning schools in New Hampshire. At the University of Georgia he and colleagues founded the Georgia League of Professional Schools, a nationally validated network of high-functioning public schools dedicated to the principles of democratic education. He is the author or editor of 14 books on school leadership, educational renewal, and the moral imperative of education.


Stephen P. Gordon is a professor of Education and Community Leadership at Texas State University. He is author of the book Professional Development for School Improvement, co-author of the books The Basic Guide to Supervision and Instructional Leadership, and How to Help Beginning Teachers Succeed, and editor of the books Collaborative Action Research and Standards for Instructional Supervision: Enhancing Teaching and Learning. Dr. Gordon, the former director of the National Center for School Improvement, also was lead consultant for the ASCD video series Improving Instruction through Observation and Feedback.


Jovita M. Ross-Gordon is a professor of Adult, Professional and Community Education at Texas State University Dr. Ross-Gordon is the author, editor, or co-editor of several books including the 2010 Handbook of Adult and Continuing Education. She has also published numerous chapters and articles on the teaching and learning of adults, particularly in the setting of higher education. She is currently co-editor-in-chief of New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, and has served in numerous leadership positions with professional organizations focusing on adult education.


Table of Contents


Part One: Introduction

           1   SuperVision for Successful Schools


Part Two: Knowledge 

           2   The Norm: Why Traditional Schools Are as They Are  

           3   The Dynamic School  

           4   Adult and Teacher Development Within the Context of the School  

           5   Reflections on Educational Beliefs, Teaching, and Supervision  

Part Three: Interpersonal Skills  

           6   Supervisory Behavior Continuum: Know Thyself  

           7   Directive Control Behaviors  

            Directive Informational Behaviors 

           9   Collaborative Behaviors  

          10  Nondirective Behaviors  

          11  Developmental Supervision


Part Four: Technical Skills 

          12  Observing Skills   

          13  Assessing and Planning Skills  

          14  Implementation and Evaluation Skills


Part Five: Technical Tasks of Supervision  

          15  Direct Assistance to Teachers

          16  Evaluation of Teaching  

          17  Group Development  

          18  Professional Development  

          19  Curriculum Development  

          20  Action Research: The School as the Center of Inquiry


Part Six: Cultural Tasks of Supervision

          21  Facilitating Change 

          22  Addressing Diversity  

          23  Building Community


Part One: Introduction 1

1. SuperVision for Successful Schools 3

 SuperVision: A New Name for a New Paradigm 6

 Supervisory Glue as a Metaphor for Success 9

 New Roles for Supervisors and Teachers 9

 Supervision and Moral Purpose 17

 Organization of This Book 18

 Reflective Exercise 20


Part Two: Knowledge 21

2. The Norm: Why Traditional Schools Are as They Are 23

The Work Environment or Culture of Schools: The Legacy of the One-Room Schoolhouse 24

Cultures Within Cultures 32

Looking Deeper: The Newtonian Paradigm and Traditional Schools 34

Reflective Exercise 38

3. The Dynamic School 39

Shared Leadership, Collegiality, and Collaboration 41

A Cause Beyond Oneself 41

Professional Development 42

Positive Learning Climate 43

Authentic Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment 44

Democracy 46

Inquiry 47

Cultural Responsiveness 48

Partnerships and Networks 49

Beyond Newtonianism: The Quantum Paradigm and Dynamic Schools 54

Closing Question 61

Reflective Exercise 61

4. Adult and Teacher Development Within the Context of the School 62

Adults as Learners 63

Adult and Teacher Development 75

Development: Ebb and Flow 91

Reflective Exercise 92

5. Reflections on Educational Beliefs, Teaching, and Supervision 93

Beliefs, Goals, and Effective Teaching 94

Beliefs About Education 96

Supervisory Beliefs 97

Supervisory Platform as Related to Educational Philosophy 99

Checking Your Own Supervisory Beliefs 103

What Does Your Belief Mean in Terms of Supervisor and Teacher Responsibility? 106

Educational Philosophy, Teachers, Supervisors, and Supervisory Approach 107

Where You Stand Depends on Where You Sit: Effects of Culture on Beliefs 107

Reflective Exercise 109

Part Three: Interpersonal Skills 111

6. Supervisory Behavior Continuum: Know Thyself 113

Outcomes of Conference 116

Valid Assessment of Self 117

Cognitive Dissonance 124

Comparing Self-Perceptions with Others’ Perceptions 124

Comparing Self-Perceptions to Recorded Behaviors 126

360-Degree Feedback 127

Reflective Exercise 128

7. Directive Control Behaviors 130

Characteristics of Teachers Best Matched with Directive Control Behaviors 131

Directive Control Sequence of Behaviors 132

A History of Overreliance on Control 136

Issues in Directive Control 136

When to Use Directive Control Behaviors 137

Moving from Directive Control Toward Directive Informational Behaviors 138

Reflective Exercise 139

8. Directive Informational Behaviors 140

Characteristics of Teachers Best Matched with Directive Informational Behaviors 141

Directive Informational Sequence of Behaviors 142

Comparing Directive Control and Directive Informational Statements 145

Issues in the Directive Informational Approach 147

When to Use Directive Informational Behaviors 147

Moving from Directive Informational Toward Collaborative Behaviors 148

Reflective Exercise 149

9. Collaborative Behaviors 150

Characteristics of Teachers Best Matched with Collaborative Behaviors 151

Collaborative Sequence of Behaviors 152

Issues in Collaborative Supervision 156

When to Use Collaborative Behaviors 157

Moving from Collaborative Toward Nondirective Behaviors 158

Reflective Exercise 159

10. Nondirective Behaviors 160

Characteristics of Teachers Best Matched with Nondirective Behaviors 161

Nondirective Sequence of Behaviors 162

Initiating Nondirective Supervision 166

Nondirective, Not Laissez-Faire, Supervision 167

Issues with Nondirective Supervision 168

When to Use Nondirective Behaviors 169

Reflective Exercise 171

11. Developmental Supervision 172

Phase 1: Choosing the Best Approach 173

Phase 2: Applying the Chosen Approach 175

Phase 3: Fostering Teacher Development 176

Not Algorithms, but Guideposts for Decisions 177

Case Studies in Developmental Supervision 178

Reflective Exercise 188

Part Four: Technical Skills 191

12. Observing Skills 193

Quantitative Observations 196

Qualitative Observations 203

Tailored Observation Systems 208

Schoolwide Classroom Observation 210

Review of Types and Purposes of Observation 214

Trends and Cautions Regarding Observation 215

Reflective Exercise 219

13. Assessing and Planning Skills 220

Personal Improvement 221

Instructional Improvement Within the Organization 228

Ways of Assessing Need 229

Analyzing Organizational Needs 234

Planning 238

Reflective Exercise 247

14. Implementation and Evaluation Skills 248

Stages of Implementation 249

Factors that Affect Implementation 251

Implementation at the Individual Level 253

Evaluation of Instructional Improvement Efforts 255

Two Types of Program Evaluation: Formative and Summative 257

Program Evaluation and Teacher Empowerment 263

Reflective Exercise 264


Part Five: Technical Tasks of Supervision 265

15. Direct Assistance to Teachers 267

Clinical Supervision 268

The Relationship of Clinical Supervision with Other Processes 273

Peer Coaching 274

Mentoring 278

Using Direct Assistance to Improve Classroom Culture 282

Reflective Exercise 283

16. Evaluation of Teaching 284

The New Wave of Evaluation Systems: From the Frying Pan to the Fire? 286

Summative and Formative Evaluation 288

Suggestions for Summative Evaluation 293

Suggestions for Formative Evaluation 295

Beyond Evaluation of Individual Teaching 300

Reflective Exercise 301

17. Group Development 302

Stages of Group Development 303

Characteristics of Effective Groups 306

Group Member Roles 307

Applying Developmental Supervision to Groups 314

Resolving Conflict 316

Preparing for Group Meetings 320

Reflective Exercise 324

18. Professional Development 325

 Characteristics of Successful Professional Development Programs 327

Integrating Schoolwide, Group, and Individual Professional Development 328

Alternative Professional Development Formats 329

Stages of Professional Development 331

Evaluating Professional Development 332

Teachers as Objects or Agents in Professional Development 333

Reflective Exercise 337

19. Curriculum Development 338

Legislated Learning 340

Curriculum Development as a Vehicle for Enhancing Collective Thinking About Instruction 342

The Curriculum and Cultural Diversity 357

Curriculum Mapping—and Remapping 359

Developing Curriculum Units: Understanding by Design 363

Reflective Exercise 366

20. Action Research: The School as the Center of Inquiry 367

How Is Action Research Conducted? 370

Characteristics of Successful Action Research 374

Expanding Boundaries: Alternative Approaches to Action Research 375

Shared Governance for Action Research 379

Suggestions for Assisting Action Research 384

Reflective Exercise 385

Part Six: Cultural Tasks of Supervision 387

21. Facilitating Change 389

Chaos Theory 392

Postmodern Theory 395

Education Change Theory 398

Making Connections 407

Changing the Conditions of Teaching 407

Reflective Exercise 410

22. Addressing Diversity 411

Achievement Gaps Among Economic, Racial, and Ethnic Groups 412

Gender Equity 428

Equity for Sexual and Gender Minorities 430

Equity for Students with Disabilities 433

Overarching Patterns 437

Connecting the Technical Tasks of Supervision to Cultural Responsiveness 437

Reflective Exercise 438

23. Building Community 439

Democratic Community 442

Moral Community* 444

Professional Learning Community 449

Community of Inquiry 451

Engagement with the Larger Community 452

Five Attributes, One Community 455

Conclusion 456

Reflective Exercise 458


Appendix A: Educational Philosophy Q Sort* 459

Appendix B: Review of Interpersonal Behavior in the Four Supervisory Approaches 465

References 467

Name Index 497

Subject Index 502

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