The Systematic Design of Instruction

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  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 1995-11-01
  • Publisher: Pearson College Div
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Often described as the Bible of the instructional design field. Covers the fundamentals of instructional design and helps the reader learn the concepts and procedures for designing, developing, and formatively evaluating instruction. Paper. DLC: Instructional systems.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xvii
To the Instructorp. xxi
Introduction to Instructional Designp. 2
The Dick and Carey Systems Approach Model for Designing Instructionp. 2
Components of the Systems Approach Modelp. 6
Assess Needs to Identify Goal(s)p. 6
Conduct Instructional Analysisp. 6
Analyze Learners and Contextsp. 7
Write Performance Objectivesp. 7
Develop Assessment Instrumentsp. 7
Develop Instructional Strategyp. 7
Develop and Select Instructional Materialsp. 7
Design and Conduct the Formative Evaluation of Instructionp. 8
Revise Instructionp. 8
Design and Conduct Summative Evaluationp. 8
Using the Systems Approach Modelp. 9
What Are the Basic Components of Systematically Designed Instruction?p. 9
For Which Instructional Delivery System Is the Systems Approach Appropriate?p. 10
Does the Use of the Systems Approach Imply that All Instruction Will Be Individualized?p. 10
Why Use the Systems Approach?p. 11
Who Should Use the Systems Approach?p. 12
Assessing Needs to Identify Instructional Goal(s)p. 16
Conceptsp. 19
Performance Analysisp. 19
Clarifying Instructional Goalsp. 22
Learners, Context, and Toolsp. 22
Criteria for Establishing Instructional Goalsp. 23
Examplesp. 25
Leading Group Discussionsp. 25
Needs Assessmentp. 25
Clarifying the Instructional Goalp. 25
Criteria for Establishing Instructional Goalsp. 26
Providing Customer Servicep. 27
Conducting a Goal Analysisp. 36
Conceptsp. 38
Verbal Informationp. 39
Intellectual Skillsp. 39
Psychomotor Skillsp. 40
Attitudesp. 40
Goal Analysis Proceduresp. 42
Analysis of Substepsp. 45
More Suggestions for Identifying Steps within a Goalp. 46
Examplesp. 47
Intellectual Skills Goalsp. 48
Psychomotor Skills Goalsp. 49
Attitudinal Goalsp. 49
Verbal Information Goalsp. 51
Typical First Approach to Goal Analysisp. 51
Identifying Subordinate Skills and Entry Behaviorsp. 58
Conceptsp. 60
Hierarchical Approachp. 60
Cluster Analysisp. 65
Subordinate Skills Analysis Techniques for Attitude Goalsp. 66
Combining Instructional Analysis Techniquesp. 67
Instructional Analysis Diagramsp. 68
Entry Behaviorsp. 70
The Tentativeness of Entry Behaviorsp. 73
Examplesp. 74
Hierarchical Analysis of an Intellectual Skillp. 74
Topicp. 74
Instructional Goalp. 74
Cluster Analysis for Verbal Information Subordinate Skillsp. 76
Topicp. 76
Subordinate Skillsp. 76
Subordinate Skills Analysis of an Additional Goal That Requires Both Intellectual Skills and Verbal Informationp. 79
Topicp. 79
Instructional Goalp. 79
Analysis of a Psychomotor Skillp. 79
Topicp. 79
Instructional Goalp. 79
Subordinate Skills Analysis for an Attitudinal Goalp. 82
Topicp. 83
Instructional Goalp. 83
Identification of Entry Behaviorsp. 84
Analyzing Learners and Contextsp. 94
Conceptsp. 96
Learner Analysisp. 96
Entry Behaviorsp. 97
Prior Knowledge of Topic Areap. 97
Attitudes Toward Content and Potential Delivery Systemp. 97
Academic Motivation (ARCS)p. 97
Educational and Ability Levelsp. 98
General Learning Preferencesp. 98
Attitudes Toward Training Organizationp. 98
Group Characteristicsp. 98
Collecting Data for Learner Analysisp. 99
Outputp. 99
Context Analysis of Performance Settingp. 99
Managerial or Supervisor Supportp. 99
Physical Aspects of the Sitep. 99
Social Aspects of the Sitep. 100
Relevance of Skills to Workplacep. 100
Collecting Data for Context Analysis in the Performance Settingp. 100
Outputp. 100
Context Analysis of Learning Environmentp. 100
Compatibility of Site with Instructional Requirementsp. 101
Adaptability of Site to Simulate Workplacep. 101
Adaptability for Delivery Approachesp. 101
Learning-Site Constraints Affecting Design and Deliveryp. 101
Collecting Data for Context Analysis in the Learning Environmentp. 102
Outputp. 102
Public School Contextsp. 102
Evaluation and Revision of the Instructional Analysisp. 103
Examplesp. 104
Learner Analysisp. 104
Performance Context Analysisp. 106
Learning Context Analysisp. 108
Writing Performance Objectivesp. 120
Conceptsp. 123
Performance Objectivep. 123
Components of an Objectivep. 124
Derivation of Behaviorsp. 125
Derivation of Conditionsp. 126
Derivation of Criteriap. 128
Process for Writing Objectivesp. 129
Evaluation of Objectivesp. 130
The Function of Objectivesp. 131
Examplesp. 132
Verbal Information and Intellectual Skillsp. 132
Verbal Informationp. 134
Intellectual Skillsp. 134
Psychomotor Skillsp. 136
Attitudesp. 136
Developing Assessment Instrumentsp. 144
Conceptsp. 146
Four Types of Criterion-Referenced Tests and Their Usesp. 146
Entry Behaviors Testp. 147
Pretestp. 147
Practice Testsp. 148
Posttestsp. 148
Designing a Testp. 149
Determining Mastery Levelsp. 150
Writing Test Itemsp. 151
Goal-Centered Criteriap. 151
Learner-Centered Criteriap. 152
Context-Centered Criteriap. 153
Assessment-Centered Criteriap. 153
Setting Mastery Criteriap. 153
Types of Itemsp. 154
Sequencing Itemsp. 155
Writing Directionsp. 156
Evaluating Tests and Test Itemsp. 156
Developing Instruments to Measure Performances, Products, and Attitudesp. 157
Writing Directionsp. 158
Developing the Instrumentp. 158
Identify, Paraphrase, and Sequence Elementsp. 158
Developing the Response Formatp. 159
Checklistp. 159
Rating Scalep. 160
Frequency Countp. 161
Scoring Procedurep. 161
Using Portfolio Assessmentsp. 162
Evaluating Congruence in the Design Processp. 163
Examplesp. 165
Test Items for Verbal Information and Intellectual Skillsp. 165
A Checklist for Evaluating Motor Skillsp. 168
Instrument for Evaluating Behaviors Related to Attitudesp. 170
Materials for Evaluating the Designp. 171
Developing an Instructional Strategyp. 182
Conceptsp. 184
Selection of Delivery Systemp. 185
Instructional Strategiesp. 186
Content Sequence and Clusteringp. 187
Content Sequencep. 187
Clustering Instructionp. 188
Learning Components of Instructional Strategiesp. 189
Preinstructional Activitiesp. 190
Motivating Learnersp. 190
Informing the Learner of the Objectivesp. 192
Informing the Learner of the Prerequisite Skillsp. 192
Content Presentation and Examplesp. 193
Learner Participationp. 193
Assessmentp. 194
Follow-Through Activitiesp. 195
Memory Skillsp. 195
Transfer of Learningp. 195
Detailed Outline of Learning Componentsp. 196
Learning Components for Learners of Different Maturity and Ability Levelsp. 197
Learning Components for Various Learning Outcomesp. 198
Intellectual Skillsp. 198
Verbal Informationp. 201
Motor Skillsp. 202
Attitudesp. 203
Student Groupingsp. 205
Selection of Media and Delivery Systemsp. 205
Media Selection for Domains of Learningp. 206
Media Selection for Certain Task Requirements Found in Objectivesp. 207
Practical Considerations in Choosing Media and Delivery Systemsp. 207
Alternative Views About Developing an Instructional Strategyp. 209
Developing an Instructional Strategyp. 209
Evaluating an Instructional Strategyp. 212
Examplesp. 214
Sequence and Cluster Objectivesp. 214
Plan Preinstructional, Assessment, and Follow-Through Activitiesp. 215
Plan Content Presentation and Student Participationp. 216
Allocate Activities to Sessionsp. 221
Consolidate Media Selection and Confirm or Select Delivery Systemp. 221
Developing Instructional Materialsp. 240
Conceptsp. 242
The Delivery System and Media Selectionsp. 242
Availability of Existing Instructional Materialsp. 242
Production and Implementation Constraintsp. 243
Amount of Instructor Facilitationp. 243
Components of an Instructional Packagep. 245
Instructional Materialsp. 245
Assessmentsp. 245
Course Management Informationp. 245
Selecting Existing Instructional Materialsp. 246
Goal-Centered Criteria for Evaluating Materialsp. 246
Learner-Centered Criteria for Evaluating Materialsp. 246
Context-Centered Criteria for Evaluating Materialsp. 246
Learning-Centered Criteria for Evaluating Materialsp. 247
The Designer's Role in Material Development and Instructional Deliveryp. 247
When the Designer Is Also the Materials Developer and the Instructorp. 247
When the Designer Is Not the Instructorp. 250
Developing Instructional Materials for Formative Evaluationp. 251
Rough Draft Materialsp. 251
Rapid Prototypingp. 252
Materials Development Tools and Resourcesp. 253
Beginning the Development Processp. 254
Steps in the Development of Instructionp. 254
Examplesp. 255
Preinstructional Activitiesp. 257
Mediation of Preinstructional Activitiesp. 257
Motivation Materials and Session Objectivesp. 257
Pretestp. 258
Mediation of Pretestp. 259
Content Presentationp. 260
Mediation of Instructionp. 260
Instructionp. 260
Learner Participationp. 260
Mediation of Learner Participation and Feedbackp. 260
Learner Participation Scriptp. 265
Feedbackp. 265
Designing and Conducting Formative Evaluationsp. 282
Conceptsp. 284
Role of Subject-Matter, Learning, and Learner Specialists in Formative Evaluationp. 285
One-to-One Evaluation with Learnersp. 286
Criteriap. 286
Selecting Learnersp. 286
Data Collectionp. 287
Proceduresp. 288
Assessments and Questionnairesp. 289
Learning Timep. 290
Data Interpretationp. 291
Outcomesp. 291
Small-Group Evaluationp. 291
Criteria and Datap. 291
Selecting Learnersp. 292
Proceduresp. 292
Assessments and Questionnairesp. 293
Data Summary and Analysisp. 293
Outcomesp. 293
Field Trialp. 294
Location of Evaluationp. 294
Criteria and Datap. 294
Selecting Learnersp. 294
Procedure for Conducting Field Trialp. 295
Data Summary and Interpretationp. 295
Outcomesp. 295
Formative Evaluation in the Performance Contextp. 295
Criteria and Datap. 296
Selecting Respondentsp. 297
Procedurep. 297
Outcomesp. 297
Collecting Data on Reactions to Instructionp. 297
Formative Evaluation of Selected Materialsp. 300
Formative Evaluation of Instructor-Led Instructionp. 301
Data Collection for Selected Materials and Instructor-Led Instructionp. 302
Concerns Influencing Formative Evaluationp. 302
Context Concernsp. 302
Concerns about Learnersp. 303
Concerns about Formative Evaluation Outcomesp. 304
Concerns with Implementing Formative Evaluationp. 304
Problem Solving During Instructional Designp. 305
Examplesp. 305
Formative Evaluation Activitiesp. 305
One-to-One Evaluationp. 305
Small-Group Evaluationp. 307
Field Trialp. 309
Formative Evaluation of Selected Materials and Instructor-Led Instructionp. 309
Instruments for Assessing Learners' Attitudes about Instructionp. 310
Revising Instructional Materialsp. 322
Conceptsp. 324
Analyzing Data from One-to-One Trialsp. 324
Analyzing Data from Small-Group and Field Trialsp. 325
Group's Item-by-Objective Performancep. 326
Learners' Item-by-Objective Performancep. 327
Learners' Performance Across Testsp. 327
Graphing Learners' Performancesp. 329
Other Types of Datap. 330
Sequence for Examining Datap. 330
Entry Behaviorsp. 330
Pretests and Posttestsp. 330
Instructional Strategyp. 331
Learning Timep. 331
Instructional Proceduresp. 331
Revision Processp. 332
Revising Selected Materials and Instructor-Led Instructionp. 332
Examplesp. 333
Summarizing Item-by-Objective Data Across Testsp. 334
Summarizing and Analyzing Data Across Testsp. 336
Summarizing Attitudinal Datap. 337
Determining How to Revise Instructionp. 340
Designing and Conducting Summative Evaluationsp. 348
Conceptsp. 350
Expert Judgment Phase of Summative Evaluationp. 352
Congruence Analysisp. 352
Organization's Needsp. 352
Resourcesp. 353
Content Analysisp. 353
Design Analysisp. 354
Utility and Feasibility Analysisp. 354
Current User Analysisp. 354
Field-Trial Phase of Summative Evaluationp. 356
Outcomes Analysisp. 356
Planningp. 356
Preparingp. 358
Implementing/Collecting Datap. 358
Summarizing and Analyzing Datap. 359
Reporting Resultsp. 359
Comparison of Formative and Summative Evaluationp. 359
Examplesp. 361
Data Summary Form for the Congruence Analysisp. 361
Checklist for Content Analysis: Evaluating the Completeness and Accuracy of Materialsp. 361
Checklists for Design Analysis: Evaluating the Learning and Instructional Strategies in Materialsp. 362
Motivationp. 364
Types of Learningp. 365
Instructional Strategiesp. 367
Form for Utility and Feasibility Analysis: Expert Judgmentp. 368
Form for Current Users' Analysisp. 368
Glossary of Termsp. 373
Appendixesp. 377
Description of Problem (Need), Purpose of Instruction, Target Group, and Delivery Systemp. 378
Goal Analysis of the Instructional Goal on Story Writingp. 380
Hierarchical Analysis of Declarative Sentence Portion of Story-Writing Goal with Entry Behavior Linesp. 381
Design Evaluation Chart Containing Subskills, Performance Objectives, and Parallel Test Itemsp. 382
Instructional Strategy for Objective Sequence and Clusters, Preinstructional Activities, and Assessment Activitiesp. 385
Instructional Strategy for the Content Presentation and Student Participation Components and the Lesson Time Allocation Based on the Strategyp. 387
Session 1: Motivational Materials, Unit Objectives, and Assessment of Entry Behaviorsp. 390
Session 2: Pretest Story and Rubric to Evaluate Storiesp. 392
Session 3: Pretest and Instruction in Subordinate Skills 5.6 through 5.11p. 394
Group's and Individuals' Achievement of Objectives and Attitudes About Instructionp. 398
Materials Revision Analysis Formp. 406
Indexp. 409
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