9780716769354

Techniques in Organic Chemistry

by ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780716769354

  • ISBN10:

    0716769352

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2006-01-01
  • Publisher: W. H. Freeman

Note: Supplemental materials are not guaranteed with Rental or Used book purchases.

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

"Techniques in Organic Chemistry" is the most comprehensive and detailed presentation of lab techniques available for organic chemistry students--and the least expensive. It combines specific instructions for 3 different kinds of laboratory glassware (miniscale, standard-taper microscale, )Williamson microscale) and offers extensive coverage of spectroscopic techniques, and a strong emphasis on safety issues. The techniques manual can be packaged with either version of Mohrig, "Modern Projects and Experiments in Organic Chemistry, " with an instructor's own experiments through Freeman Custom Publishing, or may be purchased separately.

Table of Contents

PART 1 BASIC TECHNIQUES 1(174)
1 Safety in the Laboratory and Protecting the Environment
2(20)
Safety in The Laboratory
2(14)
1.1 Causes of Laboratory Accidents
2(3)
1.2 Safety Features in the Laboratory
5(1)
1.3 Preventing Accidents
6(2)
1.4 What to Do If an Accident Occurs
8(2)
1.5 Chemical Toxicology
10(2)
1.6 Where to Find Chemical Safety Information
12(4)
Protecting the Environment
16(6)
1.7 Green Chemistry
16(1)
1.8 How Can a Laboratory Procedure Be Made Green?
17(3)
1.9 Atom Economy and Reaction Efficiency
20(2)
2 Laboratory Glassware
22(8)
2.1 Desk Equipment
23(1)
2.2 Standard Taper Miniscale Glassware
23(3)
2.3 Microscale Glassware
26(2)
2.4 Cleaning and Drying Laboratory Glassware
28(2)
3 The Laboratory Notebook
30(4)
3.1 Organization of the Laboratory Notebook
30(3)
3.2 Calculation of the Percent Yield
33(1)
4 Using Handbooks and Online Databases
34(4)
4.1 Handbooks
34(4)
4.2 Online Resources
38(1)
5 Measuring Mass and Volume
38(9)
5.1 Weighing
38(3)
5.2 Measuring Volume
41(6)
6 Heating and Cooling Methods
47(9)
6.1 Boiling Stones
47(1)
6.2 Heating Devices
48(6)
6.3 Cooling Methods
54(1)
6.4 Laboratory Jacks
55(1)
7 Assembly of Reaction Apparatus and Planning a Chemical Reaction
56(19)
Assembly of Reaction Apparatus
56(14)
7.1 Refluxing a Reaction Mixture
56(2)
7.2 Addition of Reagents During a Reaction
58(2)
7.3 Anhydrous and Inert Atmosphere Reaction Conditions
60(7)
7.3a ANHYDROUS REACTION CONDITIONS
60(2)
7.3b INERT ATMOSPHERE REACTION CONDITIONS
62(5)
7.4 Removal of Noxious Vapors
67(3)
Planning a Chemical Reaction
70(5)
7.5 Library Work
71(1)
7.6 Modifying the Scale of a Reaction and Carrying It Out
71(4)
8 Extraction and Drying Organic Liquids
75(25)
Extraction
75(18)
8.1 Understanding How Extraction Works
77(3)
8.2 Miniscale Extractions
80(2)
8.3 Additional Information About Extractions
82(2)
8.4 Summary of Miniscale Extraction Procedure
84(1)
8.5 Using Pasteur Pipets to Transfer Liquids in Microscale Operations
85(1)
8.6 Microscale Extractions
86(6)
8.6a EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES COMMON TO ALL MICROSCALE EXTRACTIONS
87(2)
8.6b MICROSCALE EXTRACTIONS WITH AN ORGANIC PHASE DENSER THAN WATER
89(1)
8.6c MICROSCALE EXTRACTIONS WITH AN ORGANIC PHASE LESS DENSE THAN WATER
90(2)
8.7 Sources of Confusion in Extractions
92(1)
Drying Organic Liquids and Recovering the Product
93(7)
8.8 Drying Agents
93(2)
8.9 Methods for Separating Drying Agents from Organic Liquids
95(1)
8.10 Recovery of the Organic Product from the Dried Extraction Solution
96(3)
8.11 Sources of Confusion in Drying Liquids
99(1)
9 Recrystallization
100(16)
9.1 Theory of Recrystallization
100(1)
9.2 Choice of Recrystallization Solvent
101(2)
9.3 How to Select a Proper Recrystallization Solvent
103(1)
9.4 Planning and Carrying Out Successful Recrystallizations
104(2)
9.5 Miniscale Procedure for Recrystallizing a Solid
106(4)
9.6 Summary of the Miniscale Recrystallization Procedure
110(1)
9.7 Microscale Recrystallization Methods
111(3)
9.7a RECRYSTALLIZING LESS THAN 300 MILLIGRAMS OF A SOLID
111(1)
9.7b RECRYSTALLIZING UP TO 150 MILLIGRAMS OF A SOLID IN A CRAIG TUBE
112(2)
9.8 Summary of Microscale Recrystallization Procedures
114(1)
9.9 Sources of Confusion
114(2)
10 Melting Points and Melting Ranges
116(1)
10.1 Melting Point Theory
117(2)
10.2 Apparatus for Determining Melting Ranges
119(2)
10.3 Determining Melting Ranges
121(2)
10.4 Mixture Melting Point
123(1)
10.5 Thermometer Calibration
124(1)
10.6 Summary of Mel-Temp Melting-Point Determinations
125(1)
10.7 Sources of Confusion
125(2)
11 Boiling Points and Distillation
127(1)
11.1 Determination of Boiling Points
128(2)
11.2 Distillation and Separation of Mixtures
130(3)
11.3 Simple Distillation
133(9)
11.3a MINISCALE SHORT-PATH DISTILLATION
137(1)
11.3b MICROSCALE DISTILLATION USING STANDARD-TAPER APPARATUS
138(2)
11.3c MICROSCALE DISTILIATION USING WILLIAMSON APPARATUS
140(2)
11.4 Fractional Distillation
142(4)
11.5 Azeotropic Distillation
146(1)
11.6 Vacuum Distillation
147(6)
11.7 Steam Distillation
153(3)
11.8 Sources of Confusion
156(2)
12 Sublimation
158(1)
12.1 Assembling the Apparatus for a Sublimation
158(2)
12.2 Carrying Out a Sublimation
160(1)
13 Refractometry
161(1)
13.1 Theory of Refractometry
161(1)
13.2 The Refractometer
162(1)
13.3 Steps in Determining a Refractive Index
163(1)
13.4 Temperature Correction
164(1)
14 Optical Activity and Enantiomeric Analysis
165(1)
14.1 Mixtures of Optical Isomers: Separation/Resolution
165(3)
14.2 Polarimetry
168(2)
14.3 Using Polarimeter Tubes
170(1)
14.4 Specific Rotation
171(1)
14.5 Enantiomeric Excess (Optical Purity)
172(1)
14.6 Modern Methods of Enantiomeric Analysis
172(3)
PART 2 CHROMATOGRAPHY 175(1)
15 Thin-Layer Chromatography
177(50)
15.1 Introduction to Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC)
177(2)
15.2 Plates for Thin-Layer Chromatography
179(2)
15.3 Sample Application
181(2)
15.4 Development of a TLC Plate
183(1)
15.5 Visualization Techniques
184(2)
15.6 Summary of TLC Procedure
186(1)
15.7 How to Choose a Developing Solvent When None Is Specified
186(2)
15.8 Sources of Confusion
188(2)
16 Gas-liquid Chromatography
190(1)
16.1 Instrumentation for CC
191(1)
16.2 Types of Columns and Liquid Stationary Phases
192(2)
16.3 Detectors
194(2)
16.4 Recorders
196(1)
16.5 Practical GC Operating Procedures
197(3)
16.6 Sources of Confusion
200(2)
16.7 Identification of Components Shown on a Chromatogram
202(1)
16.8 Quantitative Analysis
203(3)
17 Liquid Chromatography
206(1)
17.1 Adsorbents
207(1)
17.2 Elution Solvents
208(2)
17.3 Amount of Adsorbent and Column Dimensions
210(2)
17.4 Preparation of a Chromatography Column
212(4)
17.4a PREPARATION OF A MINISCALE COLUMN
212(1)
17.4b PREPARATION OF A WILLIAMSON MICROSCALE COLUMN
213(1)
17.4c PREPARATION AND ELUTION OF A MICROSCALE COLUMN
214(2)
17.5 Sample Application and Elution Techniques
216(3)
17.6 Summary of Column Chromatography Procedure
219(1)
17.7 Flash Chromatography
219(2)
17.8 Sources of Confusion
221(2)
17.9 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
223(4)
PART 3 SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS 227(1)
18 Infrared Spectroscopy
228
18.1 IR Spectra
228(1)
18.2 Molecular Vibrations
228(5)
18.3 IR Instrumentation
233(2)
18.4 Operating an FTIR Spectrometer
235(1)
18.5 Techniques of Sample Preparation
236(7)
18.6 Interpreting IR Spectra
243(13)
18.7 A Procedure for Interpreting an IR Spectrum
256(2)
18.8 A Case Study
258(1)
18.9 Sources of Confusion
259(8)
19 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
267(2)
NMR Instrumentation and Sample Preparation
269(7)
19.1 NMR Instrumentation
269(2)
19.2 Preparing Samples for NMR Analysis
271(5)
19.3 Summary of Steps for Preparing an NMR Sample
276(1)
Interpreting ¹H NMR Spectra
276(45)
19.4 NMR Information
276(1)
19.5 How Many Types of Protons Are Present?
276(1)
19.6 Counting Protons (Integration)
277(1)
19.7 Chemical Shift
278(6)
19.8 Quantitative Estimation of Chemical Shifts
284(10)
19.9 Spin-Spin Coupling (Splitting)
294(10)
19.10 Sources of Confusion
304(7)
19.11 Two Case Studies
311(7)
19.12 Advanced Topics in ¹H-NMR
318(3)
¹³C and Two-Dimensional NMR
321
19.13 ¹³C NMR
321(8)
19.14 Determining Numbers of Protons on Carbon Atoms
329(2)
19.15 Two-Dimensional Correlated Correlated Spectroscopy (2D COSY)
331(10)
20 Mass Spectrometry
341
20.1 Mass Spectrometers
312(34)
20.2 Mass Spectra and the Molecular Ion
346(3)
20.3 High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry
349(2)
20.4 Mass Spectral Libraries
351(2)
20.5 Fragmentation of the Molecule
353(5)
20.6 A Case Study
358(2)
20.7 Sources of Confusion
360
Appendix A Computational Chemistry AP-1
Appendix B The literature of Organic Chemistry AP-12
Appendix C Integrated Spectroscopy Problems AP-18
Index I-1

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