9780471678083

Textbook of Biochemistry With Clinical Correlations, 6th Edition

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780471678083

  • ISBN10:

    0471678082

  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2005-12-01
  • Publisher: Wiley

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What is included with this book?

Summary

Thomas M. Devlin's Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations presents the biochemistry of mammalian cells, relates events at a cellular level to the subsequent physiological processes in the whole animal, and cites examples of human diseases derived from aberrant biochemical processes. The organization and content are tied together to provide students with the complete picture of biochemistry and how it relates to humans. Loaded with new material and chapters and brimming with detailed, full-color illustrations that clearly explain associated concepts, this sixth edition is an indispensable tool for students and professionals in the medical or health sciences.Key Features of the Sixth Edition: Over 250 Clinical Correlations highlighting the significance of the biochemistry to clinical conditions and diseases MCAT-Style Questions with annontated answers in every chapter - in a format similar to that used by the National Board of Medical Examiners More than 1,200 high-quality, full-color illustrations A concise appendix reviewing important Organic Chemistry ConceptsNew to the Sixth Edition: Fully Updated with a significant revision of all chapters and major topics Two new chapters: Fundamentals of Signal Transduction and Cell Cycle, Programmed Cell Death, and Cancer A Glossary that explains important biochemical terms New sections on the Basal Lamina Protein Complex and Molecular Motors

Author Biography

Thomas M. Devlin, Ph.D. - Professor Emeritus, Drexel University School of Medicine.

Table of Contents

Preface xxi
Acknowledgments xxiii
Contributors xxv
PART I STRUCTURE OF MACROMOLECULES
Eukaryotic Cell Structure
1(22)
Thomas M. Devlin
Overview: Cells and Cellular Compartments
2(1)
Water, pH, and Solutes: The Aqueous Environment of Cells
3(8)
Composition of Eukaryotic Cells: Functional Roles of Subcellular Organelles and Membrane Systems
11(8)
Integration and Control of Cellular Functions
19(4)
Bibliography
20(1)
Questions and Answers
20
Clinical Correlations
Blood Bicarbonate Concentration in Metabolic Acidosis
10(5)
Mitochondrial Diseases
15(1)
Lysosomal Enzymes and Gout
16(2)
Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency
18(1)
Peroxisome Biogenesis Disorders (PBD)
19(4)
DNA and RNA: Composition and Structure
23(52)
Stephen A. Woski
Francis J. Schmidt
Overview
24(1)
Structural Components of Nucleic Acids: Nucleobases, Nucleosides, and Nucleotides
25(4)
Structure of DNA
29(17)
Higher-Order DNA Structure
46(12)
DNA Sequence and Function
58(4)
RNA Structure
62(2)
Types of RNA
64(11)
Bibliography
71(1)
Questions and Answers
71
Clinical Correlations
DNA Vaccines
25(14)
Diagnostic Use of DNA Arrays in Medicine and Genetics
39(3)
Antitumor Antibiotics That Change the Shape of DNA
42(3)
Hereditary Persistence of Fetal Hemoglobin
45(1)
Telomerase as a Target for Anticancer Agents
46(3)
Expansion of DNA Triple Repeats and Human Disease
49(4)
Topoisomerases in the Treatment of Disease
53(14)
Staphylococcal Resistance to Erythromycin
67(8)
Proteins I: Composition and Structure
75(58)
Richard M. Schultz
Michael N. Liebman
Functional Roles of Proteins in Humans
76(1)
Amino Acid Composition of Proteins
77(4)
Charge and Chemical Properties of Amino Acids and Proteins
81(9)
Primary Structure of Proteins
90(2)
Higher Levels of Protein Organization
92(7)
Other Types of Proteins
99(10)
Folding of Proteins from Randomized to Unique Structures: Protein Stability
109(7)
Dynamic Aspects of Protein Structure
116(1)
Characterization, Purification, and Determination of Protein Structure and Organization
117(16)
Bibliography
129(2)
Questions and Answers
131
Clinical Correlations
Plasma Proteins in Diagnosis of Disease
87(4)
Differences in Insulins Used in Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus
91(1)
A Nonconservative Mutation Occurs in Sickle Cell Anemia
92(8)
Diseases of Collagen Synthesis
100(5)
Hyperlipidemias
105(2)
Hypolipoproteinemias
107(3)
Glycosylated Hemoglobin, HbAlc
110(1)
Proteins as Infectious Agents: Prions and Human Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs)
111(12)
Use of Amino Acid Analysis in Diagnosis of Disease
123(10)
PART II TRANSMISSION OF INFORMATION
DNA Replication, Recombination, and Repair
133(42)
Howard J. Edenberg
Common Features of Replication, Recombination, and Repair
134(1)
DNA Replication
135(18)
Recombination
153(5)
Repair
158(17)
Bibliography
171(1)
Questions and Answers
171
Clinical Correlations
Chemotherapy Can Target Precursors of DNA Synthesis
136(10)
Topoisomerases as Drug Targets
146(4)
Cancer and the Cell Cycle
150(1)
Nucleoside Analogs and Drug Resistance in HIV Therapy
151(7)
Gene Therapy
158(2)
Chemotherapy, DNA Damage, and Repair
160(1)
Nucleoside Analogs as Drugs: Thiopurines
161(1)
Individualized Medicine
161(3)
Xeroderma Pigmentosum
164(2)
Mismatch Repair and Cancer
166(9)
RNA: Transcription and RNA Processing
175(26)
Francis J. Schmidt
David R. Setzer
Overview
176(1)
Mechanisms of Transcription
176(6)
Transcription in Eukaryotes
182(6)
RNA Processing
188(7)
RNA Export and Quality Control
195(1)
Small Inhibitory RNAs
196(1)
Transcription-Coupled DNA Repair
196(1)
Nucleases and RNA Turnover
197(4)
Bibliography
198(1)
Questions and Answers
199
Clinical Correlations
Antibiotics and Toxins That Target RNA Polymerase
179(4)
Fragile X Syndrome: An RNA-Chromatin Disease?
183(2)
Involvement of Transcriptional Factors in Carcinogenesis
185(7)
Thalassemia Due to Defects in Messenger RNA Synthesis
192(1)
Autoimmunity in Connective Tissue Disease
193(4)
Cockayne Syndrome
197(4)
Protein Synthesis: Translation and Posttranslational Modifications
201(44)
Dohn Glitz
Overview
202(1)
Components of the Translational Apparatus
202(11)
Protein Biosynthesis
213(9)
Protein Maturation: Folding, Modification, Secretion, and Targeting
222(5)
Membrane and Organelle Targeting
227(4)
Further Posttranslational Modifications
231(5)
Regulation of Translation
236(3)
Protein Degradation and Turnover
239(6)
Bibliography
240(2)
Questions and Answers
242
Clinical Correlations
Missense Mutations: Hemoglobin
206(1)
Mutation to Form a Terminator Codon
206(1)
α-Thalassemia
207(1)
Programmed Frameshifting in Biosynthesis of HIV Proteins
208(13)
Mutation in Mitochondrial Ribosomal RNA Results in Antibiotic-Induced Deafness
221(2)
Deletion of a Codon, Incorrect Posttranslational Modification, and Premature Protein Degradation: Cystic Fibrosis
223(1)
Protein Misfolding and Aggregation: Creutzfeldt--Jacob Disease, Mad Cow Disease, Alzheimer's Disease, and Huntington's Disease
224(6)
Diseases of Lysosome Function
230(3)
Familial Hyperproinsulinemia
233(1)
Absence of Posttranslational Modification: Multiple Sulfatase Deficiency
234(3)
Defects in Collagen Synthesis
237(8)
Recombinant DNA and Biotechnology
245(46)
Gerald Soslau
Overview
246(1)
The Polymerase Chain Reaction
247(1)
Restriction Endonuclease and Restriction Maps
248(1)
DNA Sequencing
249(2)
Recombinant DNA and Cloning
251(3)
Selection of Specific Cloned DNA in Libraries
254(4)
Detection and Identification of Nucleic Acids and DNA-Binding Proteins
258(5)
Complementary DNA and Complementary DNA Libraries
263(3)
Bacteriophage, Cosmid, and Yeast Cloning Vectors
266(2)
Analysis of Long Stretches of DNA
268(1)
Expression Vectors and Fusion Proteins
269(2)
Expression Vectors in Eukaryotic Cells
271(1)
Site-Directed Mutagenesis
272(5)
Applications of Recombinant DNA Technologies
277(5)
Genomics, Proteomics, and Microarray Analysis
282(9)
Bibliography
287(1)
Questions and Answers
287
Clinical Correlations
Polymerase Chain Reaction
248(1)
Restriction Mapping and Evolution
249(2)
Direct Sequencing of DNA for the Diagnosis of Genetic Disorders
251(3)
Multiplex PCR Analysis of the HGPTase Gene Defects in the Lesch--Nyhan Syndrome
254(6)
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms Determine the Clonal Origin of Tumors
260(1)
Single-Strand Conformational Polymorphism for Detection of Spontaneous Mutations That May Lead to Sids
261(14)
Site-Directed Mutagenesis of HSV IgD
275(3)
RNA-Mediated Inhibition of HIV
278(1)
Gene Therapy: Normal Genes Can Be Introduced Into Cells with Defective Genes
279(1)
Transgenic Animal Models
280(1)
Knockout Mice to Define a Role for the P2Y1 Purinoceptor
281(2)
Microarray Analysis of Breast Cancer
283(8)
Regulation of Gene Expression
291(28)
Daniel L. Weeks
John E. Donelson
Overview
292(1)
Unit of Transcription in Bacteria: The Operon
292(1)
Lactose Operon of E. Coli
293(4)
Tryptophan Operon of E. Coli
297(5)
Other Bacterial Operons
302(2)
Bacterial Transposons
304(1)
Gene Expression in Eukaryotes
305(2)
Preinitiation Complex in Eukaryotes: Transcription Factors, RNA Polymerase II, and DNA
307(5)
Regulation of Eukaryotic Gene Expression
312(7)
Bibliography
316(1)
Questions and Answers
317
Clinical Correlations
Transmissible Multiple Drug Resistance
305(2)
Rubinstein--Taybi Syndrome
307(7)
Tamoxifen and Targeting of Estrogen Receptor
314(1)
Transcription Factors and Cardiovascular Disease
314(5)
PART III FUNCTIONS OF PROTEINS
Proteins II: Structure-Function Relationships in Protein Families
319(46)
Richard M. Schultz
Overview
320(1)
Antibody Molecules: Immunoglobulin Superfamily of Proteins
320(8)
Proteins with a Common Catalytic Mechanism: Serine Proteases
328(10)
Hemoglobin and Myoglobin
338(14)
The Basal Lamina Protein Complex
352(13)
Bibliography
360(1)
Questions and Answers
361
Clinical Correlations
The Complement Proteins
323(1)
Functions of Different Antibody Classes
323(1)
Immunization
324(6)
Fibrin Formation in a Myocardial Infarct and Use of Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator (rt-PA)
330(1)
Involvement of Serine Proteases in Tumor Cell Metastasis
330(9)
Hemoglobinopathies
339(26)
Enzymes: Classification, Kinetics, and Control
365(48)
Henry Weiner
Overview
366(1)
Classifications of Enzymes
367(4)
General Concepts of Enzyme Mechanisms
371(4)
Active Site of an Enzyme
375(3)
Coenzymes, Co-Substrates, and Cofactors
378(6)
Kinetics of Chemical Reactions
384(2)
Enzyme Kinetics of One-Substrate Reactions
386(8)
Kinetics of Two-Substrate Reactions
394(1)
Inhibitors
395(6)
Regulation of Enzyme Activity
401(3)
Regulation of Metabolic Pathways
404(1)
Clinical Applications of Enzymes
405(8)
Bibliography
410(1)
Questions and Answers
410
Clinical Correlations
Mutation of a Coenzyme-Binding Site Results in Clinical Disease
378(11)
A Case of Gout Demonstrates Two Phases in the Mechanism of Enzyme Action
389(1)
Physiological Effect of Changes in Enzyme Km Values
390(3)
Thermal Lability of Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Results in Hemolytic Anemia
393(1)
Alcohol Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes with Different pH Optima
394(2)
Inhibitors of Xanthine Oxidase Isolated from Plants
396(1)
Design of a Selective Inhibitor
397(3)
A Case of Poisoning
400(1)
Mushrooms and Alcohol Metabolism
400(1)
A Case of Gout Demonstrates the Difference Between an Allosteric and Substrate-Binding Site
401(6)
Identification and Treatment of an Enzyme Deficiency
407(1)
Ambiguity in the Assay of Mutated Enzymes
407(6)
The Cytochromes P450 and Nitric Oxide Synthases
413(30)
Linda J. Roman
Bettie Sue Siler Masters
Overview
414(1)
Cytochromes P450: Properties and Function
414(1)
Cytochrome P450 Reaction Cycle
415(1)
Cytochrome P450 Electron Transport Systems
416(2)
Cytochrome P450: Nomenclature and Isoforms
418(1)
Cytochrome P450: Substrates and Physiological Functions
419(1)
Cytochromes P450 Participate in the Synthesis of Steroid Hormones and Oxygenation of Endogenous Compounds
420(8)
Cytochrome P450 Induction and Inhibition
428(4)
The Nitric Oxide Synthases: Properties and Function
432(1)
Nitric Oxide Synthase Isoforms and Physiological Functions
433(10)
Bibliography
439(1)
Questions and Answers
440
Clinical Correlations
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Deficiency of CYP21A2
423(1)
Steroid Hormone Production During Pregnancy
423(3)
Cytochrome P450 Inhibition: Drug--Drug Interactions and Adverse Effects
426(2)
Role of CYP2E1 in Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Toxicity
428(1)
Cytochrome P450 Induction: Drug--Drug Interactions and Adverse Effects
429(2)
Genetic Polymorphisms of P450 Enzymes
431(5)
Mechanism of Action of Sildenafil
436(1)
Clinical Aspects of Nitric Oxide Production
437(1)
History of Nitroglycerin
438(5)
Biological Membranes: Structure and Membrane Transport
443(46)
Thomas M. Devlin
Overview
444(1)
Chemical Composition of Membranes
444(6)
Micelles, Lipid Bilayers, and Liposomes
450(3)
Structure of Biological Membranes
453(8)
Movement of Molecules Through Membranes
461(3)
Membrane Channels
464(8)
Membrane Transporters
472(2)
Passive Transport
474(1)
Active Transport
475(8)
Ionophores
483(6)
Bibliography
485(1)
Questions and Answers
485
Clinical Correlations
Liposomes as Carriers of Drugs and Enzymes
452(7)
Abnormalities of Cell Membrane Fluidity in Disease
459(7)
Cystic Fibrosis and the Cl-Channel
466(2)
The Mammalian Kidney and Aquaporins
468(13)
Diseases Involving the Superfamily of ABC Transporters
481(2)
Diseases Due to Loss of Membrane Transport Systems
483(6)
Fundamentals of Signal Transduction
489(40)
George R. Dubyak
Overview
490(1)
Intercellular Signal Transduction
491(2)
Receptors for Secreted Molecules
493(1)
Intracellular Signal Transduction by Cell-Surface Receptors
494(6)
Ligand-Gated Ion Channel Receptors
500(3)
Enzyme-Linked Receptors
503(4)
Cytokine Receptors
507(2)
G-Protein-Coupled Receptors
509(6)
Cyclic-AMP-Based Signal Transduction
515(3)
Cyclic-GMP-Based Signal Transduction
518(1)
Calcium-Based Signal Transduction
519(3)
Phospholipid-Based Signal Transduction
522(2)
Integration of Signal Transduction Pathways Into Signal Transduction Networks
524(5)
Bibliography
525(1)
Questions and Answers
526
Clinical Correlations
ErbB/HER-Family Receptor Tyrosine Kinases as Targets for Cancer Chemotherapy
505(5)
G-Protein-Coupled Chemokine Receptors as Targets for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
510(2)
Gsα G-Protein Mutations in Pituitary Gland Tumors and Endocrine Diseases
512(3)
Alterations in β-Adrenergic Receptor Signaling Proteins in Congestive Heart Failure
515(4)
Nitric Oxide/cGMP Signaling Axis as Therapeutic Targets in Cardiac and Vascular Disorders
519(10)
PART IV METABOLIC PATHWAYS AND THEIR CONTROL
Bioenergetics and Oxidative Metabolism
529(52)
Diana S. Beattie
Energy-Producing and Energy-Utilizing Systems
530(2)
Thermodynamic Relationships and Energy-Rich Components
532(6)
Sources and Fates of Acetyl Coenzyme A
538(5)
The Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle
543(7)
Structure and Compartmentation by Mitochondrial Membranes
550(2)
Electron Transport Chain
552(10)
Oxidative Phosphorylation
562(6)
Mitochondrial Inner Membrane Contains Substrate Transport Systems
568(5)
Mitochondrial Genes and Diseases
573(1)
Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)
574(7)
Bibliography
578(1)
Questions and Answers
579
Clinical Correlations
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Deficiency
543(3)
Fumarase Deficiency
546(16)
Cyanide Poisoning
562(12)
Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy
574(1)
Mitochondrial Myopathies from Mutations in tRNA Genes
575(1)
Exercise Intolerance in Patients with Mutations in Cytochrome b
575(2)
Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury
577(4)
Carbohydrate Metabolism I: Major Metabolic Pathways and Their Control
581(56)
Robert A. Harris
Overview
582(1)
Glycolysis
583(4)
Glycolysis Pathway
587(8)
Regulation of Glycolysis
595(13)
Glyconeogenesis
608(10)
Glycogenolysis and Glycogenesis
618(19)
Bibliography
633(1)
Questions and Answers
634
Clinical Correlations
Alcohol and Barbiturates
594(1)
Arsenic Poisoning
595(2)
Fructose Intolerance
597(2)
Diabetes Mellitus
599(2)
Lactic Acidosis
601(1)
Pickled Pigs and Malignant Hyperthermia
602(1)
Angina Pectoris and Myocardial Infarction
603(5)
Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency and Hemolytic Anemia
608(1)
Hypoglycemia and Premature Infants
609(9)
Hypoglycemia and Alcohol Intoxication
618(3)
Glycogen Storage Diseases
621(16)
Carbohydrate Metabolism II: Special Pathways and Glycoconjugates
637(24)
Nancy B. Schwartz
Overview
638(1)
Pentose Phosphate Pathway
638(5)
Sugar Interconversions and Nucleotide-Linked Sugar Formation
643(5)
Biosynthesis of Complex Polysaccharides
648(1)
Glycoproteins
649(3)
Proteoglycans
652(9)
Bibliography
658(1)
Questions and Answers
658
Clinical Correlations
Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase: Genetic Deficiency or Variants in Erythrocytes
640(1)
Wernicke--Korsakoff Syndrome: Deficiency or Genetic Variants of Transketolase
641(3)
Carbohydrate-Deficient Glycoprotein Syndromes (CDGS)
644(1)
Essential Fructosuria and Fructose Intolerance: Deficiency of Fructokinase and Fructose 1-phosphate Aldolase
644(1)
Galactosemia: Inability to Transform Galactose into Glucose
645(1)
Pentosuria: Deficiency of Xylitol Dehydrogenase
646(1)
Glucuronic Acid: Physiological Significance of Glucuronide Formation
647(2)
Blood Group Substances
649(3)
Common Carbohydrate Marker of Lysosomal Targeting and I-Cell Disease
652(1)
Aspartylglycosylaminuria: Absence of 4-L-Aspartylglycosamine Amidohydrolase
653(1)
Glycolipid Disorders
654(1)
Heparin is an Anticoagulant
655(1)
Chondrodystrophies Due to Sulfation Defects
655(2)
Mucopolysaccharidoses
657(4)
Lipid Metabolism I: Synthesis, Storage, and Utilization of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols
661(34)
Martin D. Snider
J. Denis McGarry
Richard W. Hanson
Overview
662(1)
Chemical Nature of Fatty Acids and Acylglycerols
663(2)
Interorgan Transport of Fatty Acids and Their Primary Products
665(3)
Synthesis of Fatty Acids: Lipogenesis
668(8)
Storage of Fatty Acids as Triacylglycerol
676(4)
Utilization of Fatty Acids for Energy Production
680(10)
Regulation of Lipid Metabolism
690(5)
Bibliography
692(1)
Questions and Answers
693
Clinical Correlations
Obesity
665(1)
Role of Fatty Acid Metabolism in Type 2 Diabetes
666(13)
Triacylglycerol/Fatty Acid Cycle
679(3)
Genetic Deficiencies in Carnitine Transport or Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase
682(2)
Genetic Deficiencies in the Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenases
684(2)
Refsum's Disease
686(3)
Ketone Bodies as a Fuel: The Atkins Diet
689(6)
Lipid Metabolism II: Pathways of Metabolism of Special Lipids
695(48)
Robert H. Glew
Overview
696(1)
Phospholipids
696(11)
Cholesterol
707(13)
Sphingolipids
720(10)
Prostaglandins and Thromboxanes
730(4)
Lipoxygenase and Oxyeicosatetraenoic Acids
734(9)
Bibliography
738(1)
Questions and Answers
739
Clinical Correlations
Respiratory Distress Syndrome
699(18)
Treatment of Hypercholesterolemia
717(1)
Atherosclerosis
717(12)
Diagnosis of Gaucher's Disease in an Adult
729(14)
Amino Acid Metabolism
743(46)
Marguerite W. Coomes
Overview
744(1)
Incorporation of Nitrogen into Amino Acids
745(5)
Transport of Nitrogen to Liver and Kidney
750(1)
Urea Cycle
751(3)
Synthesis and Degradation of Individual Amino Acids
754(35)
Bibliography
784(1)
Questions and Answers
785
Clinical Correlations
Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase and N-Acetylglutamate Synthetase Deficiencies
754(1)
Deficiency of Urea Cycle Enzymes
755(1)
Diseases of Proline Metabolism
756(3)
Selenoproteins
759(1)
Nonketotic Hyperglycinemia
760(2)
Folic Acid Deficiency
762(2)
Phenylketonuria
764(2)
Disorders of Tyrosine Metabolism
766(1)
Parkinson's Disease
766(4)
Hyperhomocysteinemia and Atherogenesis
770(1)
Diseases of Sulfur Amino Acids
770(3)
Glutaric Aciduria
773(2)
Schizophrenia and Other Tryptophan-Derived Neurotransmitter-Associated Diseases
775(2)
Diseases of Metabolism of Branched-Chain Amino Acids
777(3)
Diseases of Propionate and Methylmalonate Metabolism
780(1)
Diseases Involving Lysine and Ornithine
780(1)
Histidinemia
781(1)
Diseases of Folate Metabolism
782(7)
Purine and Pyrimidine Nucleotide Metabolism
789(34)
Joseph G. Cory
Overview
790(1)
Metabolic Functions of Nucleotide
790(1)
Metabolism of Purine Nucleotides
791(11)
Metabolism of Pyrimidine Nucleotides
802(4)
Deoxyribonucleotide Formation
806(2)
Nucleoside and Nucleotide Kinases
808(2)
Nucleotide Metabolizing Enzymes as a Function of the Cell Cycle and Rate of Cell Division
810(1)
Nucleotide Coenzyme Synthesis
811(2)
Synthesis and Utilization of 5-Phosphoribosyl-1-Pyrophosphate
813(1)
Chemotherapeutic Agents That Interfere with Purine and Pyrimidine Nucleotide Metabolism
814(9)
Bibliography
819(1)
Questions and Answers
820
Clinical Correlations
Gout
796(2)
Lesch--Nyhan Syndrome
798(2)
Increased Cytosolic 5'-Nucleotidase Activity
800(1)
Immunodeficiency Diseases Associated with Defects in Purine Nucleoside Degradation
801(1)
Patients Undergoing Cancer Treatment
802(1)
Subclass of Patients with Autism
803(1)
Hereditary Orotic Aciduria
804(19)
Iron and Heme Metabolism
823(26)
William M. Awad, Jr.
Iron Metabolism: Overview
824(1)
Iron-Containing Proteins
824(2)
Intestinal Absorption of Iron
826(2)
Molecular Regulation of Iron Utilization
828(2)
Iron Distribution and Kinetics
830(3)
Heme Biosynthesis
833(7)
Heme Catabolism
840(9)
Bibliography
845(1)
Questions and Answers
845
Clinical Correlations
Iron Overload and Infection
825(1)
Microbial Pathogenicity and Iron
825(2)
Iron--Sulfur Cluster Synthesis and Human Disease
827(1)
Friedreich's Ataxia
827(1)
Duodenal Iron Absorption
828(2)
Mutant Iron-Responsive Elements
830(1)
Ceruloplasmin Deficiency
831(1)
Iron-Deficiency Anemia
832(1)
Hemochromatosis Type I: Molecular Genetics and the Issue of Iron-Fortified Diets
832(1)
Hemochromatosis Type III
833(3)
Acute Intermittent Porphyria
836(5)
Cytoprotective Role of Heme Oxygenase
841(2)
Neonatal Isoimmune Hemolysis
843(1)
Bilirubin UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase Deficiency
843(1)
Elevation of Serum Conjugated Bilirubin
844(5)
Metabolic Interrelationships
849(42)
Robert A. Harris
David W. Crabb
Overview
850(1)
Starve-Feed Cycle
850(13)
Mechanisms Involved in Switching Liver Metabolism Between the Well-Fed and Starved States
863(10)
Interrelationship of Tissues in Nutritional and Hormonal States
873(18)
Bibliography
887(2)
Questions and Answers
889
Clinical Correlations
Obesity
851(1)
Protein Malnutrition
852(1)
Starvation
852(5)
Reye's Syndrome
857(4)
Hyperglycemic, Hyperosmolar Coma
861(1)
Hyperglycemia and Protein Glycation
861(15)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
876(1)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1
877(1)
Polyol Pathway and Complications of Diabetes
878(1)
Cancer Cachexia
879(12)
PART V PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESSES
Biochemistry of Hormones
891(58)
Thomas J. Schmidt
Gerald Litwack
Overview
892(1)
Hormones and the Hormonal Cascade System
893(7)
Synthesis of Polypeptide and Amino Acid-Derived Hormones
900(6)
Protein Hormone Signaling
906(8)
Membrane Hormone Receptors
914(3)
Intracellular Hormone Cascade: Protein Kinases
917(8)
Steroid Hormones
925(13)
Steroid Hormone Receptors
938(11)
Bibliography
945(1)
Questions and Answers
946
Clinical Correlations
Testing Activity of the Anterior Pituitary
896(5)
Hypopituitarism
901(19)
Decreased Insulin Receptor Kinase Activity in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
920(17)
Oral Contraception
937(3)
Apparent Mineralocorticoid Excess Syndrome
940(3)
Mineralocorticoid Receptor Mutation Results in Hypertension and Toxemia of Pregnancy
943(6)
Molecular Cell Biology
949(64)
Thomas E. Smith
Overview
950(1)
Nervous Tissue: Metabolism and Function
950(11)
The Eye: Metabolism and Vision
961(15)
Molecular Motors and Associated Proteins
976(15)
Mechanism of Blood Coagulation
991(22)
Bibliography
1008(2)
Questions and Answers
1010
Clinical Correlations
Lambert--Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome
957(1)
Myasthenia Gravis: A Neuromuscular Disorder
958(7)
Macula Degeneration and Loss of Vision
965(1)
Niemann--Pick Disease and Retinitis Pigmentosa
966(1)
Retinitis Pigmentosa from a Mutation in the Gene for Peripherin
967(6)
Leber Congenital Amaurosis: Retinal Dystrophy Leading to Blindness
973(7)
Glycation and Myosin Structure and Function
980(1)
Familial Hypertropic Cardiomyopathies and Mutations in Muscle Proteins
981(1)
Dilated Cardiomyopathy and Mutations in Actin
982(3)
Troponin Subunits as Markers for Myocardial Infarction
985(1)
Voltage-Gated Ion Channelopathies
986(1)
Ion Channels and Cardiac Muscle Disease
986(3)
Mutations Affecting Pigmentation: Is There a Molecular Motor Connection?
989(5)
Intrinsic Pathway Defects: Prekallikrein Deficiency
994(5)
Classic Hemophilia
999(1)
Use of Recombinant Factor Vlla to Control Bleeding
999(5)
Thrombosis: Defects of the Protein C Pathway and Increased Levels of Coagulation Factors
1004(9)
Cell Cycle, Programmed Cell Death, and Cancer
1013(24)
Richard M. Schultz
Overview
1014(1)
Cell Cycle
1014(6)
Apoptosis: Programmed Cell Death
1020(4)
Cancer
1024(13)
Bibliography
1032(1)
Questions and Answers
1033
Clinical Correlations
Oncogenic DNA Viruses
1025(4)
Molecularly Targeted Anticancer Drug
1029(1)
Environmental Cause of Human Cancers
1030(7)
Digestion and Absorption of Basic Nutritional Constituents
1037(34)
Ulrich Hopfer
Overview
1038(1)
General Considerations
1039(5)
Epithelial Transport
1044(8)
Digestion and Absorption of Proteins
1052(4)
Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates
1056(3)
Digestion and Absorption of Lipids
1059(6)
Bile Acid Metabolism
1065(6)
Bibliography
1067(1)
Questions and Answers
1068
Clinical Correlations
Familial Chloridorrhea Causes Metabolic Alkalosis
1046(3)
Cystic Fibrosis
1049(1)
Bacterial Toxigenic Diarrheas and Electrolyte Replacement Therapy
1049(5)
Neutral Amino Aciduria: Hartnup Disease
1054(4)
Disaccharidase Deficiency
1058(3)
Pharmacological Interventions to Prevent Fat Absorption and Obesity
1061(3)
Cholesterol Stones
1064(1)
A-β-Lipoproteinemia
1065(6)
Principles of Nutrition I: Macronutrients
1071(20)
Stephen G. Chaney
Overview
1072(1)
Energy Metabolism
1072(1)
Protein Metabolism
1073(3)
Protein--Energy Malnutrition
1076(1)
Excess Protein--Energy Intake
1077(2)
Carbohydrates
1079(1)
Fats
1079(1)
Fiber
1080(2)
Composition of Macronutrients in the Diet
1082(9)
Bibliography
1086(2)
Questions and Answers
1088
Clinical Correlations
Vegetarian Diets and Protein--Energy Requirements for Children
1075(1)
Dietary Protein Intake and Renal Disease
1076(1)
Providing Adequate Protein and Calories for Hospitalized Patients
1077(3)
Carbohydrate Loading and Athletic Endurance
1080(1)
High-Carbohydrate Versus High-Fat Diet for Diabetics
1081(2)
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Risk Factors for Heart Disease
1083(3)
Metabolic Adaptation: Relationship Between Carbohydrate Intake and Serum Triacylglycerols
1086(5)
Principles of Nutrition II: Micronutrients
1091(30)
Stephen G. Chaney
Overview
1092(1)
Assessment of Malnutrition
1092(1)
Dietary Reference Intakes
1093(1)
Fat-Soluble Vitamins
1093(9)
Water-Soluble Vitamins
1102(1)
Energy-Releasing Water-Soluble Vitamins
1102(5)
Hematopoietic Water-Soluble Vitamins
1107(3)
Other Water-Soluble Vitamins
1110(2)
Macrominerals
1112(1)
Trace Minerals
1113(2)
The American Diet: Fact and Fallacy
1115(1)
Assessment of Nutritional Status in Clinical Practice
1116(5)
Bibliography
1117(2)
Questions and Answers
1119
Clinical Correlations
Nutritional Considerations in Cystic Fibrosis
1096(1)
Renal Osteodystrophy
1097(4)
Nutritional Considerations in Newborn Infants
1101(1)
Anticonvulsant Drugs and Vitamin Requirements
1101(2)
Nutritional Considerations in Alcoholics
1103(3)
Vitamin B6 Requirements and Oral Contraceptives
1106(2)
Gene Polymorphisms and Folic Acid Requirement
1108(5)
Diet and Osteoporosis
1113(4)
Nutritional Needs of Elderly Persons
1117(4)
Appendix Review of Organic Chemistry 1121(12)
Carol N. Angstadt
Glossary 1133(24)
Francis Vella
Index 1157

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