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Theory into Practice An Introduction to Literary Criticism

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2008-02-26
  • Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing
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Beginning with more accessible critical approaches and gradually introducing more challenging critical perspectives, THEORY INTO PRACTICE provides extensive step-by-step guidance for writing literary analyses. This brief, practical introduction to literary theory explores core theories in a unique chronological format and includes an anthology of relevant fiction, poetry, and nonfiction to help bring those theories to life. Remarkably readable and engaging, the text makes even complex concepts manageable for those beginning to think about literary theory, and example analyses for each type of criticism show how real students have applied the theories to works included in the anthology. Now updated with the latest scholarship, including a full discussion of queer theory and increased emphasis on American multicultural approaches, THEORY INTO PRACTICE provides an essential foundation for thoughtful and effective literary analysis.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgmentsp. xiii
To the Student: An Introduction to Theory into Practicep. xv
The Relationship of Reading and Writingp. 1
Reading and Writing in Collegep. 1
Engaging the Textp. 2
Adding Marginal Notationsp. 3
Keeping a Reading Logp. 3
Using Heuristicsp. 5
Shaping a Responsep. 5
Determining a Purpose and Understanding Forms of Responsep. 6
Answering Essay Questionsp. 6
Writing Research Papersp. 7
Knowing Your Audiencep. 8
Choosing a Voicep. 8
Helping the Processp. 9
Collaborationp. 10
Reference Materialsp. 11
Summing upp. 12
Suggested Readingp. 12
Familiar Approachesp. 14
Conventional Ways of Reading Literaturep. 14
A Social Perspectivep. 14
The Effects of Genrep. 19
Conventional Ways of Writing about Literaturep. 23
Explicationp. 23
Analysisp. 24
Comparison and Contrastp. 24
Study of a Single Author's Worksp. 25
Summing upp. 25
Glossary of Terms Useful in Conventional Criticismp. 25
Suggested Reading and Resourcesp. 26
Model Student Analysesp. 26
"Between Gloom and Splendor: A Historical Analysis of Hawthorne's 'Young Goodman Brown'"p. 26
Formalismp. 33
Historical Backgroundp. 33
Russian Formalismp. 35
Reading as a Formalistp. 36
Formp. 36
Dictionp. 38
Unityp. 40
What Doesn't Appear in Formalist Criticismp. 42
Paraphrasep. 42
Intentionp. 42
Biographyp. 42
Affectp. 42
Writing a Formalist Analysisp. 43
Prewritingp. 43
Drafting and Revisingp. 43
The Introductionp. 43
The Bodyp. 44
The Conclusionp. 44
Glossary of Terms Useful in Formalist Criticismp. 45
Suggested Readingp. 46
Model Student Analysisp. 46
"Robinson's 'Richard Cory': A Formalistic Interpretation"p. 46
Psychological Criticismp. 49
Historical Backgroundp. 49
Practicing Psychological Criticismp. 50
Freudian Principlesp. 51
The Unconsciousp. 52
The Tripartite Psychep. 53
The Significance of Sexualityp. 54
The Importance of Dreamsp. 55
Symbolsp. 56
Creativityp. 57
Summing upp. 57
Carl Jung and Mythological Criticismp. 58
Charactersp. 60
Imagesp. 61
Situationsp. 62
Northrop Frye and Mythological Criticismp. 63
Jacques Lacan: An Update on Freudp. 63
Character Analysisp. 65
Antirealismp. 67
Jouissancep. 67
Writing Psychological Criticismp. 67
Prewritingp. 67
Drafting and Revisingp. 69
The Introductionp. 69
The Bodyp. 69
The Conclusionp. 71
Glossary of Terms Useful in Psychological Criticismp. 71
Suggested Readingp. 72
Model Student Analysesp. 73
"Water, Sun, Moon, Stars, Heroic Spirit, in Tennyson's 'Ulysses': A Mythological Analysis"p. 73
"Mama Mary and Mother Medusa: A Magic Carpet Ride Through James's Psychical Landscape in Ernest Gaines's 'The Sky Is Gray'"p. 75
Marxist Criticismp. 86
Historical Backgroundp. 86
Reading from a Marxist Perspectivep. 88
Economic Powerp. 89
Materialism versus Spiritualityp. 91
Class Conflictp. 92
Art, Literature, and Ideologiesp. 93
Writing a Marxist Analysisp. 96
Prewritingp. 97
Drafting and Revisingp. 97
The Introductionp. 97
The Bodyp. 98
The Conclusionp. 98
Glossary of Terms Useful in Marxist Criticismp. 99
Suggested Readingp. 100
Model Student Analysisp. 100
"Silence, Violence, and Southern Agrarian Class Conflict in William Faulkner's 'Barn Burning'"p. 100
Feminist Criticismp. 104
Historical Backgroundp. 105
Feminismp. 105
Queer Theoryp. 111
Reading as a Feministp. 114
Studies of Differencep. 114
Studies of Powerp. 116
Studies of the Female Experiencep. 119
Writing Feminist Criticismp. 120
Prewritingp. 121
Drafting and Revisingp. 122
The Introductionp. 122
The Bodyp. 122
The Conclusionp. 124
Glossary of Terms Useful in Feminist Criticismp. 124
Suggested Readingp. 125
Model Student Analysisp. 126
"The Road from Mother: A Daughter's Struggle"p. 126
Reader-Response Criticismp. 131
Historical Backgroundp. 131
Making a Reader's Responsep. 134
Getting Startedp. 134
Interacting with the Textp. 134
The Text Acts on the Readerp. 135
The Reader Acts on the Textp. 137
The Transactional Modelp. 138
Writing a Reader-Response Analysisp. 140
Prewritingp. 140
Drafting and Revisingp. 141
The Introductionp. 141
The Bodyp. 142
The Conclusionp. 142
Glossary of Terms Useful in Reader-Response Criticismp. 143
Suggested Readingp. 143
Model Student Analysisp. 144
"Discovering the Way the World Works: A Reader-Response Analysis of James Joyce's 'Araby'"p. 144
Deconstructionp. 150
Historical Backgroundp. 150
Practicing Deconstructionp. 156
Making a Deconstructive Analysisp. 160
Writing a Deconstructive Analysisp. 165
Prewritingp. 165
Drafting and Revisingp. 167
The Introductionp. 167
The Bodyp. 167
The Conclusionp. 168
Glossary of Terms Useful in Understanding Deconstructionp. 168
Suggested Readingp. 169
Model Student Analysisp. 170
"The Blame Game"p. 170
Cultural Studies: New Historicismp. 173
An Overview of Cultural Studiesp. 173
Assumptions, Principles, and Goals of New Historicismp. 175
Traditional Historicismp. 175
New Historicismp. 176
New Literary Historicismp. 178
Historical Backgroundp. 181
Reading as a New Historicistp. 184
The World of the Author and the Textp. 185
Discourses in the Textp. 188
Intentions and Receptionp. 189
Writing a New Historicist Literary Analysisp. 190
Prewritingp. 191
Drafting and Revisingp. 191
The Introductionp. 191
The Bodyp. 192
The Conclusionp. 194
Glossary of Terms Useful in New Historicist Criticismp. 194
Suggested Readingp. 195
Model Student Analysisp. 196
"'You Have Been Warned': New History Telling in Nadine Gordimer's 'Once upon a Time'"p. 196
More Cultural Studies: Postcolonialism and Multiculturalismp. 205
Postcolonialismp. 205
Historical Backgroundp. 206
Basic Assumptionsp. 209
Reading as a Postcolonialistp. 210
Presentation of Colonialismp. 210
Treatment of Charactersp. 211
Validity of the Narrativep. 212
Expressions of Nativism (Nationalism)p. 212
Recurring Subjects and Themesp. 213
Contextp. 214
Minor Charactersp. 215
Political Statement and Innuendop. 215
Similaritiesp. 216
Glossary of Terms Useful in Postcolonial Studiesp. 216
American Multiculturalismp. 217
African American Literaturep. 218
Reading as a Multiculturalistp. 220
Narrative Formsp. 221
Dictionp. 223
Stylep. 224
Writing a Cultural Studies Analysisp. 226
Glossary of Terms Useful in American Multiculturalismp. 227
Suggested Readingp. 227
Model Student Analysesp. 228
"Victims Already: Violence and Threat in Nadine Gordimer's 'Once upon a Time'"p. 228
"Langston Hughes and the Dream of America"p. 233
Literary Selectionsp. 239
Letters of Abigail and John Adamsp. 239
Jill Ker Conway excerpt from The Road from Coorainp. 242
Featured in Chapter 6p. 126
William Faulkner "Barn Burning"p. 253
Featured in Chapter 5p. 100
Robert Frost "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening"p. 265
Ernest J. Gaines "The Sky Is Gray"p. 266
Featured in Chapter 4p. 75
Nadine Gordimer "Once upon a Time"p. 287
Featured in Chapter 9p. 196
Featured in Chapter 10p. 228
Nathaniel Hawthorne "Young Goodman Brown"p. 291
Featured in Chapter 2p. 26
Langston Hughes "I, Too"p. 300
Featured in Chapter 10p. 233
Langston Hughes "Theme for English B"p. 301
Featured in Chapter 10p. 233
Zora Neale Hurston excerpt from The Eatonville Anthologyp. 302
James Joyce "Araby"p. 311
Featured in Chapter 7p. 144
Guy de Maupassant "The Diamond Necklace"p. 315
Featured in Chapter 8p. 170
Edgar Allan Poe "The Masque of the Red Death"p. 321
Edwin Arlington Robinson "Richard Cory"p. 325
Featured in Chapter 3p. 46
Alfred, Lord Tennyson "Ulysses"p. 326
Information at a Glancep. 329
Indexp. 333
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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