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Ubuntu Linux Unleashed 2021 Edition

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  • Edition: 14th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2020-08-04
  • Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional
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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?


Covers 20.04, 20.10, and 21.04

Ubuntu Linux Unleashed 2021 Edition is filled with unique and advanced information for everyone who wants to make the most of the Ubuntu Linux operating system. This new edition has been thoroughly updated by a long-time Ubuntu user and early community leader to reflect the exciting new Ubuntu 20.04 LTS release, with a forthcoming online update mid-2021, at the halfway mark before the next LTS release comes out.

Linux writer Matthew Helmke covers all you need to know about Ubuntu 20.04 LTS installation, configuration, productivity, command-line usage, development, systems administration, server operations, networking, virtualization, cloud computing, DevOps, and more—including intermediate-to-advanced techniques you won't find in any other book.

Helmke presents up-to-the-minute introductions to Ubuntu's key productivity and web development tools, programming languages, hardware support, and more. You will find new or improved coverage of the Ubuntu desktop experience, common web servers and software stacks, an introduction to containers like Docker and Kubernetes, as well as a wealth of systems administration information that is stable and valuable over many years.

  • Configure and use the Ubuntu desktop
  • Get started with multimedia and productivity applications
  • Manage Linux services, users, and software packages
  • Administer and run Ubuntu from the command line
  • Automate tasks and use shell scripting
  • Provide secure remote access and configure a secure VPN
  • Manage kernels and modules
  • Administer file, print, email, proxy, LDAP, DNS, and HTTP servers (Apache, Nginx, or alternatives)
  • Work with databases (SQL) and learn about NoSQL alternatives
  • Get started with virtualization and cloud deployment, including information about containers
  • Learn about options for managing large numbers of servers, including in the cloud
  • Learn the basics about popular programming languages including Python, PHP, Perl, and gain an introduction to new alternatives such as Go and Rust

Author Biography

Matthew Helmke has used Ubuntu since 2005. He has written about Linux for several magazines and websites, is a lead author of   The Official Ubuntu Book, and has coauthored both A Practical Guide to Linux: Commands, Editors, and Shell Programming and The VMware Cookbook. In his day job, Matthew works for Gremlin (https://www.gremlin.com/) making the Internet more reliable. Matthew first used UNIX in 1987, while studying Lisp on a Vax at the university. He has run a business using only free and open source software, has consulted, and teaches as an adjunct professor for the University of Arizona. You can find out more about Matthew at https://www.linkedin.com/in/matthewhelmke/ or drop him a line with errata or suggestions at matthew@matthewhelmke.com.

Table of Contents

Introduction     xxxi


Chapter 1  Installing Ubuntu and Post-Installation Configuration     1

Before You Begin the Installation     1

    Researching Your Hardware Specifications     2

    Installation Options     2

    32-Bit Versus 64-Bit Ubuntu     4

    Planning Partition Strategies     5

    The Boot Loader     5

    Installing from DVD or USB Drive     6

Step-by-Step Installation     6

    Installing     7

    First Update     11

Shutting Down     11

Finding Programs and Files     12

Software Updater     12

The sudo Command     14

Configuring Software Repositories     15

System Settings     17

    Detecting and Configuring a Printer     18

    Configuring Power Management in Ubuntu     18

    Setting the Time and Date     19

Configuring Wireless Networks     20

Troubleshooting Post-Installation Configuration Problems     21

Chapter 2  Background Information and Resources     23

What Is Linux?     23

Why Use Linux?     25

What Is Ubuntu?     27

Ubuntu for Business     27

Ubuntu in Your Home     28

Getting the Most from Linux and Ubuntu Documentation     28

    Linux     29

    Ubuntu     30


Chapter 3  Foundations of the Linux GUI     31

Foundations and the X Server     31

    Basic X Concepts     32

    Using X     33

    Elements of the xorg conf File     34

Starting X     39

    Using a Display Manager     39

    Changing Window Managers     39

Chapter 4  Ubuntu Desktop Options     41

Desktop Environment     41

Using GNOME: A Primer     42

KDE and Kubuntu     45

Xfce and Xubuntu     46

LXDE and Lubuntu     47

MATE and Ubuntu MATE     48

Ubuntu Budgie     49

Ubuntu Kylin     50

Chapter 5  On the Internet     51

Getting Started with Firefox     52

Checking Out Google Chrome and Chromium     53

Chapter 6  Productivity Applications     55

Introducing LibreOffice     56

Other Useful Productivity Software     58

    Working with PDFs     58

    Writing Scripts     59

    Working with XML and DocBook     59

    Working with LaTeX     60

    Creating Mind Maps     61

Productivity Applications Written for Microsoft Windows     61

Chapter 7  Multimedia Applications     63

Sound and Music     63

    Sound Cards     64

    Sound Formats     65

    Listening to Music     65

Graphics Manipulation     66

    The GNU Image Manipulation Program     66

    Using Scanners in Ubuntu     67

    Working with Graphics Formats     67

    Capturing Screen Images     69

    Other Graphics Manipulation Options     70

Using Digital Cameras with Ubuntu     70

    Handheld Digital Cameras     70

    Using Shotwell Photo Manager     71

Burning CDs and DVDs in Ubuntu     71

    Creating CDs and DVDs with Brasero     71

    Creating CDs from the Command Line     72

    Creating DVDs from the Command Line     73

Viewing Video     75

    Video Formats     75

    Viewing Video in Linux     76

Recording and Editing Audio     76

Editing Video     77

Chapter 8  Games     79

Ubuntu Gaming     79

Installing Proprietary Video Drivers     80

Online Game Sources     81

    Steam     81

    GOG com     82

    Humble     82

    itch io     82

    LGDB     82

    Game Jolt     82

Installing Games from the Ubuntu Repositories     82

    Warsow     82

    Scorched 3D     83

    Frozen Bubble     84

    SuperTux     84

    Battle for Wesnoth     85

    Frets on Fire     85

    FlightGear     87

    Speed Dreams     87

    Games for Kids     88

    Commercial Games     88

Playing Windows Games     88


Chapter 9  Managing Software         91

Ubuntu Software         91

Using Synaptic for Software Management         92

Staying Up to Date         94

Working on the Command Line         95

    Day-to-Day APT Usage         95

    Finding Software         98

    Using apt-get Instead of apt         99

Compiling Software from Source     100

    Compiling from a Tarball     100

    Compiling from Source from the Ubuntu Repositories     101

Configuration Management     102

    dotdee     102

    Ubuntu Core     103

Using the Snappy Package Manager     103

Chapter 10  Command-Line Beginner’s Class     105

What Is the Command Line?     106

Accessing the Command Line     107

    Text-Based Console Login     107

    Logging Out     108

    Logging In and Out from a Remote Computer     108

User Accounts     109

Reading Documentation     111

    Using Man Pages     111

    Using apropros     112

    Using whereis     112

Understanding the Linux File System Hierarchy     112

    Essential Commands in /bin and /sbin     114

    Configuration Files in /etc     114

    User Directories: /home     115

    Using the Contents of the /proc Directory to Interact with or Obtain Information from the Kernel     115

    Working with Shared Data in the /usr Directory     117

    Temporary File Storage in the /tmp Directory     117

    Accessing Variable Data Files in the /var Directory     117

Navigating the Linux File System     117

    Listing the Contents of a Directory with ls     118

    Changing Directories with cd     120

    Finding Your Current Directory with pwd     120

Working with Permissions     120

    Assigning Permissions     121

    Directory Permissions     122

    Altering File Permissions with chmod     123

    File Permissions with umask     124

    File Permissions with chgrp     125

    Changing File Permissions with chown     125

    Understanding Set User ID, Set Group ID, and Sticky Bit Permissions     125

    Setting Permissions with Access Control Lists     127

Working with Files     128

    Creating a File with touch     128

    Creating a Directory with mkdir     129

    Deleting a Directory with rmdir     129

    Deleting a File or Directory with rm     130

    Moving or Renaming a File with mv     131

    Copying a File with cp     131

    Displaying the Contents of a File with cat     132

    Displaying the Contents of a File with less     132

    Using Wildcards and Regular Expressions     133

Working as Root     133

    Understanding and Fixing sudo     134

    Creating Users     136

    Deleting Users     137

    Shutting Down the System     137

    Rebooting the System     138

Commonly Used Commands and Programs     139

Chapter 11  Command-Line Master Class, Part 1     141

Why Use the Command Line?     142

Using Basic Commands     143

    Printing the Contents of a File with cat     144

    Changing Directories with cd     145

    Changing File Access Permissions with chmod     147

    Copying Files with cp     147

    Printing Disk Usage with du     148

    Using echo     148

    Finding Files by Searching with find     149

    Searches for a String in Input with grep     151

    Paging Through Output with less     152

    Creating Links Between Files with ln     154

    Finding Files from an Index with locate     156

    Listing Files in the Current Directory with ls     156

    Listing System Information with lsblk, lshw, lsmod, lspci, and neofetch     158

    Reading Manual Pages with man     159

    Making Directories with mkdir     160

    Moving Files with mv     161

    Renaming Files with rename     161

    Deleting Files and Directories with rm     161

    Sorting the Contents of a File with sort     162

    Printing the Last Lines of a File with tail     163

    Printing the Location of a Command with which     164

    Downloading Files with wget     164

Chapter 12  Command-Line Master Class, Part 2     167

Redirecting Output and Input     167

stdin, stdout, stderr, and Redirection     169

Comparing Files     170

    Finding Differences in Files with diff     170

    Finding Similarities in Files with comm     170

Limiting Resource Use and Job Control     171

    Listing Processes with ps     171

    Listing Jobs with jobs     173

    Running One or More Tasks in the Background     173

    Moving Jobs to the Background or Foreground with bg and fg     174

    Printing Resource Usage with top     175

    Setting Process Priority with nice     177

Combining Commands     178

    Pipes     178

    Combining Commands with Boolean Operators     180

    Running Separate Commands in Sequence     180

    Process Substitution     181

Executing Jobs in Parallel     181

Using Environment Variables     182

Using Common Text Editors     185

    Working with nano     186

    Working with vi     187

    Working with emacs     188

    Working with sed and awk     189

Working with Compressed Files     191

Using Multiple Terminals with byobu192

Doing a Polite System Reset Using REISUB     194

Fixing an Ubuntu System That Will Not Boot     195

    Checking BIOS     195

    Checking GRUB     195

    Reinstalling GRUB     195

    Using Recovery Mode     196

    Reinstalling Ubuntu     196

Tips and Tricks     196

    Running the Previous Command     196

    Running Any Previous Command     197

    Running a Previous Command That Started with Specific Letters     197

    Running the Same Thing You Just Ran with a Different First Word     197

    Viewing Your History and More     197

    Doing Two or More Things     198

    Using Shortcuts     198

    Confining a Script to a Directory     198

    Using Coreutils     199

    Reading the Contents of the Kernel Ring Buffer with dmesg     200

Chapter 13  Managing Users     201

User Accounts     201

    The Super User/Root User     202

    User IDs and Group IDs     204

    File Permissions     204

Managing Groups     205

    Group Listing     205

    Group Management Tools     206

Managing Users     207

    User Management Tools     208

    Adding New Users     209

    Monitoring User Activity on the System     211

Managing Passwords     212

    System Password Policy     212

    The Password File     212

    Shadow Passwords     214

    Managing Password Security for Users     216

    Changing Passwords in a Batch     216

Granting System Administrator Privileges to Regular Users     217

    Temporarily Changing User Identity with the su Command     217

    Granting Root Privileges on Occasion: The sudo Command     219

Disk Quotas     222

    Implementing Quotas     222

    Manually Configuring Quotas     223

Related Ubuntu Commands     223

Chapter 14  Automating Tasks and Shell Scripting     225

What Is a Shell?     225

Scheduling Tasks     226

    Using at and batch to Schedule Tasks for Later     227

    Using cron to Run Jobs Repeatedly     229

    Using rtcwake to Wake Your Computer from Sleep Automatically     231

Basic Shell Control     233

    The Shell Command Line     233

    Shell Pattern-Matching Support     235

    Redirecting Input and Output     236

    Piping Data     237

    Background Processing     237

Writing and Executing a Shell Script     237

    Running the New Shell Program     239

    Storing Shell Scripts for System-wide Access     240

    Interpreting Shell Scripts Through Specific Shells     240

    Using Variables in Shell Scripts     242

    Assigning a Value to a Variable     242

    Accessing Variable Values     243

    Positional Parameters     243

    A Simple Example of a Positional Parameter     243

    Using Positional Parameters to Access and Retrieve Variables from the Command Line     244

    Using a Simple Script to Automate Tasks     244

    Built-in Variables     246

    Special Characters     247

    Comparison of Expressions in pdksh and bash     250

    Comparing Expressions with tcsh     255

    The for Statement     259

    The while Statement     261

    The until Statement     263

    The repeat Statement (tcsh)     263

    The select Statement (pdksh)     264

    The shift Statement     264

    The if Statement     265

    The expr Statement     266

    The case Statement     267

    The break and exit Statements     269

    Using Functions in Shell Scripts     269

Chapter 15  The Boot Process     271

Running Services at Boot     271

Beginning the Boot Loading Process     272

Loading the Linux Kernel     274

Starting and Stopping Services with systemd     275

    Controlling Services at Boot with Administrative Tools     278

    Troubleshooting Runlevel Problems     278

Boot-Repair     278

Chapter 16  System-Monitoring Tools     281

Console-Based Monitoring     281

    Using the kill Command to Control Processes     283

    Using Priority Scheduling and Control     285

    Displaying Free and Used Memory with free     286

    Disk Space     286

    Disk Quotas     287

    Checking Log Files     287

    Rotating Log Files     289

Graphical Process- and System-Management Tools     292

    System Monitor     292

    Conky     292

    Other Graphical Process- and System-Monitoring Tools     297

KDE Process- and System-Monitoring Tools     298

Enterprise Server Monitoring     298

Chapter 17  Backing Up     301

Choosing a Backup Strategy     301

    Why Data Loss Occurs     302

    Assessing Your Backup Needs and Resources     303

    Evaluating Backup Strategies     304

    Making the Choice     308

Choosing Backup Hardware and Media     308

    External Hard Drive     308

    Network Storage     308

    Tape Drive Backups     309

    Cloud Storage     309

Using Backup Software     309

    tar: The Most Basic Backup Tool     310

    The GNOME File Roller     312

    The KDE ark Archiving Tool     312

    Déjà Dup     313

    Back In Time     314

    Unison     315

    Amanda     315

    Alternative Backup Software     316

Copying Files     316

    Copying Files Using tar     317

    Compressing, Encrypting, and Sending tar Streams     318

    Copying Files Using cp     318

    Using rsync     319

Version Control for Configuration Files     320

System Rescue     323

    The Ubuntu Rescue Disc     323

    Restoring the GRUB2 Boot Loader     323

    Saving Files from a Nonbooting Hard Drive     324

Chapter 18  Networking     325

Laying the Foundation: The localhost Interface     326

    Checking for the Availability of the Loopback Interface     326

    Configuring the Loopback Interface Manually     327

Checking Connections with ping, traceroute, and mtr     328

Networking with TCP/IP     330

    TCP/IP Addressing     331

    Using IP Masquerading in Ubuntu     332

    Ports     333

IPv6 Basics     334

Network Organization     337

    Subnetting     337

    Subnet Masks     337

    Broadcast, Unicast, and Multicast Addressing     338

Hardware Devices for Networking     338

    Network Interface Cards     338

    Network Cable     340

    Hubs and Switches     342

    Routers and Bridges     343

    Initializing New Network Hardware     343

Using Network Configuration Tools     345

    Command-Line Network Interface Configuration     346

    Network Configuration Files     350

    Using Graphical Configuration Tools     355

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol     355

    How DHCP Works     356

    Activating DHCP at Installation and Boot Time     357

    DHCP Software Installation and Configuration     358

    Using DHCP to Configure Network Hosts     359

    Other Uses for DHCP     361

Wireless Networking     361

    Support for Wireless Networking in Ubuntu     361

    Choosing from Among Available Wireless Protocols     363

Beyond the Network and onto the Internet     363

Common Configuration Information     364

    Configuring Digital Subscriber Line Access     365

    Understanding PPP over Ethernet     366

    Configuring a PPPoE Connection Manually     366

    Configuring Dial-up Internet Access     367

    Troubleshooting Connection Problems     368

Chapter 19  Remote Access with SSH and VNC     371

Setting Up an SSH Server     371

SSH Tools     372

    Using scp to Copy Individual Files Between Machines     372

    Using sftp to Copy Many Files Between Machines     373

    Using ssh-keygen to Enable Key-Based Logins     373

Virtual Network Computing     375

Guacamole     377

Chapter 20  Securing Your Machines     379

Understanding Computer Attacks     379

Assessing Your Vulnerability     381

Protecting Your Machine     382

    Securing a Wireless Network     382

    Passwords and Physical Security     383

    Configuring and Using Tripwire     384

    Securing Devices     385

Viruses     385

Configuring Your Firewall     386

AppArmor     388

Forming a Disaster Recovery Plan     390

Chapter 21  Performance Tuning     393

Storage Disk     394

    Linux File Systems     394

    The hdparm Command     395

    File System Tuning     396

    The tune2fs Command     396

    The e2fsck Command     397

    The badblocks Command     397

    Disabling File Access Time     397

Kernel     398

Tuned     399

Chapter 22  Kernel and Module Management     401

The Linux Kernel     402

    The Linux Source Tree     403

    Types of Kernels     405

Managing Modules     406

When to Recompile     408

Kernel Versions     409

Obtaining the Kernel Sources     409

Patching the Kernel     410

Compiling the Kernel     412

    Using xconfig to Configure the Kernel     414

    Creating an Initial RAM Disk Image     418

When Something Goes Wrong     418

    Errors During Compile     418

    Runtime Errors, Boot Loader Problems, and Kernel Oops     419


Chapter 23  Sharing Files and Printers     421

Using Network File System     422

    Installing and Starting or Stopping NFS     422

    NFS Server Configuration     422

    NFS Client Configuration     423

Putting Samba to Work     424

    Manually Configuring Samba with /etc/samba/smb conf     426

    Testing Samba with the testparm Command     429

    Starting, Stopping, and Restarting the smbd Daemon     429

    Mounting Samba Shares     430

Network and Remote Printing with Ubuntu     431

    Creating Network Printers     431

    Using the CUPS GUI     433

    Avoiding Printer Support Problems     434

Chapter 24  Common Web Server Stacks     437

LAMP     437

LEMP     439

MEAN     440

Chapter 25  Apache Web Server Management     443

About the Apache Web Server     443

Installing the Apache Server     444

    Starting and Stopping Apache     444

Runtime Server Configuration Settings     446

    Runtime Configuration Directives     446

    Editing apache2 conf     447

    Apache Multiprocessing Modules     449

    Using htaccess Configuration Files     450

File System Authentication and Access Control     452

    Restricting Access with Require     452

    Authentication     453

    Final Words on Access Control     455

Apache Modules     455

    mod_access     456

    mod_alias     456

    mod_asis     456

    mod_auth     457

    mod_auth_anon     457

    mod_auth_dbm     457

    mod_auth_digest     457

    mod_autoindex4     58

    mod_cgi     458

    mod_dir and mod_env     458

    mod_expires     458

    mod_headers     458

    mod_include     459

    mod_info and mod_log_config     459

    mod_mime and mod_mime_magic     459

    mod_negotiation     459

    mod_rewrite     459

    mod_setenvif     460

    mod_speling     460

    mod_status     460

    mod_ssl     460

    mod_unique_id     460

    mod_userdir     460

    mod_usertrack     460

    mod_vhost_alias     460

Virtual Hosting     461

    Address-Based Virtual Hosts     461

    Name-Based Virtual Hosts     461

Logging     463

HTTPS     464

Chapter 26  Nginx Web Server Management     467

About the Nginx Web Server     467

Installing the Nginx Server     469

    Installing from the Ubuntu Repositories     469

    Building the Source Yourself     469

Configuring the Nginx Server     470

Virtual Hosting     473

Setting Up PHP     474

Adding and Configuring Modules     475

HTTPS     476

Chapter 27  Other HTTP Servers     479

Lighttpd     479

Yaws     480

Cherokee     480

Jetty     481

thttpd     481

Apache Tomcat     482

WildFly     482

Caddy     482

Chapter 28  Administering Relational Database Services     483

A Brief Review of Database Basics     484

    How Relational Databases Work     486

    Understanding SQL Basics     487

    Creating Tables     488

    Inserting Data into Tables     489

    Retrieving Data from a Database     490

Choosing a Database: MySQL Versus PostgreSQL     492

    Speed     492

    Data Locking     492

    ACID Compliance in Transaction Processing to Protect Data Integrity     493

    SQL Subqueries     494

    Procedural Languages and Triggers     494

Configuring MySQL     494

    Setting a Password for the MySQL Root User     495

    Creating a Database in MySQL     496

Configuring PostgreSQL     498

    Initializing the Data Directory in PostgreSQL     498

    Creating a Database in PostgreSQL     499

    Creating Database Users in PostgreSQL     499

    Deleting Database Users in PostgreSQL     500

    Granting and Revoking Privileges in PostgreSQL     500

Database Clients     501

    SSH Access to a Database     501

    Local GUI Client Access to a Database     503

    Web Access to a Database     503

    The MySQL Command-Line Client     504

    The PostgreSQL Command-Line Client     505

    Graphical Clients     506

Chapter 29  NoSQL Databases     509

Key/Value Stores     512

    Berkeley DB     512

    Cassandra     513

    etcd     513

    Memcached and MemcacheDB     513

    Redis     514

    Riak     514

    Scylla     514

Document Stores     514

    CouchDB     515

    MongoDB     516

    BaseX     517

Wide Column Stores     517

    BigTable     517

    HBase     518

Graph Stores     518

    Neo4j     518

    OrientDB     519

    HyperGraphDB     519

    FlockDB     519

Chapter 30  Virtualization on Ubuntu     521

KVM     523

VirtualBox     527

VMware     528

Xen     528

Chapter 31  Containers and Ubuntu     531

LXC and LXD     532

Docker     533

Kubernetes     534

Chapter 32  Ubuntu and Cloud Computing     535

Why a Cloud?     536

    Software as a Service (SaaS)     537

    Platform as a Service (PaaS)     537

    Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)     537

    Metal as a Service (MaaS)     537

    Things to Consider Before You Make Any Decisions     538

Ubuntu on the Public Cloud     538

    OpenStack     538

    Amazon Web Services     539

    Google Cloud     539

    Microsoft Azure     539

    Hybrid Clouds     539

Canonical-Specific Cloud Offerings     540

    Juju     540

    Mojo: Continuous Delivery for Juju     541

    Landscape     541

Chapter 33  Managing Sets of Servers     543

Puppet     543

Chef     544

Ansible     544

SaltStack     544

CFEngine     545

Juju     545

Landscape     545

Chapter 34  Handling Email     547

How Email Is Sent and Received     547

    The Mail Transport Agent     548

    Choosing an MTA     550

    The Mail Delivery Agent     550

    The Mail User Agent     551

Basic Postfix Configuration and Operation     552

    Configuring Masquerading     554

    Using Smart Hosts     554

    Setting Message Delivery Intervals     555

    Mail Relaying     555

    Forwarding Email with Aliases     556

Using Fetchmail to Retrieve Mail     557

    Installing Fetchmail     557

    Configuring Fetchmail     557

Choosing a Mail Delivery Agent     560

    Procmail     561

    Spamassassin     561

    Squirrelmail     561

    Virus Scanners     562

    Autoresponders     562

Chapter 35  Proxying, Reverse Proxying, and Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)     563

What Is a Proxy Server?     563

Installing Squid     564

Configuring Clients     564

Access Control Lists     565

Specifying Client IP Addresses     569

Sample Configurations     570

Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)     572

    Setting Up a VPN Client     573

    Setting Up a VPN Server     575

Chapter 36  Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)     579

Configuring the Server     580

    Creating Your Schema     580

    Populating Your Directory     582

Configuring Clients     584

LDAP Administration     584

Chapter 37  Name Serving with the Domain Name System (DNS)     587

Understanding Domain Names     588

    DNS Servers     589

    DNS Records     590

Setting Up a DNS Server with BIND     593


Chapter 38  Using Programming Tools     597

Programming in C with Linux     598

Using the C Programming Project Management Tools Provided with Ubuntu     599

    Building Programs with make     599

    Using the autoconf Utility to Configure Code     601

    Debugging Tools     602

Using the GNU C Compiler     603

Programming in Java with Linux     604

Graphical Development Tools     605

    IDEs and SDKs     605

    Using the KDevelop Client     606

    The Glade Client for Developing in GNOME     607

Beginning Mobile Development for Android     607

    Hardware     608

    Linux Kernel     608

    Libraries     608

    Android Runtime     608

    Application Framework     608

    Applications     609

    Installing Android Studio     609

    Creating Your First Android Application     609

Version Control Systems     609

    Managing Software Projects with Git     610

    Managing Software Projects with Bazaar     611

    Managing Software Projects with Subversion     612

Continuous Integration and Continuous Delivery and DevOps Tools     613

    CI/CD Tools     614

    Chaos Engineering     614

Canonical-created Tools     614

    Launchpad     614

    Ubuntu Make     615

    Creating Snap Packages     615

    Bikeshed and Other Tools     616

Chapter 39  Using Popular Programming Languages     621

Ada     622

Clojure     622

COBOL     623

D     624

Dart     624

Elixir     625

Elm     625

Erlang     625

Forth     626

Fortran     626

Go     626

Groovy     627

Haskell     627

Java     627

JavaScript     628

Kotlin     628

Lisp     629

Lua     629

Mono     629

OCaml     630

Perl     630

PHP     631

Python     631

Raku     631

Ruby     631

Rust     632

Scala     632

Scratch     632

Vala     633

Chapter 40  Helping with Ubuntu Development     635

Introduction to Ubuntu Development     636

Setting Up Your Development System     637

    Install Basic Packages and Configure     637

    Creating a Launchpad Account     638

    Setting Up Your Environment to Work with Launchpad     638

Fixing Bugs and Packaging     640

Chapter 41  Helping with Ubuntu Testing and QA     645

Community Teams     645

    Ubuntu Testing Team     646

    Ubuntu QA Team     646

Bug Squad     647

References     647

Index     649


Chapter 42  Using Perl (Online)     Web:1

Using Perl with Linux     Web:1

    Perl Versions      Web:2

    A Simple Perl Program     Web:2

Perl Variables and Data Structures     Web:4

    Perl Variable Types     Web:4

    Special Variables     Web:5

Perl Operators     Web:6

    Comparison Operators     Web:6

    Compound Operators     Web:7

    Arithmetic Operators     Web:7

    Other Operators     Web:8

    Special String Constants     Web:8

Conditional Statements: if/else and unless     Web:9

    If     Web:9

    unless     Web:9

Looping     Web:10

    for     Web:10

    foreach     Web:10

    while     Web:11

    until     Web:11

    last and next     Web:12

    do while and do until     Web:12

Regular Expressions     Web:12

Access to the Shell     Web:13

Modules and CPAN     Web:14

Code Examples     Web:15

    Sending Mail     Web:15

    Purging Logs     Web:17

    Posting to Usenet     Web:18

    One-Liners     Web:19

    Command-Line Processing     Web:19

Chapter 43  Using Python (Online)     Web:21

Python on Linux     Web:22

The Basics of Python     Web:23

    Numbers     Web:23

    More on Strings     Web:24

    Lists     Web:27

    Dictionaries     Web:30

    Conditionals and Looping     Web:30

Functions     Web:33

Object Orientation     Web:34

    Class and Object Variables     Web:34

    Constructors and Destructors     Web:35

    Class Inheritance     Web:36

The Standard Library and the Python Package Index     Web:38

Chapter 44  Using PHP (Online)     Web:39

Introduction to PHP     Web:39

    Entering and Exiting PHP Mode     Web:40

    Variables     Web:40

    Arrays     Web:42

    Constants     Web:43

    References     Web:44

    Comments     Web:44

    Escape Sequences     Web:45

    Variable SubstitutionWeb:46

    Operators     Web:46

    Conditional Statements     Web:48

    Special Operators     Web:50

    Switching     Web:51

    Loops     Web:52

    Including Other Files     Web:54

Basic Functions     Web:55

    Strings     Web:55

    Arrays     Web:58

    Files     Web:60

    Miscellaneous     Web:63

Handling HTML Forms     Web:66

Databases     Web:67

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