Understanding the American Promise, Combined Volume : A Brief History of the United States

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  • Edition: Combined
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2011-07-07
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's

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In response to the ever-changing challenges of teaching the survey course, Understanding the American Promisecombines a newly abridged narrative with an innovative chapter architecture to focus students' attention on what's truly significant. Each chapter is fully designed to guide students' comprehension and foster their development of historical skills. Brief and affordable but still balanced in its coverage, this new textbook combines distinctive study aids, a bold new design, and lively art to give your students a clear pathway to what's important.

Author Biography

JAMES L. ROARK (Ph.D., Stanford University) is the Samuel Candler Dobbs Professor of History at Emory University. He has written and edited four books, including, with Michael P. Johnson, Black Masters: A Free Family of Color in the Old South (1984).
MICHAEL P. JOHNSON (Ph.D., Stanford University) is a professor of history at the Johns Hopkins University. He has written or edited six books, including No Chariot Let Down: Charleston's Free People of Color on the Eve of the Civil War (1984) and Reading the American Past.
PATRICIA CLINE COHEN (Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley) is professor of history at the University of California at Santa Barbara. She has written three books including The Murder of Helen Jewett: The Life and Death of a Prostitute in Nineteenth-Century New York (1998).
SARAH STAGE (Ph.D., Yale University) is professor of women's studies at Arizona State University West. She has written three books, including Rethinking Women and Home Economics in the Twentieth Century (1997).
ALAN LAWSON (Ph.D., University of Michigan) is professor of history at Boston College. He has written or edited three books, including From Revolution to Republic (1976).
SUSAN M. HARTMANN (Ph.D., University of Missouri) is professor of history at The Ohio State University. She has written five books, including The Other Feminists: Activists in the Liberal Establishments (1998).

Table of Contents

Chapter 1
Understanding Ancient America before 1492

What Is the Connection between Archaeology and History?
Who Were the First Americans?
     African and Asian Origins
     Paleo-Indian Hunters
How Did Archaic Americans Adapt to Changing Conditions
     Great Plains Bison Hunters
     Great Basin Cultures
     Pacific Coast Cultures
     Eastern Woodland Cultures
What Kinds of Settlements and Societies Did Native Americans Form?
     Southwestern Cultures
     Woodland Burial Mounds and Chiefdoms
How Were Native Societies Organized in the 1490s?
What Were the Characteristics of Mexica Culture?
Conclusion: How Do We Understand the Worlds of Ancient Americans?
Chapter 2
Encountering the New World 1492-1600

What Factors Led to European Expansion in the Fifteenth Century?
     Mediterranean Trade and European Expansion
     A Century of Portuguese Exploration
What Was the Impact of Spanish Exploration in the Western Atlantic?
     The Explorations of Columbus
     The Geographic Revolution and the Columbian Exchange
How Can We Characterize Spanish Exploration and Conquest?
     The Conquest of Mexico
     The Search for Other Mexicos
     New Spain in the Sixteenth Century
     The Toll of Spanish Conquest and Colonization
     Spanish Outposts in Florida and New Mexico
What Impact Did Exploration Have on Sixteenth-Century Europe?
     The Protestant Reformation and the European Order
     New World Treasure and Spanish Ambitions
     Europe and the Spanish Example
Conclusion: What was the Promise of the New World for Europeans?
Chapter 3
Founding the Southern Colonies 1601-1700

What Were the Challenges Faced by the Early English Colonists to the Chesapeake?
     The Protestant Reformation and the European Order
     New World Treasure and Spanish Ambitions
     Europe and the Spanish Example
How Did a Tobacco Society Form in the Southern Colonies?
     Tobacco Agriculture
     A Servant Labor System
     Cultivating Land and Faith
How and Why Did Chesapeake Society Change in the Late Seventeenth Century?
     Social and Economic Polarization
     Government Policies and Political Conflict
     Bacon's Rebellion
What Role Did Religion Play in Creating Tensions in the Spanish Borderland?
When and Why Did the Americas Move Toward a Slave Labor System?
     The West Indies: Sugar and Slavery
     Carolina: A West Indian Frontier
     Slave Labor Emerges in the Chesapeake
Conclusion: What Was the Significance of Export Crops and Slave Labor in the Growth of the English Colonies?
Global Comparison: Migration to the New World from Europe and Africa, 1492-1700
Chapter 4
Establishing the Northern Colonies 1601-1700
Why Did the English Reformation Give Rise to the Puritans?
What Was Distinctive About the Puritan Settlement of New England?
     The Pilgrims and Plymouth Colony
     The Founding of Massachusetts Bay Colony
How Did New England Society Evolve in the Seventeenth Century?
     Church, Covenant, and Conformity
     Government by Puritans for Puritanism
     The Splintering of Puritanism
     Religious Controversies and Economic Changes
How Did Settlement Vary in the Middle Colonies?
     From New Netherland to New York
     New Jersey and Pennsylvania
     Toleration and Diversity in Pennsylvania
What Was the Relationship between the American Colonies and the English Empire?
     Royal Regulation of Colonial Trade
     King Philip's War and the Consolidation of Royal Authority
Conclusion: Was There a Single English Model of Colonization in North America?
Chapter 5
The Changing World of Colonial America 1701-1770

How and Why Did British North America Change in the Eighteenth Century?
What Were the Changes in New England Life and Culture?
     Natural Increase and Land Distribution
     Farms, Fish, and Atlantic Trade
How Were the Middle Colonies Distinctive?
    German and Scots-Irish Immigrants
    Pennsylvania: “The Best Poor [White] Man's Country”
How did Slavery Become the Defining Feature of the Southern Colonies?
     The Atlantic Slave Trade and the Growth of Slavery
     Slave Labor and African American Culture
     Tobacco, Rice, and Prosperity
What Were the Unifying Experiences for British American Colonists?
     Commerce and Consumption
     Religion, Enlightenment, and Revival
     Borderlands and Colonial Politics in the British Empire
Conclusion: How Did Most British North American Colonists Understand Themselves?
Global Comparison: Large Warships in European Navies, 1660-1760
Chapter 6
The Making of an American Revolution 1754-1775

How Did the Seven Years' War Lay the Groundwork for Colonial Crisis?
     French-British Rivalry in the Ohio Country
     The Albany Congress and Intercolonial Defense
     The War and Its Consequences
     British Leadership, Pontiac's Uprising, and the Proclamation of 1763
     Grenville's Sugar Act
     The Stamp Act
     Resistance Strategies and Crowd Politics
     Liberty and Property
Why Did the American Colonists Oppose the Sugar and Stamp Acts?
     British Leadership, Pontiac's Uprising, and the Proclamation of 1763
     Grenville's Sugar Act
     The Stamp Act
     Resistance Strategies and Crowd Politics
     Liberty and Property
     The Townshend Duties
     Nonconsumption and the Daughters of Liberty
     Military Occupation and “Massacre” in Boston
Which Were the Colonial Reponses to the Townshend Duties?
     The Townshend Duties
     Nonconsumption and the Daughters of Liberty
     Military Occupation and “Massacre” in Boston
What Led to the Escalation of Tensions after 1772?
     The Calm before the Storm
     Tea in Boston Harbor
     The Coercive Acts
     Beyond Boston: Rural Massachusetts
     The First Continental Congress
What Were the Varieties of Domestic Insurrections in 1774-1775?
     Lexington and Concord
     Rebelling against Slavery
Conclusion: What Changes Did Americans Want in 1775?
Chapter 7
Forming the New Nation 1789-1800
Why Did the Americans Declare Their Independence?
     Assuming Political and Military Authority
     Pursuing Both War and Peace
     Thomas Paine, Abigail Adams, and the Case for Independence
     The Declaration of Independence
What Initial Challenges Did the Opposing Armies Face?
     The American Military Forces
     The British Strategy
     Quebec, New York, and New Jersey
What Role Did the Home Front Play in the War?
     Patriotism at the Local Level
     The Loyalists
     Who Is a Traitor?
     Financial Instability and Corruption
How Did Native Americans and the French Impact the American Revolution?
     Burgoyne's Army and the Battle of Saratoga
     The War in the West: Indian Country
     The French Alliance
How Did the Southern Strategy Lead to the End of the War?
     Georgia and South Carolina
     Guerrilla Warfare in the South
     Surrender at Yorktown
     The Losers and the Winners
Conclusion: Why Did the British Lose the American Revolution?
Global Comparison: How Tall Were Eighteenth-Century Men on Average?
Chapter 8
Building a Republic 1775-1789

What Kind of Government Did the Articles of Confederation Create?
     Congress, Confederation, and the Problem of Western Lands
     Running the New Government
How Did the States Define Freedom and Citizenship?
     The State Constitutions
     Who Are “the People”?
     Equality and Slavery
Why Were the Articles of Confederation Unequal to the Challenges of the 1780s?
     Financial Chaos and Paper Money
     The Treaty of Fort Stanwix
     Land Ordinances and the Northwest Territory
     Shays's Rebellion, 1786-1787
How Did the United States Constitution Increase Federal Power?
     From Annapolis to Philadelphia
     The Virginia and New Jersey Plans
     Democracy versus Republicanism
What Were the Obstacles to Ratification of the Constitution?
     The Federalists
     The Antifederalists
     The Big Holdouts: Virginia and New York
Conclusion: The “Republican Remedy”
Chapter 9
The New Nation Takes Form 1789-1800

What Were the Sources of Political Stability in Federalist America?
     Washington Inaugurates the Government
     The Bill of Rights
     The Republican Wife and Mother
What Was Hamilton's Plan to Solidify the Government's Fiscal Position?
     Agriculture, Transportation, and Banking
     The Public Debt and Taxes
     The First Bank of the United States and the Report on Manufactures
     The Whiskey Rebellion
What External Threats Did the United States Face in the 1790s?
     To the West: The Indians
     Across the Atlantic: France and Britain
     To the South: The Haitian Revolution
How Did Partisan Rivalries Shape the Politics of the Late 1790s?
     The Election of 1796
     The XYZ Affair
     The Alien and Sedition Acts
Conclusion: Why Did the New Nation Ultimately Form Political Parties?
Chapter 10
A Maturing Republic 1800-1824
How Did Thomas Jefferson Transform the Presidency?
     Turbulent Times: Election and Rebellion
     The Jeffersonian Vision of Republican Simplicity
     The Judiciary and the Midnight Judges
     The Promise of the West: The Louisiana Purchase and the Lewis and Clark Expedition
     Challenges Overseas: The Barbary Wars
     More Transatlantic Troubles: Impressment and Embargo
What Were the Challenges and Successes of the Madison Presidency?
     Women in Washington City
     Indian Troubles in the West
     The War of 1812
     Washington City Burns: The British Offensive
To What Extent Did Women's Status Change in the Early Republic?
     Women and the Law
     Women and Church Governance
     Female Education
Why Did Partisan Conflict Increase During the Administrations of Monroe and Adams?
     From Property to Democracy
     The Missouri Compromise
     The Monroe Doctrine
     The Election of 1824
     The Adams Administration
Conclusion: How Did Republican Simplicity Become Complex?
Chapter 11
The Expanding Republic 1815-1840
What Caused the Market Revolution?
     Improvements in Transportation
     Factories, Workingwomen, and Wage Labor
     Bankers and Lawyers
     Booms and Busts
What Changes in National Politics Were Reflected in the Election of 1828?
     Popular Politics and Partisan Identity
     The Election of 1828 and the Character Issue
     Jackson's Democratic Agenda
What Was Andrew Jackson's Impact on the Presidency?
     Indian Policy and the Trail of Tears
     The Tariff of Abominations and Nullification
     The Bank War and Economic Boom
How Did the Market Revolution Transform Social and Cultural Life?
     The Family and Separate Spheres
     The Education and Training of Youths
     The Second Great Awakening
     The Temperance Movement and the Campaign for Moral Reform
     Organizing against Slavery
Why Was Martin Van Buren a One-Term President?
     The Politics of Slavery
     The Election of 1836
     Two Panics and the Election of 1840
Conclusion: The Age of Jackson or the Era of Reform?
Global Comparison: Changing Trends in Age at First Marriage for Women
Chapter 12
The New West and Free North 1840-1860

What Factors Contributed to America's “Industrial Evolution”?
     Agriculture and Land Policy
     Manufacturing and Mechanization
     Railroads: Breaking the Bonds of Nature
Who Benefited the Most from America's Economic Growth?
     The Free-Labor Ideal: Freedom plus Labor
     Economic Inequality
     Immigrants and the Free-Labor Ladder
What Factors Spurred Westward Expansion?
     Manifest Destiny
     Oregon and the Overland Trail
     The Mormon Exodus
     The Mexican Borderlands
Why Did the United States Go to War with Mexico?
     The Politics of Expansion
     The Mexican-American War, 1846-1848
     Victory in Mexico
     Golden California
How Did Reform Efforts Change after 1840?
     The Pursuit of Perfection: Transcendentalists and Utopians
     Woman's Rights Activists
     Abolitionists and the American Ideal
Conclusion: What Were the Limits of the Ideology of Free Labor, Free Men?
Global Comparison: Nineteenth-Century School Enrollment and Literacy Rates
Chapter 13
Understanding the Slave South 1820-1860
Why and How Did the South Become So Different from the North?
     Cotton Kingdom, Slave Empire
     The South in Black and White
     The Plantation Economy
What Was Plantation Life Like for Masters and Mistresses?
     Plantation Masters
    Plantation Mistresses
What Was Plantation Life Like for Slaves?
     Family, Religion, and Community
     Resistance and Rebellion
What Place Did Free Blacks Occupy in Southern Society?
     Precarious Freedom
     Achievement despite Restrictions
How Did Non-slaveholding Southern Whites Work and Live?
     Plantation Belt Yeomen
     Upcountry Yeomen
     Poor Whites
     The Culture of the Plain Folk
How Did Slavery Shape Southern Politics?
     The Democratization of the Political Arena
     Planter Power
Conclusion: A Slave Society
Chapter 14
The House Divided 1846-1861

How Did the Mexican War Contribute to Sectional Tensions?
     The Wilmot Proviso and the Expansion of Slavery
     The Election of 1848
     Debate and Compromise
What Factors Helped Unravel the Balance between Slave and Free States?
     The Fugitive Slave Act
     Uncle Tom's Cabin
     The Kansas-Nebraska Act
How Did the Party System Change in the 1850s?
     The Old Parties: Whigs and Democrats
     The New Parties: Know-Nothings and Republicans
     The Election of 1856
Why Did Northern Fear of “Slave Power” Intensify in the 1850s?
     “Bleeding Kansas”
     The Dred Scott Decision
     Prairie Republican: Abraham Lincoln
     The Lincoln-Douglas Debates
Why Did Some Southern States to Secede after the Election of 1860?
     The Aftermath of John Brown's Raid
     Republican Victory in 1860
     Secession Winter
Conclusion: Why Did Political Compromise Fail?
Chapter 15
The Crucible of War 1861-1865

How Did the War Begin?
     Attack on Fort Sumter
     The Upper South Chooses Sides
What Were the Strengths and Weaknesses of the Combatants?
     How They Expected to Win
     Lincoln and Davis Mobilize
How Did Each Side Fare in the Early Years of the War?
     Stalemate in the Eastern Theater
     Union Victories in the Western Theater
     The Atlantic Theater
     International Diplomacy
Why Did the Fight to Save the Union Become a Fight for Black Freedom?
     From Slaves to Contraband
     From Contraband to Free People
     War of Black Liberation
What Problems Did the Confederacy Face at Home?
     Revolution from Above
     Hardship Below
     The Disintegration of Slavery
How Did the War Affect the North?
     The Government and the Economy
     Women and Work on the Home Front
     Politics and Dissent
How Did the Union Finally Win the War?
     Vicksburg and Gettysburg
     Grant Takes Command
     The Election of 1864
     The Confederacy Collapses
Conclusion: In What Ways was the Civil War a Second American Revolution?
Global Comparison: European Cotton Imports, 1860-1870
Chapter 16
Reconstructing a Nation 1863-1877
What Were Lincoln's Plans for Wartime Reconstruction?
     “To Bind Up the Nation's Wounds”
     Land and Labor
     The African American Quest for Autonomy
     What Vision Did Andrew Johnson Have for Presidential Reconstruction?
     Johnson's Program of Reconciliation
     White Southern Resistance and Black Codes
     Expansion of Federal Authority and Black Rights
How Radical Was Congressional Reconstruction?
     The Fourteenth Amendment and Escalating Violence
     Radical Reconstruction and Military Rule
     Impeaching a President
     The Fifteenth Amendment and Women's Demands
How Was the Battle Over Reconstruction Fought in the South?
     Freedmen, Yankees, and Yeomen
     Republican Rule
     White Landlords, Black Sharecroppers
Why Did Reconstruction Collapse?
     Grant's Troubled Presidency
     Northern Resolve Withers
     White Supremacy Triumphs
     An Election and a Compromise
Conclusion: Where Were the Achievements and Failures of Reconstruction?
Chapter 17
Contesting West 1870-1900

What Did the Conquest of the West Mean for Native Americans?
     Indian Removal and the Reservation System
     The Decimation of the Great Bison Herds and the Fight for the Black Hills
     The Dawes Act and Indian Land Allotment
    Indian Resistance and Survival
How Did Mining Motivate and Shape American Expansion in the West?
     Mining on the Comstock Lode
     Territorial Government
     The Diverse Peoples of the West
Who Controlled the Land and Resources of the American West?
     Moving West: Homesteaders and Speculators
     Ranchers and Cowboys
     Tenants, Sharecroppers, and Migrants
     Commercial Farming and Industrial Cowboys
Conclusion: Why Was the Mythic West So Enduring?
Chapter 18
Defining the Gilded Age of Business and Politics 1870-1895
How Did America's First Big Businesses Arise?
     Railroads: America's First Big Business
     Andrew Carnegie, Steel, and Vertical Integration
     John D. Rockefeller, Standard Oil, and the Trust
     New Inventions: The Telephone and Electricity
How Did Big Business Change at the End of the Nineteenth Century?
     J. P. Morgan and Finance Capitalism
     Social Darwinism, Laissez-Faire, and the Supreme Court
What Factors Influenced Political Life?
     Political Participation and Party Loyalty
     Sectionalism and the New South
     Gender, Race, and Politics
     Women's Activism
What Issues Shaped Presidential Politics in the 1870s and 1880s?
     Corruption and Party Strife
     Garfield's Assassination and Civil Service Reform
     Reform and Scandal: The Campaign of 1884
What Role did Economic Issues Play in the Politics of the 1880s and 1890s?
     The Tariff and the Politics of Protection
     Railroads, Trusts, and the Federal Government
     The Fight for Free Silver
     Panic and Depression
Conclusion: Why Was Business So Dominate in the Gilded Age?
Global Comparison: Railroad Track Mileage, 1890
Chapter 19
The Growth of American Cities 1870-1900
Why Did American Cities Grow So Fast in the Late Nineteenth Century?
     The Urban Explosion, a Global Migration
     Racism and the Cry for Immigration Restriction
     The Social Geography of the City
What Kinds of Work Did People Do in Industrial America?
     America's Diverse Workers
     The Family Economy: Women and Children
     White Collar Workers: Managers, ““Typewriters,” and Salesclerks
Why Steps Did Workers Take to Organize in the 1870s and 1880s?
     The Great Railroad Strike of 1877
     The Knights of Labor and the American Federation of Labor
     Haymarket and the Specter of Labor Radicalism
How Did Urban Industrialization Transform Home Life and Leisure?
     Domesticity and “Domestics”
     Cheap Amusements
How Did Cities Respond to the Challenges of Growth?
    Building Cities of Stone and Steel
     City Government and the “Bosses”
     White City or City of Sin?
Conclusion: Who Built the Cities?
Global Comparison: European Emigration, 1870-1890
Chapter 20
A Decade of Dissent, Depression, and War 1890-1900
Why Did Farmers Organize in the 1880s and 1890s?
     The Farmers' Alliance
     The Populist Movement
What Led to the “Labor Wars” of the 1890s?
     The Homestead Lockout
     The Cripple Creek Miners' Strike of 1894
     Eugene V. Debs and the Pullman Strike
How Did Women Get Involved in Late-Nineteenth Century Politics?
     Frances Willard and the Woman's Christian Temperance Union
     Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, and the Movement for Woman Suffrage
How Did Economic Problems Shape American Politics in the 1890s?
     Coxey's Army
     The People's Party and the Election of 1896
Why Did U.S. Foreign Police Change in the 1890s?
     Markets and Missionaries
     The Monroe Doctrine and the Open Door Policy
Why Did America Go To War With Spain in 1898?
     “A Splendid Little War”
     The Debate over American Imperialism
Conclusion: Rallying around the Flag
Chapter 21
Progressivism from the Grass Roots Up 1890-1916
How Did Grassroots Progressives Address the Problems of Industrial America?
     Civilizing the City
     Progressives and the Working Class
What Were the Foundations of Progressive Theory?
     Reform Darwinism and Social Engineering
     Progressive Government: City and State
How Did Theodore Roosevelt Advance the Progressive Agenda?
     The Square Deal
     Roosevelt the Reformer
     Roosevelt and Conservation
     The Big Stick
How Did Progressivism Fare During the Taft Administration?
     The Troubled Presidency of William Howard Taft
     Progressive Insurgency and the Election of 1912
How Did Woodrow Wilson Advance Progressivism?
     Wilson's Reforms: Tariff, Banking, and the Trusts
     Wilson, Reluctant Progressive
What Were the Limits of Progressive Reform?
     Radical Alternatives
     Progressivism for White Men Only
Conclusion: How Did the Liberal State Transform during the Progressive Era?
Chapter 22
The United States in World War I 1914-1920
What Characterized America's Foreign Policy under Woodrow Wilson?
     Taming the Americas
     The European Crisis
     The Ordeal of American Neutrality
     The United States Enters the War
What Role Did The United States Play in World War I?
     The Call to Arms
     The War in France
What Impact Did the War Have On the Home Front?
     The Progressive Stake in the War
     Women, War, and the Battle for Suffrage
     Rally around the Flag-or Else
What Part Did Woodrow Wilson Play in the Paris Peace Conference?
     Wilson's Fourteen Points
     The Paris Peace Conference
     The Fight for the Treaty
Why Was America's Transition from War to Peace So Turbulent?
     Economic Hardship and Labor Upheaval
     The Red Scare
     The Great Migrations of African Americans and Mexicans
     Postwar Politics and the Election of 1920
Conclusion: What Was the Domestic Cost of Victory?
Global Comparison: Casualties of the First World War
Chapter 23
From New Era to Great Depression 1920-1932

How Did Big Business Shape the New Era of the 1920s?
     A Business Government
     Promoting Prosperity and Peace Abroad
     Automobiles, Mass Production, and Assembly-Line Progress
     Consumer Culture
How Did the Culture of the 1920s Challenge Traditional Values and Practices?
     The New Woman
     The New Negro
     Mass Culture
     The Lost Generation
Why Did the Divide Between Rural and Urban America Grow in the 1920s?
     Rejecting the Undesirables
     The Rebirth of the Ku Klux Klan
     The Scopes Trial
     Al Smith and the Election of 1928
What Brought the Economic Growth of the 1920s to an End?
     Herbert Hoover: The Great Engineer
     The Distorted Economy
     The Crash of 1929
     Hoover and the Limits of Individualism
What Was Life Like in the Early Years of the Depression?
     The Human Toll
     Denial and Escape
     Working-Class Militancy
Conclusion: Why Did the Hope of the 1920s Turn to Despair?
Chapter 24
Forging the New Deal 1932-1939

How Did Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Democrats Win the 1932 Election?
     The Making of a Politician
     The Election of 1932
What Were the Goals and Achievements of the First New Deal?
     The New Dealers
     Banking and Finance Reform
     Relief and Conservation Programs
     Agricultural Initiatives
     Industrial Recovery
Who Opposed the New Deal and Why?
     Resistance to Business Reform
     Casualties in the Countryside
     Politics on the Fringes
How Did the Second Phase of the New Deal Differ from the First?
     Relief for the Unemployed
     Empowering Labor
     Social Security and Tax Reform
     Neglected Americans and the New Deal
Why Did Support for the New Deal Decline in the Late 1930s?
     The Election of 1936
     Court Packing
     Reaction and Recession
The Last of the New Deal Reforms
Conclusion: What Were the Achievements and Limitations of the New Deal?
Clobal Comparison: National Populations and Economies, circa 1938
Chapter 25
The United States and the Second World War 1939-1945

How Did America Respond to International Developments in the 1930s?
     Roosevelt and Reluctant Isolation
     The Good Neighbor Policy
     The Price of Noninvolvement
What Led to the Outbreak of War in Europe and the Pacific?
     Nazi Aggression and War in Europe
     From Neutrality to the Arsenal of Democracy
     Japan Attacks America
How Did the United States Prepare for War?
     Home-Front Security
     Building a Citizen Army
     Conversion to a War Economy
How Did the Allies Turn the Tide in Europe and the Pacific?
     Turning the Tide in the Pacific
     The Campaign in Europe
How Did the War Change Life for Americans on the Home Front?
     Women and Families, Guns and Butter
     The Double V Campaign
     Wartime Politics and the 1944 Election
     Reaction to the Holocaust
How Did the Allies Achieve Final Victory in World War II?
     From Bombing Raids to Berlin
     The Defeat of Japan
     Atomic Warfare
Conclusion: Why Did America Emerge as a Superpower at the End of the War?
Global Comparison: Weapons Production by the Axis and Allied Powers during World War II
Chapter 26
Cold War Politics in the Truman Years 1945-1953

What Led to the Cold War?
     The Cold War Begins
     The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan
     Building a National Security State
     Superpower Rivalry around the Globe
What Was Truman's Domestic Agenda?
     Reconverting to a Peacetime Economy
     Blacks and Mexican Americans Push for Their Civil Rights
     The Fair Deal Flounders
     The Domestic Chill: McCarthyism
What Led to the Korean War?
     Korea and the Military Implementation of Containment
     From Containment to Rollback to Containment
     Korea, Communism, and the 1952 Election
Conclusion: What Were the Costs and Consequences of the Cold War?
Chapter 27
The Politics and Culture of Abundance 1952-1960

What Approach Did Eisenhower Take to Domestic Issues?
     Modern Republicanism
     Termination and Relocation of Native Americans
     The 1956 Election and the Second Term
How Did Eisenhower's Foreign Policy Differ from Truman's?
     The “New Look” in Foreign Policy
     Applying Containment to Vietnam
     Interventions in Latin America and the Middle East
     The Nuclear Arms Race
What Accounts for the Prosperity of the 1950s?
     Technology Transforms Agriculture and Industry
     Burgeoning Suburbs and Declining Cities
     The Rise of the Sun Belt
     The Democratization of Higher Education
How Did Prosperity Affect American Culture?
     Consumption Rules the Day
     The Revival of Domesticity and Religion
     Television Transforms Culture and Politics
Countercurrents How Did African Americans Fight for Their Rights in the 1950s?
     African Americans Challenge the Supreme Court and the President
     Montgomery and Mass Protest
Conclusion: What Unmet Challenges Did Peace and Prosperity Mask?
Global Comparison: The Baby Boom in International Perspective
Chapter 28
Reform, Rebellion, and Reaction 1960-1974

What Reforms Were Enacted Under President Johnson?
     The Unrealized Promise of Kennedy's New Frontier
     Johnson Fulfills the Kennedy Promise
     Policymaking for a Great Society
     Assessing the Great Society
     The Judicial Revolution
How Did the Civil Rights Movement Evolve in the 1960s?
     The Flowering of the Black Freedom Struggle
     The Response in Washington
     Black Power and Urban Rebellions
What Movements Were Inspired By Black Activism?
     Native American Protest
     Latino Struggles for Justice
     Student Rebellion, the New Left, and the Counterculture
     Gay Men and Lesbians Organize
     A New Movement to Save the Environment
What Were Goals of the New Wave of Feminism?
     A Multifaceted Movement Emerges
     Feminist Gains Spark a Countermovement
How Did the Liberal Reform Agenda Fare Under President Nixon?
     Extending the Welfare State and Regulating the Economy
     Responding to Demands for Social Justice
Conclusion: What Were the Achievements and Limitations of Liberalism?
Chapter 29
Vietnam and the Limits of Power 1961-1975

How Did American Foreign Policy Change Under Kennedy?
     Meeting the “Hour of Maximum Danger”
     New Approaches to the Third World
     The Arms Race and the Nuclear Brink
     A Growing War in Vietnam
Why Did Johnson Escalate American Involvement in Vietnam?
     An All-Out Commitment in Vietnam
     Preventing Another Castro in Latin America
     The Americanized War
How Did the War in Vietnam Polarize the Nation?
     The Widening War at Home
     1968: Year of Upheaval
How Did American Foreign Policy Change Under Nixon?
     Moving toward Détente with the Soviet Union and China
     Shoring Up Anticommunism in the Third World
     Vietnam Becomes Nixon's War
     The Peace Accords and the Legacy of Defeat
Conclusion: Was Vietnam an Unwinnable War?
Chapter 30
The Conservative Turn 1969-1989

How Did the Nixon Presidency Contribute to the Rise of Conservatism?
     Emergence of a Grassroots Movement
     Nixon Courts the Right
Why Was the Watergate Scandal Significant?
     The Election of 1972
     The Ford Presidency and the 1976 Election
Why Did the “Outsider” Presidency of Jimmy Carter Fail to Gain Broad Support?
     Retreat from Liberalism
     Energy and Environmental Reform
     Promoting Human Rights Abroad
     The Cold War Intensifies
How Did the Reagan Administration Change the American Economy?
     Appealing to the New Right and Beyond
     Unleashing Free Enterprise
     Winners and Losers in a Flourishing Economy
What Strategies Did Liberals Use to Fight the Conservative Turn?
     Battles in the Courts and Congress
     Feminism on the Defensive
     The Gay and Lesbian Rights Movement
How Did Ronald Reagan's Views Shape His Foreign Policy?
     Militarization and Interventions Abroad
     The Iran-Contra Scandal
     A Thaw in Soviet-American Relations
Conclusion: What Was the Long-term Impact of the Conservative Turn?
Global Comparison: Energy Consumption per Capita, 1980
Chapter 31
Facing the Challenges of a Changing World Since 1989
How Did the World Change During the Presidency of George H. W. Bush?
Gridlock in Government
     Going to War in Central America and the Persian Gulf
     The End of the Cold War
     The 1992 Election
What Explains the Clinton Administration's Move to the Right?
     Clinton's Promise of Change
     The Clinton Administration Moves Right
     Impeaching the President
     The Booming Economy of the 1990s
How Did President Clinton Respond to the Challenges of Globalization?
     Defining America's Place in a New World Order
     Debates over Globalization
     The Internationalization of the United States
How Did President George W. Bush Change American Politics and Foreign  Policy?
     The Disputed Election of 2000
     The Domestic Policies of a “Compassionate Conservative”
     The Globalization of Terrorism
     Unilateralism, Preemption, and the Iraq War
Conclusion: How has the Government's Role at Home and Abroad Changed?
Global Comparison: Countries with the Highest Military Expenditures, 2005

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