9780820569994

Understanding Criminal Procedure: Investigation

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780820569994

  • ISBN10:

    0820569992

  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2005-11-01
  • Publisher: Lexis Nexis Matthew Bender

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Supplemental Materials

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Table of Contents

Preface v
Introduction to Criminal Procedure
The Relationship of ``Criminal Law'' to ``Criminal Procedure''
1(1)
Sources of Procedural Law
2(3)
Formal Sources
2(2)
Informal Sources: A Taste of Reality
4(1)
Stages of a Criminal Prosecution
5(9)
In General
5(1)
Investigatory Stage
5(1)
Search and Seizure
5(1)
Interrogation
6(1)
Identification Procedures
6(1)
Arrest
7(1)
Adjudicatory Stage
7(1)
Issuance of a Complaint
7(1)
Probable Cause (Gerstein) Hearing
7(1)
First Appearance Before the Magistrate
8(1)
Preliminary Hearings and Grand Jury Proceedings
9(1)
Arraignment
10(1)
Pretrial Motions
10(1)
Trial
11(1)
Sentencing and Post-Trial Proceedings
12(1)
Sentencing
12(1)
Appeal
12(1)
Collateral Attack of a Conviction: Habeas Corpus
13(1)
Studying Constitutional Law Cases
14(7)
Read Concurring and Dissenting Opinions
14(1)
Learn Case Names
15(1)
Count Votes
15(1)
Learn the Views of Individual Justices
16(1)
Be Sensitive to Supreme Court History
17(4)
Overarching Policy Issues in Criminal Procedure
Norms of the Criminal Process
21(2)
Alternative Models of Criminal Justice
23(3)
Overview
23(1)
Crime Control Model of Criminal Justice
24(1)
Due Process Model of Criminal Justice
24(2)
The Role of ``Truth'' In the Criminal Justice System
26(3)
Accusatorial versus Inquisitorial Systems of Justice
29(3)
Race, Gender, and Economic Class in the Law
32(2)
Who Should Devise the Rules of Criminal Procedure?
34(1)
Formulating the Rules of Criminal Procedure: Some Overarching Controversies
35(6)
Bright-Line Rules versus Case-by-Case Adjudication
35(3)
Subjectivity versus Objectivity: Rule-Making to Avoid Pretextual Conduct
38(3)
Incorporation of the Bill of Rights
Incorporation: Overview
41(2)
Nature of the Issue
41(1)
Importance of the Debate
42(1)
Incorporation Theories
43(2)
Full Incorporation
43(1)
Fundamental Rights
43(1)
Full-Incorporation-Plus
44(1)
Selective Incorporation
44(1)
The Incorporation Debate
45(3)
Overview of the Debate
45(1)
What Did the Framers Intend?
46(1)
Textual Claims: What Does ``Due Process'' Mean?
46(1)
Which Doctrine Is More Libertarian?
47(1)
Which Theory Is Structurally Preferable?
47(1)
Which Theory Has ``Won'' the Debate?
48(3)
Fourth Amendment: Overview
A Warning Before Beginning the Fourth Amendment Journey
51(1)
The Text and Some (Hopefully) Useful Initial Observations
52(2)
What Does the Fourth Amendment Seek to Protect?: A Brief Historical and Policy Overview
54(3)
Some Things to Know at the Outset
57(5)
Standing to Raise Fourth Amendment Claims
57(1)
Exclusionary Rule
58(1)
Pretrial Nature of Fourth Amendment Issues
58(1)
``Private'' Searches and Seizures
59(1)
Who Are ``the People'' Protected by the Fourth Amendment?
60(2)
Fourth Amendment Checklist
62(3)
Fourth Amendment: ``Persons, Houses, Papers, and Effects''
Significance of the Constitutional Phrase
65(1)
``Persons''
65(1)
``Houses''
66(1)
``Papers and Effects''
67(2)
Fourth Amendment Terminology: ``Search''
Why ``Search'' Law Matters
69(2)
Constitutional Significance of the Term ``Search''
69(1)
An Important Question for Further Consideration
70(1)
``Search'': Original Pre-Katz Analysis
71(1)
``Search'': The Modern Katz v. United States Analysis
72(8)
The Fall of the Trespass Doctrine
72(1)
Majority Opinion: In Search of a New Test
73(1)
Concurring Opinion: A New ``Search'' Test
74(1)
Analysis and Critique of the New Test
75(1)
Did We Need a New Test?
75(1)
Should We Have the Subjective Prong?
76(1)
The Objective Prong: What Precisely Is The Standard?
77(3)
Post-Katz ``Search'' Jurisprudence: An Overview
80(4)
What Has Katz Wrought?
80(1)
Trends and Counter-Trends
80(1)
Subjective Prong
81(1)
Objective Prong
82(1)
Lurking Issues Worth Keeping in Mind
83(1)
Surveillance of Conversations by ``False Friends''
84(4)
``False Friends'' versus Katz
84(1)
False Friends
85(2)
``Wired'' False Friends
87(1)
Open Fields
88(3)
Rule and Rationale
88(1)
``Open Field'' versus ``Curtilage''
89(1)
Criticism of the Open-Fields Doctrine
90(1)
Aerial Surveillance
91(3)
Rule
91(1)
Surveillance by Airplanes
91(2)
Surveillance by Helicopters
93(1)
Dog Sniffs and the Other ``Limited'' Investigative Techniques
94(3)
Technological Information Gathering
97(7)
In General
97(1)
Pen Registers
98(2)
Electronic Tracking Devices
100(2)
Thermal Imagers
102(2)
Inspection of Garbage
104(3)
Fourth Amendment Terminology: ``Seizure''
Constitutional Significance of the Term ``Seizure''
107(1)
Seizure of Property
107(2)
General Rule
107(1)
Special Issue: Installation of Electronic Devices on or in Personal Property
108(1)
Seizure of Persons
109(12)
Overview
109(1)
The Terry Definition
109(1)
The Mendenhall ``Reasonable Person'' Test
110(1)
In General
110(1)
Some Applications of the Test
111(1)
Seizure by Questioning?
111(1)
Factory Sweeps
112(1)
Bus Sweeps
113(2)
An Issue of Importance: The Nature of the ``Reasonable Person''
115(2)
Embellishment on the Terry-Mendehall Test: The Submission-by-Authority Problem
117(4)
Fourth Amendment: ``Probable Cause''
The Constitutional Role of ``Probable Cause''
121(1)
Probable Cause: General Principles
122(6)
``Probable Cause'': Definition
122(1)
``Probable Cause'': Objective versus Subjective
122(1)
``Probable Cause'': Arrests versus Searches
123(1)
``Probable Cause'': With or Without Warrants
124(1)
``Probable Cause'': Search for and Seize What?
124(2)
Special Issue: ``Probable Cause'' and Pretextual Police Conduct
126(2)
Determining ``Probable Cause'': Overview
128(3)
Types of Information: In General
128(1)
``Bald and Unilluminating'' Assertions
129(1)
Direct Information
129(1)
Hearsay (``Informant'') Information
130(1)
The Aguilar Two-Pronged Test
131(4)
In General
131(1)
Basis-of-Knowledge Prong
132(1)
In General
132(1)
``Self-Verifying Detail''
132(1)
Veracity Prong
133(2)
Corroboration
135(1)
The Gates ``Totality of the Circumstances'' Test
135(4)
The Test Explained
135(2)
Criticism of Gates
137(2)
Probable Cause in ``Administrative Searches'': The Reasonableness Standard and the Camara Principle
139(1)
How Probable Is ``Probable Cause''?
140(9)
Governing Law
140(2)
Reflections on the Issue
142(2)
``Probable Cause'' as a Sliding Scale?
144(1)
Is There a Sliding Scale?
144(2)
Should There Be a Sliding Scale?
146(3)
Arrests
``Arrest'': Overview
149(1)
Definition
149(1)
``Arrest'' versus ``Seizure''
149(1)
Arrests: Common Law and Statutory Arrest Rules
150(1)
Custodial Arrests for Minor Offenses
150(3)
Grounds for Arrest: ``Stop and Identify'' Statutes
153(1)
Arrest Warrants: Constitutional Law
154(9)
Overview
154(1)
General Rules
154(1)
How Arrest Warrant Issues Arise
155(1)
Arrest in a Public Place: The No-Warrant Rule
155(2)
Arrest in the Arrestee's Home: The Warrant-Requirement Rule
157(1)
In General
157(1)
Scope of the Rule
158(1)
``Home'' versus ``Public Place''
158(2)
Exigencies Justifying Warrantless Entry
160(1)
Hot Pursuit
160(1)
Other Exigencies
161(1)
Arrest in a Third Person's Home
161(2)
Beyond Warrants: Executing an Arrest
163(4)
Arrests in the Home: When and How Entry of the Residence Is Permitted
163(1)
Force in Making an Arrest
164(1)
Deadly Force
164(1)
Non-Deadly Force
165(2)
Search Warrants: In General
The Constitutional Role of Search Warrants: The Debate
167(8)
Nature and Significance of the Debate
167(2)
The Substance of the Debate
169(1)
Historical Debate
169(2)
Policy Debate
171(2)
Who Has ``Won'' the Debate?
173(2)
The Warrant Application Process
175(1)
Search Warrant Requirements
176(5)
``Neutral and Detached Magistrate''
176(1)
``Oath or Affirmation''
177(2)
``Particularity''
179(1)
In General
179(1)
``Place to be Searched''
179(1)
``Persons or Things to be Seized''
180(1)
Execution of Search Warrants
181(10)
In Anticipation of Execution
181(1)
Time of Execution
182(1)
Means of Entry
182(1)
Knock-and-Announce Rule
182(1)
Exceptions to Rule
183(1)
After the Knock: What Then?
184(1)
Search of Persons While Executing a Warrant
185(1)
In Premises Open to the Public
185(1)
In Private Homes and Automobiles
186(1)
Detention of Persons During Searches
187(2)
Scope of the Search
189(2)
Warrantless Searches: Exigent Circumstances
Exigency Exception: Explained
191(1)
Intrusions Inside the Human Body
192(2)
External Searches of the Body
194(1)
Entry and Search of a Home
194(3)
Searches Incident to Lawful Arrests
Warrant Exception: General Principles
197(2)
Rule
197(1)
Rationale of the Warrant Exception
197(1)
Probable Cause
198(1)
For the Search
198(1)
For the Seizure of Evidence
199(1)
The Times They Are A-Changin'
199(1)
Warrant Exception: In Detail
199(7)
The Arrest
199(1)
``Full Custodial''
199(2)
Lawfulness of the Arrest
201(1)
Contemporaneousness of the Search
201(1)
Area Within Arrestee's Immediate Control
201(1)
Closets and Other Spaces Adjoining the Place of Arrest
202(1)
Of the Person
202(1)
Scope of the Search
203(1)
Search of the Person
203(1)
Area Within the Arrestee's Immediate Control
204(1)
In General
204(1)
Automobiles
205(1)
Protective Searches for Dangerous Persons
206(1)
Chimel v. California: Setting the Rule's Contours
206(2)
United States v. Robinson: The Traffic Arrest Case
208(3)
The Holding
208(2)
Robinson versus Chimel
210(1)
A Bright-Line Rule for Automobiles
211(6)
New York v. Belton
211(2)
Thornton v. United States
213(1)
``Recent Occupants''
213(1)
A Possibility of Change
214(3)
Searches of Cars and Containers Therein
Automobile Search Warrant Exception: General Rules
217(4)
Important Overview
217(1)
Searches ``At the Scene''
218(1)
Searches ``Away From the Scene''
219(1)
Probable Cause Requirement
220(1)
Automobile Search Warrant Exception: The ``Mobility'' Rationale
221(4)
Carroll v. United States: True Mobility
221(1)
Chambers v. Maroney: A Controversial View of ``Mobility''
222(2)
Coolidge v. New Hampshire: Departing from Chambers
224(1)
Automobile Search Warrant Exception: Lesser Privacy, A New Rationale
225(3)
California v. Carney: The Mobility and Lesser-Expectation-of-Privacy Rationales at Work
228(1)
Special Problem: Search of Containers Found in Cars
229(12)
Clarification of the Issue
229(1)
In General
229(1)
What Is a ``Container''?
230(1)
General Rule
230(1)
How the Container Rules Developed
231(1)
United States v. Chadwick
231(3)
Arkansas v. Sanders
234(1)
United States v. Ross
235(2)
California v. Acevedo
237(2)
What Is Left of Chadwick?
239(2)
``Plain View'' and Related Doctrines
Plain View: General Principles
241(1)
Elements of the Doctrine
241(1)
Rationale of the Doctrine
241(1)
``Plain View'': Examining the Elements in Detail
242(2)
Element 1: Lawful Vantage Point
242(1)
Element 2: Right of Access to the Object
243(1)
Element 3: Right to Seize Is ``Immediately Apparent''
244(1)
The Plain View Doctrine at Work: Arizona v. Hicks
244(3)
``Inadvertent Discovery'': The Plain View Debate
247(2)
Expanding on Plain View: Use of Other Senses
249(2)
``Plain Hearing'' and ``Plain Smell'' Doctrines
249(1)
``Plain Touch'' (or ``Plain Feel'') Doctrine
249(2)
Inventory Searches
Automobile Inventories
251(7)
General Principles
251(2)
The Inventory Exception: In Detail
253(1)
Administrative Non-Pretextual Nature of the Search
253(2)
``Routine'' Nature of the Inventory
255(1)
In General
255(1)
Nondiscretionary Inventories
255(1)
Discretionary Inventories
256(1)
Automobile Owner's Wishes
256(1)
Scope of an Inventory
257(1)
Containers
257(1)
Locked Portions of the Automobile
257(1)
Inspection of the Papers
258(1)
Arrest Inventories
258(3)
Consent Searches
Preliminary Observations: Pragmatism, the Police, and the Supreme Court
261(2)
Consent Searches: General Principles
263(2)
General Rule
263(1)
Rationale for the Rule
263(1)
Waiver?
263(1)
No Reasonable Expectation of Privacy?
264(1)
Reasonableness?
264(1)
Voluntary Consent
265(6)
Voluntariness: In General
265(1)
Claim of Authority by the Police
266(1)
Police Deception
267(1)
Awareness of Fourth Amendment Rights
268(3)
Scope of Search
271(1)
Third Party Consent
272(2)
``Apparent Authority''
274(3)
Terry v. Ohio: The ``Reasonableness'' Balancing Standard in Criminal Investigations
Terry v. Ohio: An Overview to a Landmark Case
277(2)
Terry v. Ohio: The Opinion
279(5)
Majority Opinion
279(5)
Justice Harlan's Concurring Opinion
284(1)
``Reasonable Suspicion''
284(13)
In General
284(2)
Types of Information
286(1)
Overview
286(1)
Hearsay: When It Is and Is Not Sufficient
286(3)
Drug-Courier Profiles
289(3)
Flight in ``High Crime Areas''
292(2)
Reflections on the Role of Race and Other Suspect Classifications in Determining ``Reasonable Suspicion''
294(3)
Distinguishing a ``Terry Stop'' From an Arrest
297(5)
Overview to the Issue
297(1)
Length of the Detention
298(1)
Forcible Movement of the Suspect
299(1)
In General
299(1)
Special Problem: Removal from an Automobile After a Lawful Stop
299(2)
Existence of ``Less Intrusive Means''
301(1)
Grounds for ``Terry Stops''
302(2)
Crime Prevention versus Crime Detection
302(1)
Nature of the Crime
303(1)
Fingerprinting
303(1)
Weapons Searches: Of Persons
304(2)
Permissibility
304(1)
Method
304(1)
Pat-Down (Frisk)
304(1)
After the Pat-Down
305(1)
Extending Terry: Weapons Searches of Automobiles
306(1)
Extending Terry: Protective Sweeps of Residences
307(2)
Extending Terry: Temporary Seizures of Property
309(2)
More ``Reasonableness'' Balancing: Searches and Seizures Primarily Conducted for Non-Criminal Law Purposes
Overview
311(1)
Administrative Searches
312(3)
International Border Searches and Seizures
315(3)
At the Border
315(1)
Near the Border
316(1)
In General
316(1)
Roving Border Patrols
316(1)
Fixed Interior Checkpoints
317(1)
Automobile Inspections and Checkpoints
318(9)
Automobile License and Vehicle Registration Inspections
318(2)
Automobile Checkpoints
320(1)
Sobriety Checkpoints
320(2)
Anti-Drug, Anti-Crime, Anti-Terrorism (and Still Other) Checkpoints
322(5)
``Special Needs'' Searches and Seizures
327(16)
In General
327(1)
Searches of Personal Property and Premises
328(1)
Searches Directed at Public School Students
328(1)
Searches Directed at Public Employees
329(1)
Searches Directed at Probationers
330(1)
Drug and Alcohol Testing
331(1)
Fourth Amendment Factors in Evaluating Testing
331(1)
Approved Testing
332(1)
Public Employees
332(2)
Public School Students
334(4)
Disapproved Testing
338(5)
Fourth Amendment: Standing
The Role of ``Standing'' in Fourth Amendment Law
343(2)
In General
343(1)
Is ``Standing'' a Separate Concept?
344(1)
Rationale of the Standing Requirement
345(3)
The Law of Standing: Pre-Rakas v. Illinois
348(2)
In General
348(1)
Automatic Standing
349(1)
Standing to Contest a Search: Rakas v. Illinois
350(12)
The New Approach
350(3)
The Impact of Rakas: A Closer Look
353(1)
Search of Another Person's Residence
354(1)
When the Owner or Lessor Is Absent
354(1)
When the Owner or Lessor Is Present
354(3)
Search of One's Own Automobile When Absent
357(1)
Search of Another Person's Automobile
357(1)
When the Owner Is Absent
357(1)
When the Owner Is Present
358(1)
Contesting a Search Resulting in the Seizure of One's Own Property
359(3)
Standing to Contest a Seizure: Post-Rakas
362(3)
Fourth Amendment: Exclusionary Rule
Historical Development of the Fourth Amendment Exclusionary Rule
365(4)
Rights versus Remedies
365(1)
Federal Exclusionary Rule: Weeks v. United States
366(1)
Exclusionary Rule for the States?
366(1)
Step 1: Wolf v. Colorado
366(1)
Step 2: Rochin v. California and Its Progeny
367(1)
Step 3: Mapp v. Ohio
368(1)
Rationale of the Exclusionary Rule
369(2)
Is the Exclusionary Rule Constitutionally Required?
371(2)
Exclusionary Rule: Should It Be Abolished?
373(13)
Political and Historical Overview
373(1)
Is There Historical Foundation for the Exclusionary Rule?
374(1)
Does the Exclusionary Rule Deter Constitutional Violations?
375(4)
Is the Rule (Even If It Deters) Worth Its Cost?
379(1)
Should This Question Even Be Asked?
379(1)
The ``Costs''
380(1)
The Rule Protects the Wrong People
380(1)
The Rule Promotes Cynicism
381(2)
The Rule Results in Disproportionate Punishment
383(1)
Are There Better Remedies?
384(2)
When the Exclusionary Rule Does Not Apply: In General
386(3)
Non-Criminal Proceedings
386(1)
In General
386(1)
Habeas Corpus
386(1)
Criminal Proceedings
387(1)
Non-Trial Proceedings
387(1)
At a Criminal Trial
387(1)
``Good Faith'' Exception
387(1)
Impeachment Exception
388(1)
When the Exclusionary Rule Does Not Apply: The ``Good Faith'' Exception
389(7)
Rule
389(1)
In General
389(1)
``Good Faith''
390(1)
When Leon Does Not Apply
390(1)
In General
390(3)
Improperly Executed Warrants
393(1)
Why the Exception?: The Reasoning of Leon
393(3)
The Exclusionary Rule, Good Faith, and Warrantless Police Conduct
396(4)
Should Leon Extend to Warrantless Police Action?
396(1)
Arguments in Favor of Extending Leon
397(1)
Arguments Against Extending Leon
397(1)
Answering the Question: Post-Leon Law
398(2)
``Fruit of the Poisonous Tree'' Doctrine
400(11)
Conceptual Overview
400(1)
General Principles
400(1)
Identifying the Poisonous Tree
401(1)
Independent Source Doctrine
401(2)
Inevitable Discovery Rule
403(2)
Attenuated Connection Principle (The Wong Sun Rule)
405(1)
General Rule
405(1)
Attenuation Factors
405(1)
Temporal Proximity
405(1)
Intervening Events
406(1)
In General
406(1)
Intervening Act of Free Will
406(1)
Special Issue: Statement Obtained After an Unlawful Entry of a Home
407(1)
Flagrancy of the Violation
408(1)
Nature of the Derivative Evidence
408(3)
Interrogation Law: Overview
Reflections on Modern Interrogation Law
411(1)
Police Interrogation Techniques: Historically and at Present
412(2)
Interrogation Law: Constitutional Issues
414(3)
Was the Confession Obtained involuntarily (or by Coercion)?
415(1)
Due Process Clause
415(1)
Fifth Amendment Compulsory Self-Incrimination Clause
415(1)
Was the Confession Obtained in Violation of Miranda v. Arizona?
416(1)
Was the Defendant Entitled to Counsel?
417(1)
Sixth Amendment Right to Counsel
417(1)
``Miranda'' Right to Counsel
417(1)
Interrogation Law: An Overview to the Policy Debate
417(6)
Societal Ambivalence Regarding Confessions
417(1)
Why the Public Favors Confessions
418(1)
Why the Public Is Concerned About Confessions
418(1)
Has the Law Gone Far Enough or Too Far Regarding Confessions?
419(1)
Questions to Think About
420(3)
Interrogation Law: Due Process Clause
Historical Development
423(2)
Common Law
423(1)
Constitutional Law
424(1)
Due Process Clause: The Voluntariness Requirement
425(12)
General Principles
425(1)
Rule
425(1)
Rationale of the Voluntariness Requirement
426(1)
The Voluntariness Requirement in Greater Detail
427(1)
Critical Overview
427(3)
Some Reflections on the Use of Torture in the Post 9/11 World
430(2)
``Voluntariness'': Factors
432(1)
Actual or Threatened Use of Physical Force
432(2)
Psychological Pressures
434(1)
Promises of Leniency and Threats of Harsh Legal Treatment
434(2)
Deception
436(1)
Due Process Clause: Remedies for Violation of the Right
437(4)
Requirement of State Action (Official Overreaching)
437(1)
Standing to Raise an Involuntary Confession Claim
438(1)
Exclusionary Rule
439(1)
Constitutional Basis of the Exclusionary Rule
439(1)
Scope of the Exclusionary Rule
439(1)
Impeachment
439(1)
Fruit-of-the-Poisonous-Tree Doctrine
439(1)
Wrongful Admission of Statement at Trial
440(1)
Interrogation Law: Privilege Against Compelled Self-Incrimination
Fifth Amendment Self-Incrimination Clause: Overview
441(1)
The Origins of the Privilege Against Self-Incrimination
442(2)
Is the Privilege a Good Idea?: The Controversy
444(7)
In General
444(2)
The Modern Debate
446(1)
The ``Cruel Trilemma'' Thesis
446(1)
Compelled Self-Accusation As a Moral Wrong
447(1)
The Privilege as a Critical Component of the Adversary System
448(1)
Protection of the Innocent
449(2)
The Fifth Amendment Privilege: The Elements
451(8)
``No Person''
451(1)
``Shall Be Compelled''
452(1)
``In Any Criminal Case''
453(1)
``To Be a Witness Against Himself''
454(1)
What Makes a Person a ``Witness''
454(1)
``Testimonial or Communicative'' Evidence: The Rule
454(1)
Application of the Rule
455(1)
A Closer Look at the Rule: Pennsylvania v. Muniz
456(1)
Seriousness of the Threat of Incrimination
457(2)
Privilege Against Self-Incrimination in the Police Interrogation Context
459(8)
General Principles
459(1)
Original, Bright-Line Approach
459(1)
Modern Totality-of-Circumstances Test: Two Constitutional Provisions (and Standards) Become One
460(2)
Remedies for Violation of the Fifth Amendment Privilege
462(1)
Requirement of State Action
462(1)
Standing to Raise Claim
462(1)
Exclusionary Rule
463(1)
Constitutional Basis of the Exclusionary Rule
463(1)
Scope of the Exclusionary Rule
464(1)
Impeachment
464(1)
Fruit-of-the-Poisonous-Tree Doctrine
464(3)
Interrogation Law: Miranda v. Arizona
Miranda: A Brief Overview and Some Reflections
467(1)
Miranda: Placing the Case in Historical Context
468(2)
The Road to Miranda: Escobedo v. Illinois
470(2)
Miranda: The Case
472(6)
The Facts
472(1)
The Holding
472(1)
What Rights Does a Suspect Have in the Interrogation Room?
472(1)
Self-Incrimination
472(1)
Right to Counsel
473(1)
Procedural Safeguards: The ``Miranda Warnings''
474(1)
Waiver of a Suspect's ``Miranda Rights''
474(1)
In General
474(1)
Voluntariness of the Waiver
475(1)
Intelligence of the Waiver
475(1)
Enforcing the Rights
475(1)
Privilege Against Self-Incrimination
475(1)
Right to Counsel
475(1)
Reasoning of the Court
476(1)
Custodial Interrogation as ``Compulsion''
476(1)
The Limited Importance of Confessions in Law Enforcement
477(1)
Fifth Amendment Values and the Importance of the Adversarial System
477(1)
Criticisms of Miranda
478(7)
``Miranda Did Not Go Far Enough''
479(1)
``Miranda Went Too Far''
479(1)
``Miranda Lacks Historical and Textual Support''
479(1)
``The Rule Is Unnecessary and Irrational''
480(1)
``Miranda is Anti-Confession and Pro-Fox Hunt''
481(2)
``Miranda Is Injurious to Law Enforcement''
483(2)
Is Miranda a Constitutionally Based Decision?
485(6)
Act 1: Congress and Miranda
485(1)
Act 2: Miranda as a ``Prophylactic Rule''
486(2)
Act 3: Miranda is (Sort of) Re-Constitutionalized
488(1)
Dickerson v. United States
488(1)
Dickerson's Significance
489(2)
Meaning of Miranda: ``Custody''
491(5)
General Principles
491(2)
Commonly Asked ``Custody'' Questions
493(1)
Does ``Focus'' Equal ``Custody''?
493(1)
Does Miranda Apply Outside the Police Station?
494(1)
Does Miranda Apply to Minor Offenses?
494(1)
Does Miranda Apply to a ``Terry Stop''?
495(1)
Are Miranda Warnings Required In All ``Coercive Environments''?
495(1)
Meaning of Miranda: ``Interrogation''
496(3)
In General
496(1)
Rule
496(1)
A Closer Look at the Rule
497(1)
When Is an Interrogation Not a Miranda ``Interrogation''?
498(1)
Adequacy of Miranda Warnings
499(2)
Waiver of Miranda Rights
501(10)
In General
501(1)
Overview
501(1)
Types of Waiver: Express versus Implied
501(1)
Elements of a Valid Waiver
502(1)
Generally
502(1)
Voluntariness of the Waiver
502(1)
Knowing and Intelligent Waiver
503(1)
Moran v. Burbine: Waiver in the Post-Miranda Era
504(2)
Waiver Law: If a Suspect Asserts His Rights
506(1)
Overview
506(1)
Right to Remain Silent
506(1)
Right to Counsel
507(1)
The Edwards v. Arizona Rule
507(1)
When the Edwards Rule Does Not Apply
508(1)
Ambiguous Request for Counsel
508(2)
Request for Counsel for Non-Interrogation Purposes
510(1)
Anticipatory Request for Counsel
511(1)
Custodial Interrogation: When Miranda Warnings Are Not Required
511(4)
Public-Safety Exception
511(2)
Covert Custodial Interrogation
513(1)
Routine-Booking-Questions Exception
514(1)
Scope of the Miranda Exclusionary Rule
515(10)
Impeachment Exception
515(1)
Fruit-of-the-Poisonous-Tree Doctrine
516(1)
In General
516(1)
A Tentative Start: Michigan v. Tucker
517(1)
Expanding on Tucker: Oregon v. Elstad and United States v. Patane
518(3)
When a ``Fruit'' May Be Inadmissible: Missouri v. Seibert
521(4)
Interrogation Law: Sixth Amendment Right to Counsel
Massiah v. United States
525(5)
Historical Overview
525(1)
Massiah: The Opinion
526(1)
Making Sense of Massiah: The Sixth Amendment Role of Counsel
527(3)
The Sixth Amendment (Massiah) Right to Counsel: Summary
530(2)
Procedural Initiation of the Right to Counsel: Adversary Judicial Proceedings
532(1)
``Offense-Specific'' Nature of the Right to Counsel
533(3)
Requirement of ``Deliberate Elicitation''
536(6)
``Deliberate Elicitation'' versus ``Interrogation''
536(1)
What Does ``Deliberate'' Mean?
537(1)
``Deliberate'' as ``Purposeful''
537(1)
``Deliberate'' as Meaning Something Less Than ``Purposeful''?
538(2)
What Is ``Elicitation''?
540(2)
Waiver of the Right to Counsel
542(8)
General Principles
542(1)
The Court's First Waiver Case: Brewer v. Williams
542(2)
When May a Waiver Be Secured?
544(1)
When the Accused Requests Counsel
544(1)
The Michigan v. Jackson Rule
544(1)
Jackson (Sixth Amendment) versus Edwards (Miranda)
545(1)
Jackson's Continued Vitality
546(1)
When the Accused Does Not Request Counsel
547(1)
Before Counsel Is Appointed or Hired
547(1)
After Counsel Is Appointed or Hired
548(1)
Elements of a Valid Waiver
549(1)
``Voluntary''
549(1)
``Knowing and Intelligent''
549(1)
Scope of the Sixth Amendment Exclusionary Rule
550(5)
Right or Remedy?
550(2)
When the Police Investigate ``Sixth Amendment'' and ``Non-Sixth Amendment'' Offenses
552(1)
Use of Evidence for Impeachment Purposes
553(1)
Fruit-of-the-Poisonous-Tree Doctrine
554(1)
Right-to-Counsel Summary: Sixth Amendment versus Miranda
555(4)
Eyewitness Identification Procedures
Eyewitness Identification: The Problem and Potential Safeguards
559(5)
The Problem
559(1)
Overview of the Problem
559(1)
Details of the Problem
560(3)
Potential Safeguards
563(1)
Corporeal Identification Procedures: Right to Counsel
564(4)
Rule
564(1)
How the Rule Developed
565(1)
The Start: United States v. Wade
565(1)
Turning Away from Wade: Kirby v. Illinois
566(1)
The Role of Counsel in the Identification Process
567(1)
Non-Corporeal Identification Procedures: Right to Counsel
568(1)
Identification Procedures: Due Process of Law
569(2)
Entrapment
Entrapment: In General
571(1)
Entrapment: The Subjective Test
572(5)
Rule
572(1)
In General
572(1)
Proving Predisposition
572(4)
Rationale of the Rule
576(1)
Procedural Features of the Rule
577(1)
Entrapment: The Objective Test
577(3)
Rule
577(2)
Rationale of the Rule
579(1)
Procedural Features of the Rule
579(1)
Entrapment: The Debate
580(3)
Overview
580(1)
Criticisms of the Subjective Test
580(1)
``The Legislative Intent Rationale Is Fictional''
580(1)
``The Subjective Test Acquits Culpable Persons''
581(1)
``The Subjective Test Is Unfair''
581(1)
Criticisms of the Objective Test
582(1)
``The Test Leads to Inappropriate Results''
582(1)
``The Test's Stated Rationales Are Indefensible''
582(1)
Entrapment: Due Process
583(4)
The Right to Counsel: At Trial and On Appeal
Overview: The Importance of Defense Lawyers in the Adversary System
587(1)
When the Right to Counsel Applies
587(1)
The Right to Counsel: At Trial
588(12)
The Right to Employ Counsel
588(1)
Indigents: The Right to Appointed Counsel
589(1)
Overview
589(1)
The Road to Gideon
590(1)
Powell v. Alabama
590(1)
Johnson v. Zerbst
591(1)
Betts v. Brady
592(1)
Gideon v. Wainwright
592(2)
Post-Gideon Law: The Misdemeanor Cases
594(1)
Argersinger v. Hamlin
594(1)
Scott v. Illinois
595(2)
Alabama v. Shelton
597(1)
Two More Cases: Nichols and Gagnon
598(1)
Implementing the Right to Appointed Counsel
599(1)
The Right to Counsel: On Appeal
600(7)
Inapplicability of the Sixth Amendment
600(2)
First Appeal (as of Right)
602(1)
In General
602(1)
Special Problem: Frivolous Appeals
603(1)
Subsequent (Discretionary) Appeals
604(2)
First (Discretionary) Appeal After a Guilty Plea
606(1)
The Right of Self-Representation
607(7)
The Defense: Who Is in Charge?
607(1)
Faretta v. California
608(1)
Recognition of the Right
608(1)
Reflections on Faretta
609(3)
Procedural Issues
612(1)
Making the Choice of Self-Representation
612(1)
Timeliness of the Request
612(1)
Hybrid Representation
612(1)
Standby Counsel
613(1)
Legal Significance of Poor Self-Representation
613(1)
Legal Effect of an Erroneous Denial of the Right
614(1)
The Right to Representation by One's Preferred Attorney
614(3)
In General
614(1)
Special Problem: Seizing Lawyers' Fees
615(2)
Interference With the Right to Counsel
617(1)
Effective Assistance of Counsel: General Principles
618(14)
Nature of the Issue
618(1)
``Ineffective Assistance'': The Strickland Test
619(1)
Overview
619(2)
The First Prong: Deficiency of Representation
621(1)
The Standard
621(2)
Deficiency: Supreme Court Case Law
623(1)
Failure to Perform Ordinary Tasks --- Held Not Unreasonable
623(1)
Failure to Perform Ordinary Tasks --- Held Unreasonable
624(1)
Ignorance of Relevant Law
625(1)
The Second Prong: Prejudice
626(1)
The Standard
626(2)
Prejudice: Supreme Court Case Law
628(1)
Prejudice: Special Problems
629(1)
The Factually Guilty Defendant
629(2)
The Sleeping Lawyer
631(1)
Effective Assistance of Counsel: Conflicts of Interest
632(3)
Nature of the Issue
632(1)
Pretrial Procedures to Avoid Conflicts
632(1)
Post-Trial Proof of a Conflict
633(1)
Waiver of the Right to Conflict-Free Representation
634(1)
Effective Assistance: The Role of Ethical Canons
635
Index 1(1)
Table of Rules 1(1)
Table of Statutes 1(1)
Table of Cases 1

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