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9780190925697

Understanding Human Communication

by ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780190925697

  • ISBN10:

    0190925698

  • Edition: 14th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2019-12-06
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Summary

Understanding Human Communication addresses students' perception that they already know how to communicate--an issue faced by every faculty member. By artfully weaving cutting-edge academic research and theory into the clear, down-to-earth, and student-friendly narrative, the authors help students understand the complexity and depth of human communication and public speaking. The series of concepts builds logically through the chapter sequence, enabling students to further deepen their communication skills as they progress through the book. By accessing the text's integrated digital resources--contemporary and brief video clips; tutorials; and self-assessments---students will be able to see concepts applied in real scenarios, making their learning more meaningful.

Author Biography


Ronald B. Adler is Professor Emeritus of Communication at Santa Barbara City College. He is a coauthor of Interplay: The Process of Interpersonal Communication, Fourteenth Edition (OUP, 2017).

George Rodman is Professor of Television, Radio, and Emerging Media at Brooklyn College, City University of New York, where he founded the graduate media studies program. He is the author of Mass Media in a Changing World, Fourth Edition (2012) and several books on public speaking.

Athena du Pré is Professor of Communication at the University of West Florida. She is the author of Communicating About Health: Current Issues and Perspectives, Fourth Edition (OUP, 2017).

Table of Contents


Preface
About the Authors
PART ONE: FUNDAMENTALS OF HUMAN COMMUNICATION
1. COMMUNICATION: WHAT AND WHY
1.1 Characteristics of Communication
Definition of Communication
Models of Communication
1.2 Types of Communication
Intrapersonal Communication
Dyadic and Interpersonal Communication
Small Group Communication
Organizational Communication
Public Communication
Mass Communication
Social Media Communication
1.3 Communication in a Changing World
Changing Technology
Changing Discipline
1.4 Communication Competence
There Is No "Ideal" Way to Communicate
Competence Is Situational
Competence Is Relational
Competent Communicators Are Empathic
Competence Can Be Learned
Competence Requires Hard Work
Competent Communicators Self-Monitor
Competent Communicators Are Committed
1.5 Misconceptions About Communication
Myth: Communication Requires Complete Understanding
Myth: Communication Can Solve All Problems
Myth: Communication Is a Good Thing
Myth: Meanings Are in Words
Myth: Communication Is Simple
Myth: More Communication Is Always Better
FEATURES
Understanding Diversity: The Limits of Language When Describing People
@Work: Communication Skills and Career Success
Understanding Communication Technology: Dear Social Media, I Need a Little Space
Self-Assessment: What Type of Communicator Are You?
Ethical Challenge: To Communicate or Not to Communicate?
2. COMMUNICATING WITH SOCIAL MEDIA
2.1 The Roles of Social and Mass Media
Characteristics of Social Media
Social Media Usese and Gratifications
Masspersonal Communication
2.2 Mediated Versus Face-to-Face Communication
Message Richness
Synchronicity
Permanence
2.3 Benefits and Drawbacks of Social Media
Benefits of Social Media
Drawbacks of Social Media
2.4 Influences on Mediated Communication
Gender
Age
2.5 Communicating Competently with Social Media
Maintaining Positive Relationships
Protecting Yourself
FEATURES
Understanding Your Communication: What Type of Social Media Communicator are You?
Ethical Challenge: How Honest Should You Be on Social Media?
@Work: Using LinkedIn for Career Success
Checklist: Use Social Media Courteously and Wisely
Checklist: Evaluating Online (Mis)information
3. THE SELF, PERCEPTION, AND COMMUNICATION
3.1 Communication and the Self
Self-Concept Defined
Biology, Personality, and the Self
External Influence on the Self-Concept
Culture and the Self-Concept
Self-Fulfilling Prophecies
3.2 Perceiving Others
Steps in the Perception Process
The Power of Narratives
Common Perceptual Tendencies
Empathy
3.3 Communication and Identity Management
Public and Private Selves
Identity Management and Social Media
Characteristics of Identity Management
Identity Management in the Workplace
Why Manage Identities?
Identity Management and Honesty
FEATURES
Understanding Diversity: Sexist Assumptions in Everyday Langauge
Ethical Challenge: Looking Beyond Stereotypes
Checklist Avoiding Stereotypes
Checklist: Avoiding Stereotypes
Checklist: Check Your Perceptions Before Responding
4. COMMUNICATION AND CULTURE
4.1 Understanding Cultures and Cocultures
Differences and Similarities
Salience of Differences
4.2 How Cultural Values and Norms Shape Communication
Individualism and Collectivism
High and Low Cultural Contexts
Uncertainty Avoidance
Power Distance
Talk and Silence
Competition and Cooperation
4.3 Cocultures and Communication
Race and Ethnicity
Regional Differences
Gender Identity
Sexual Orientation
Religion
Political Viewpoints
Ability/Disability
Age/Generation
Socioeconomic Status
4.4 Developing Intercultural Communication Competence
Increased Contact
Tolerance for Ambiguity
Open-Mindedness
Knowledge and Skill
Patience and Perseverance
FEATURES
@Work: Power Distance and Culture in the Workplace
Checklist: Discussing Politics Responsibly on Social Media
Understanding Diversity: Communicating with People Who Have Disabilities
@Work: Organizations Are Cultures, Too
Ethical Challenge: Civility When Values Clash
Understanding Your Communication: How Much Do You Know About Other Cultures?
Checklist: Coping with Culture Shock
PART TWO: COMMUNICATION ELEMENTS
5. LANGUAGE
5.1 The Nature of Language
Language is Symbolic
Meanings Are in People, Not in Words
Language is Rule Governed
5.2 The Power of Language
Language Shapes Values, Attitudes, and Beliefs
Language Reflects Values, Attitudes, and Beliefs
5.3 Troublesome Language
The Language of Misunderstandings
5.4 Disruptive Language
Confusing Facts and Inferences
Presenting Facts as Opinions
Emotive Language
Personal Attacks
5.5 Gender and Language
FEATURES
Understanding Diversity: Language and Worldview
@Work: What's in a Name?
Ethical Challenge: Freedom of Speech
Ethical Challenge: "Telling It Like It Is"
Checklist: Avoiding Misunderstandings
Checklist: Distinguishing Between Facts and Opinions
Checklist: Choose Your Words Carefully
Understanding Your Communication: How Do You Use Language?
6. LISTENING
6.1 The Value of Listening
6.2 Misconceptions about Listening
Myth 1: Listening and Hearing Are the Same Thing
Myth 2: Listening Is a Natural Process
Myth 3: All Listeners Receive the Same Message
6.3 Overcoming Challenges to Effective Listening
Message Overload
Noise
Cultural Differences
6.4 Faulty Listening Habits
6.5 Listening to Connect and Support
Be Sensitive to Personal and Situational Factors
Allow Enough Time
Ask Questions
Listen for Unexpressed Thoughts and Feelings
Encourage Further Comments
Reflect Back the Speaker's Thoughts
Consider the Other Person's Needs When Analyzing
Reserve Judgment, Except in Rare Cases
Think Twice Before Offering Advice
Offer Comfort, if Appropriate
6.6 Gender and Supportive Listening
6.7 Listening to Accomplish, Analyze, and Critique
Task-Oriented Listening
Analytical Listening
Critical Listening
FEATURES
Understanding Communication Technology: Who Is Listening to You Online?
Checklist: Tips for Mindful Listening
@Work: Multitasking Can Make You Less Intelligent
Checklist: Ways to Limit Social Media Distractions
Checklist: Techniques for Listening Nondefensively
Checklist: Temptations to Avoid When Asking Questions
Checklist: When and How to Offer an Analysis
Checklist: What to Consider Before Offering a Judgment
Checklist: Factors to Consider Before Offering Advice
Checklist: Ways to Offer Comfort
Ethical Challenge: The Good and Bad of Online Anonymity
Checklist: How and When to Paraphrase
Checklist: Taking Detailed Notes
Checklist: Evaluating a Speaker's Message
Understanding Your Communication: What Are Your Listening Strengths?
7. NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION
7.1 Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication
Nonverbal Communication Is Unavoidable
Nonverbal Communication Is Ambiguous
Nonverbal Cues Convey Emotion
Nonverbal Cues Influence Identities and Relationships
7.2 Functions of Nonverbal Communication
Repeating
Substituting
Complementing
Accenting
Regulating
Contradicting
Deceiving
7.3 Types of Nonverbal Communication
Body Movements
Voice
Appearance
Touch
Space
7.4 Influences on Nonverbal Communication
Culture
Gender
FEATURES
Checklist: Three Ways to Convey Nonverbal Cues More Mindfully
Self-Assessment: How Worldly Are Your Non-Verbal Communication Skills?
Understanding Communication Technology: Nonverbal Expressiveness Online
@Work: Vocal Cues and Career Success
Ethical Challenge: Appearance and Impression Management
@Work: Touch and Career Success
PART THREE: INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
8. UNDERSTANDING INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
8.1 Characteristics of Interpersonal Communication
What Makes Communication Interpersonal?
How We Choose Relational Partners
Content and Relational Messages
Metacommunication
Self-Disclosure
Online Interpersonal Communication
8.2 Communicating with Friends and Family
Unique Qualities of Friendship
Types of Friendships
Gender and Friendship
Family Relationships
8.3 Communicating with Romantic Partners
Stages of Romantic Relationships
Love Languages
Male and Female Intimacy Styles
8.4 Relational Dialects
Connection versus Autonomy
Openness versus Privacy
Predictability versus Novelty
8.5 Lies and Evasions
Altruistic Lies
Evasions
Self-Serving Lies
FEATURES
Checklist: Questions to Ask Yourself Before Self-Disclosing
Ethical Challenge: Is It Cheating?
Checklist: How to Be a Good Friend
Understanding Your Communication: What Kind of Friendship Do You Have?
Checklist: Strengthening Family Ties
Checklist: Meeting an Online Date for the First Time
Understanding Communication Technology: To End this Romance, Just Press "Send"
Understanding Your Communication
9. MANAGING CONFLICT
9.1 UNDERSTANDING INTERPERSONAL CONFLICT
Expressed Struggle
Interdependence
Perceived Incompatible Goals
Perceived Scarce Resources
9.2 Communication Climates
Confirming and Disconfirming Messages
How Communication Climates Develop
9.3 Conflict Communication Styles
Nonassertiveness
Indirect Communication
Passive Aggression
Direct Aggression
Assertiveness
9.4 Negotiation Strategies
Win-Lose
Lose-Lose
Compromise
Win-Win
9.5 Social Influences on Conflict Communication
Gender and Conflict Style
Cultural Approaches to Conflict
FEATURES
Checklist: Rules for Fighting Fair
Understanding Communication Technology: Can You Hear Me Now?
Understanding Your Communication: What's the Forecast for Your Communication Climate?
Understanding Communication Technology: You Can't Take It Back
Ethical Challenge: "It's Nothing"
@Work: Dealing with Sexual Harassment
Checklist: Protecting Yourself from an Abusive Partner
Understanding Your Communication: How Assertive Are You?
Ethical Challenge: Negotiating with a Bully
Understanding Diversity: They Seem to Be Arguing
PART FOUR: COMMUNICATION IN GROUPS, TEAMS, AND ORGANIZATIONS
10. COMMUNICATING FOR CAREER SUCCESS
10.1 Setting the Stage for Career Success
Developing a Good Reputation
Managing Your Online Identity
Cultivating a Professional Network
10.2 Pursuing the Job You Want
Preparing Application Materials
Planning for a Job Interview
Participating in a Job Interview
10.3 Organizational Communication Factors
Culture in the Workplace
Patterns of Interaction
Power in the Worklplace
10.4 Communicating in a Professional Environment
Avoiding Common Communication Mistakes
Communicating Well as a Follower
Communicating in a Professional Manner Online
FEATURES
Checklist: Strategies to Meet Networking Prospects
Checklist: What to Include in a Cover Letter
Checklist: How You Might Answer "What is Your Greatest Weakness?"
Ethical Challenge: Responding to Illegal Interview Questions
Understanding Communication Technology: Interviewing by Phone or Video
Understanding Your Communication: How Good a Follower Are You?
11. LEADERSHIP AND TEAMWORK
11.1 Communication Strategies for Leaders
Characteristics of Effective Leaders
Leadership Approaches
Trait Theories of Leadership
Situational Leadership
Transformational Leadership
11.2 Communicating in Groups and Teams
What Makes a Group a Team?
Motivational Factors
Rules in Small Groups
Individual Roles
11.3 Making the Most of Group Interaction
Enhancing Cohesiveness
Managing Meetings Effectively
Using Discussion Formats Strategically
11.4 Group Problem Solving
Advantages of Group Problem Solving
Stages of Team Development
A Structured Problem-Solving Approach
Problem Solving in Virtual Groups
FEATURES
Checklist: Demonstrating Your Leadership Potential
@Work: "I'll Do It Myself"--Or Should I?
Checklist: Working with a Difficult Boss
Understanding Your Communication: What's Your Leadership Style?
Checklist: Getting Slackers to Do Their Share
Checklist: Dealing with Difficult Team Members
Ethical Challenge: Balancing Overly Talkative and Quiet Group Members
Checklist: Enhancing Group Productivity
Checklist: Coping with Information Overload
Checklist: Making the Most of a Brainstorming Session
@Work: The Power of Constructive Dialogue
Understanding Diversity: Maximizing the Effectiveness of Multicultural Teams
Understanding Communication Technology: Developing Trust Long Distance
PART FIVE. PUBLIC COMMUNICATION
12. PREPARING AND PRESENTING YOUR SPEECH
12.1 Getting Started
Choosing Your Topic
Defining Your Purpose
Writing a Purpose Statement
Stating Your Thesis
12.2 Analyzing the Speaking Situation
The Listeners
The Occasion
12.3 Gathering Information
Online Research
Library Research
Interviewing
Survey Research
12.4 Managing Communication Apprehension
Facilitative and Debilitative Communication Apprehension
Sources of Debilitative Communication Apprehension
Overcoming Debilitative Communication Apprehension
12.5 Presenting Your Speech
Choosing an Effective Type of Delivery
Practicing Your Speech
12.6 Guidelines for Delivery
Visual Aspects of Delivery
Auditory Aspects of Delivery
12.7 Sample Speech
Bibliography
FEATURES
Ethical Challenge: If I Adapt, Do I Lose My Integrity?
Checklist: Evaluating Websites
Understanding Your Communication: Speech Anxiety Symptoms
Checklist: Practicing Your Presentation
Ethical Challenge: Speaking Sincerely to Distasteful Audiences
13. ORGANIZATION AND SUPPORT
13.1 Structuring Your Speech
Your Working Outline
Your Formal Outline
Your Speaking Notes
13.2 Principles of Outlining
Standard Format
The Rule of Division
The Rule of Parallel Wording
13.3 Organizing Your Outline into a Logical Pattern
Time Patterns
Space Patterns
Topic Patterns
Problem-Solution Patterns
Cause-Effect Patterns
Monroe's Motivated Sequence
13.4 Beginnings, Endings, and Transitions
The Introduction
The Conclusion
Transitions
13.5 Supporting Material
Functions of Supporting Material
Types of Supporting Material
Styles of Support: Narration and Citation
13.6 Sample Speech
FEATURES
Understanding Your Communciation: Main Points and Sub-Points
Understanding Diversity: Nontraditional Patterns of Organization
@Work: Organizing Business Presentations
Checklist: Effective Conclusions
Understanding Communication Technology: Plagiarism in a Digital Age
14. INFORMATIVE SPEAKING
14.1 Types of Informative Speaking
By Content
By Purpose
14.2 Informative Versus Persuasive Topics
Type of Topic
Speech Purpost
14.3 Techniques of Informative Speaking
Define a Specific Informative Purpose
Create Information Hunger
Make It Easy to Listen
Use Clear, Simple Language
Use a Clear Organization and Structure
14.4 Using Supporting Material Effectively
Emphasizing Important Points
Generating Audience Involvement
Using Visual Aids
Using Presentation Software
Alternative Media for Presenting Graphics
Rules for Using Visual Aids
14.5 Sample Speech
Introduction (1-4)
Body
Conclusion
FEATURES
Understanding Your Communication: Are You Overloaded?
Understanding Diversity: How Culture Affects Information
Checklist: Techniques of Informative Speaking
@Work: The Pros and Cons of Presentation Software
15. PERSUASIVE SPEAKING
15.1 Characteristics of Persuasion
Persuasion Is Not Coercive
Persuasion Is Usually Incremental
Persuasion Is Interactive
Persuasion Can Be Ethical
15.2 Categorizing Persuasive Attempts
By Types of Proposition
By Desired Outcome
By Directness of Approach
By Types of Appeal: Aristotle's Ethos, Pathos, and Logos
15.3 Creating the Persuasive Message
Set a Clear, Persuasive Purpose
Structure the Message Carefully
Use Solid Evidence
Avoid Fallacies
15.4 Adapting to the Audience
Establish Common Ground
Organize According to the Expected Response
Neutralize Potential Hostility
15.5 Building Credibility as a Speaker
Competence
Character
Charisma
15.6 Sample Speech
Bibliography
FEATURES
@Work: Persuasion in the World of Sales
Understanding Diversity: Cultural Differences in Persuasion
Ethical Challenge: If I Adapt, Do I Lose My Integrity?
Understanding Your Communication: Persuasive Speech
Notes
Glossary
Credits
Index

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