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Understanding Intercultural Communication

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2011-11-16
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
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Written in a conversational style, this book introduces students to the foundations of intercultural communication, a vibrant discipline within the field. Authors Stella Ting-Toomey and Leeva Chung take a multicontextual, inclusive approach that balances international and intercultural communication issues against U.S. domestic diversity issues. In addition to emphasizing a value-oriented perspective on intercultural encounters, the text contains a robust ethical chapter, complete with specific guidelines that will help students become ethical intercultural communicators. By integrating current empirical research with lively intercultural examples, the authors ask thought-provoking questions and pose ethical dilemmas for students to ponder. The text offers a sprawling treatment of such topics as ethnic and cultural identity change, culture shock and intercultural adjustment, romantic relationships and raising bicultural children, global identity challenges, and decision-making choices in intercultural ethics. NEW TO THIS EDITION: * Two new special features, "Blog Pic" and "Blog Post," which update all the photos and poignant personal stories found throughout the first edition * A greater focus on the impact of technologyon intercultural communication message exchange processes * An updated discussion of multiracial and biracial identity in Chapter 4 * Updates to the popular "Jeopardy Boxes" · More than 250 new references * "Live-chat," a special boxed feature, which emphasizes the importance of adaptive code-switching in managing intercultural misunderstanding via lively dialogue

Table of Contents

Dedication Page
About the Authors

Part One: Fundamental Concepts in Intercultural Communication

1: Why Study Intercultural Communication?

Practical Reasons to Study Intercultural Communication
Adjusting to Global Workplace Heterogeneity
Adapting to Domestic Workforce Diversity
Engaging in Creative Multicultural Problem Solving
Comprehending the Role of Technology in Global Communication
Facilitating Better Multicultural Health Care Communication
Enhancing Intercultural Relationship Satisfaction
Fostering Global and Intrapersonal Peace
Deepening Cultural Self-Awareness and Other-Awareness

Culture: A Learned Meaning System
Surface-Level Culture: Popular Culture
Intermediate-Level Culture: Symbols, Meanings, and Norms
Deep-Level Culture: Traditions, Beliefs, and Values

Stamping Your Intercultural Passport

2: What Is Intercultural Communication Flexibility?

Defining Intercultural Communication: A Process Model
Intercultural Communication Process: Overall Characteristics
Intercultural Communication: Meaning Characteristics

Practicing Intercultural Communication Flexibility
Three Content Components: Knowledge, Attitude, and Skills
Three Criteria: Appropriateness, Effectiveness, and Adaptability

Developing Intercultural Communication Flexibility
A Staircase Model
An Essential Hook: A Mindful Perspective

Deepening Intercultural Process Thinking
Process Consciousness: Underlying Principles

Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables

3: What Are the Essential Cultural Value Patterns?

Functions of Cultural Values
Analyzing Cultural Values
Identity Meaning Function
Explanatory Function
Motivational Function
Ingroup-Outgroup Evaluative Function

Analyzing Cultural Value Dimensions
Discovering Cultural Values
Identity: Individualism-Collectivism Value Pattern
Power: Small-Large Power Distance Value Pattern
Uncertainty: Weak-Strong Uncertainty Avoidance Value Pattern
Sex Roles: Feminine-Masculine Value Pattern

Additional Value Orientation Patterns
Value Orientations: Background Information
Meaning: Activity Value Orientation
Destiny: People-Nature Value Orientation
Time: Temporal Value Orientation

Individual Socialization Development
Independent Versus Interdependent Self-Construal
Horizontal Versus Vertical Self-Construal
Internal Versus External Locus of Control

Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables

4: What Are the Keys to Understanding Cultural and Ethnic Identities?

Family and Gender Socialization
Families Come in Different Shapes
Gender Socialization and Interaction Patterns

Group Membership: Intercultural Boundary Crossing
The Process of Acculturation and Enculturation
Systems-Level Factors
Individual-Level Factors
F2F and Network-Level Factors
Mass Media-Level Factors

Group Affiliation and Identity Formation
Cultural Identity Conceptualization
Ethnic Identity Conceptualization

Ethnic/Racial Identity Change Process
Cultural-Ethnic Identity Typological Model
Racial-Ethnic Identity Development Model
Multiracial and Biracial Identity

Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables

Part Two: Crossing Cultural and Communication Boundaries Adaptively

5: What Is Culture Shock?

Unpacking Culture Shock
Characteristics of Culture Shock
Pros and Cons of Culture Shock
Approaching Culture Shock: Underlying Factors
Initial Tips To Manage Culture Shock

Intercultural Adjustment: Developmental Patterns
The U-Curve Adjustment Model
The Revised W-Shaped Adjustment Model
Culture Shock: Peaks and Valleys

Reentry Culture Shock
Reentry Culture Shock: Surprising Elements
Resocialization: Different Returnees' Profiles

Intercultural reality Check: Do-Ables

6: What Is the Connection Between Verbal Communication and Culture?

Human Language: Distinctive Features and Rule Patterns
Distinctive Language Features: Arbitrariness, Abstractness, Meaning-Centeredness, and Creativity
Multiple Rule Patterns: Phonological, Morphological, Syntactic, Semantic, and Pragmatic Rules

Appreciating Diverse Language Functions:
The Cultural Worldview Function
The Everyday Social Reality Function
The Cognitive Shaping Function
The Group Membership Identity Function
The Social Change Function

Verbal Communication Styles: A General Framework
Defining Low-Context and High-Context Interaction Patterns
Direct and Indirect Verbal Styles
Self-Enhancement and Self-Humbling Verbal Styles
Beliefs Expressed in Talk and Silence

Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables

7: What Are the Different Ways to Communicate Nonverbally Across Cultures?

The Impact of Nonverbal Communication
Making Sense of Nonverbal Communication
One Code, Countless Interpretations
Verbal and Nonverbal Comparisons

Forms of Nonverbal Communication
Physical Appearance
Facial Expressions

Boundary Regulations
Regulating Interpersonal Boundaries
Environmental Boundaries
Psychological Boundaries
Regulating Time

Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables

Part Three: Managing Challenges in Intercultural Relationships Flexibly

8: What Causes Us to Hold Biases Against Outgroups?

Human Perception Tendencies: Some General Principles
Selective Attention
Selective Organization and Labeling
Selective Interpretation

Biased Intergroup Filters: Ethnocentrism and Stereotypes
Ethnocentrism and Communication
Distances of Indifference, Avoidance, and Disparagement
Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS)
Stereotypes and Communication
Stereotypes: We Are What We Watch

Marking Ingroup/Outgroup Membership Boundaries
Us versus Them
Group Membership Struggles
Intergroup Attribution Biases

Shattered Lens: Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism
Prejudice: Multiple Explanations and Functions
Prejudiced Remarks or Innocent Jokes?
Four Discriminatory Practices
Different Types of Racism
Reducing Prejudice and Discrimination

Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables

9: How Can We Manage Intercultural Conflict Flexibly?

Intercultural Conflict: Cultural Background Factors
Culture-Based Conflict Lenses
Intercultural Workplace Conflict Grid
Intercultural Conflict Perceptions
Intercultural Conflict Goal Issues
Perceived Scarce Resources

Intercultural Conflict Process Factors
Defining Conflict Styles
Cross-Cultural Conflict Styles
Cross-Ethnic Conflict Styles and Facework

Flexible Intercultural Conflict Skills
Facework Management
Mindful Listening
Cultural Empathy
Mindful Reframing
Adaptive Code-Switching

Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables

10: What Are the Challenges in Developing an Intercultural-Intimate Relationship?

Developing Intercultural-Intimate Relationships: Invisible Challenges
Cultural-Ethnic Membership Values
Love Expectations and Expressions
Autonomy-Connection Issues
Communication Decoding Issues

Intercultural-Intimate Relationship Attraction: Facilitating Factors
Perceived Physical Attractiveness
Perceived Similarity
Cross-Cultural Self-Disclosure Comparisons
Online Disclosure of Affection
Third Party Matchmakers: Online and Mobile Dating
Intercultural/Interracial Romantic Relationship Development

Intercultural-Intimate Conflict: Obstacles and Stumbling Blocks
The Encounter: Prejudice and Racism
Countering Racism and Prejudice: Coping Strategies
Relational Transgressions and Terminations

Raising Secure Bicultural Children
Bicultural Identity Struggles
Cultivating a Secure Multifaceted Identity

Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables

11: What Are the Communication Issues Facing a Global Identity?

Wired and On: The Roar of the Internet
The Internet as our Central Station
Wired Communication

The Transformation of Local and Global Identities
The Lens of Television: Identity Imitation
Global Television Impact
Be Hip, be Hot, and Pop Culture Impact
Outsourced Beats: You are What You Can Dance To
You are What you Wear: Pop Culture as Fashion

Who and What are e.netizens?
Defining the Background of e.netizens
Characteristics of an e.netizen Identity

The Dialectics Pulls of an e.netizen
Spatial Zone Dialectics
Temporal Zone Dialectics

The Tipping Point: Communication Pattern Changes
Gadget Communication Patterns: Fast and Furious
Sharing Intimate Partners with a Gadget
Language Styles: Text, Tweet, Talk
Communicating to be Social Change Agents
Present but Virtual

Personal Identities in Flux: The Global Face

Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables

12: How Can We Become Ethical Intercultural Communicators?

Intercultural Communication Ethics: Contemporary Issues
Global Standard Procedure and Local Justice Issues
Corporate Responsibility and Local Customary Practice
Cultural Value Clash and Communication Preference

Multiple Ethical Positions: Assessing Pros and Cons
Ethical Absolutism Position
Ethical Relativism Position
Ethical Universalism Position
Meta-Ethics Contextualism Position

Becoming Ethical and Flexible Intercultural Communicators
Becoming Ethical: Ten Questions to Consider
Becoming Flexible: Final Passport Do-Ables


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