9780323023689

Understanding Pathophysiology

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780323023689

  • ISBN10:

    0323023681

  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2003-10-24
  • Publisher: HARCOURT HEALTH SCIENCES-MOSBY
  • View Upgraded Edition

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Supplemental Materials

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Summary

Understanding Pathophysiology provides students with the basic concepts of pathophysiology and explains the processes of specific diseases in an easy-to-read, consistent format. The most current information on the mechanisms, manifestations, and treatments of disease are clearly and concisely presented. Accessible writing, numerous illustrations in full-color, and complete and separate treatment of pediatric pathophysiology are the hallmarks of this popular and respected text. The new third edition features extensively revised and updated content and an enhanced art program. The book is divided into two parts. Part One presents the general principles of pathophysiology, including cell injury and repair; genetics; fluids and electrolytes, acids and bases; immunity, inflammation, and infection; stress; and cancer. Part Two is organized by body system, and for each system it covers normal anatomy and physiology, alterations of function in adults, and alterations of function in children. Complete but concise coverage provides a thorough discussion of general pathophysiology and specific disease processes. Outstanding full-color art program illustrates normal anatomy and physiology, disease processes, and clinical manifestations of disease. Pediatric content is presented in 9 separate chapters to provide thorough coverage of how disease processes specifically affect children. Health Alert boxes present brief discussions of new research, diagnostic studies, preventative care, treatments, or other developments related to health or specific diseases. Quick Check questions appear at the end of major sections of text and are designed to promote critical thinking. Suggested answers to the questions are found on the CD companion included with the text. Risk Factor boxes illustrate how certain risk factors are associated with specific diseases. Did You Understand? chapter summaries provide students with a comprehensive review of the major concepts presented in each chapter. Aging content is identified with a special icon within the adult chapters. Algorithms are used throughout the text to illustrate normal and compensatory physiology and pathophysiology. Key terms are boldface in text and listed with page numbers at the end of each chapter for easy reference and chapter review. Approximately 250 new full-color drawings have been added. An Introduction to Pathophysiology included in the front matter defines pathophysiology - and related terms such as etiology and epidemiology - and explains why it is important. Extensive updates, based on the most current research, have been made throughout the book. To reflect the latest developments, the Biology of Cancer chapter has been completely rewritten. Several chapters, including Fluids and Electrolytes, Acids and Bases and Alterations of the Reproductive Systems have been extensively edited.

Table of Contents

Introduction to Pathophysiology, xxiii
Part One Basic Concepts of Pathophysiology
Unit I The Cell
1 Cellular Biology
1(36)
Kathryn L. McCance
Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes,
2(1)
Cellular Functions,
2(1)
Structure and Function of Cellular Components,
2(1)
Nucleus,
2(1)
Cytoplasmic Organelles,
2(1)
Plasma Membranes,
2(1)
Cellular Receptors,
8(1)
Cellular Metabolism,
9(1)
Role of Adenosine Triphosphate,
9(1)
Food and Production of Cellular Energy,
9(1)
Oxidative Phosphorylation,
9(1)
Membrane Transport: Cellular Intake and Output,
10(1)
Movement of Water and Solutes,
11(1)
Transport by Vesicle Formation,
15(1)
Movement of Electrical Impulses: Membrane Potentials,
17(2)
Cellular Reproduction: The Cell Cycle,
19(1)
Phases of Mitosis and Cytokinesis,
20(1)
Rates of Cellular Division,
20(1)
Growth Factors,
20(1)
Cell-To-Cell Adhesions,
20(1)
Extracellular Matrix,
21(1)
Specialized Cell Junctions,
22(1)
Cellular Communication and Signal Transduction,
22(2)
Tissues,
24(1)
Tissue Formation,
24(1)
Types of Tissues,
24(13)
2 Genes and Genetic Diseases,
37(1)
Lynn B. Jorde
DNA, RNA, and Proteins: Heredity at the Molecular Level,
38(1)
Definitions,
38(1)
From Genes to Proteins,
40(1)
Chromosomes,
41(1)
Chromosome Aberrations and Associated Diseases,
42(7)
Elements of Formal Genetics,
49(1)
Phenotype and Genotype,
49(1)
Dominance and Recessiveness,
49(1)
Transmission of Genetic Diseases,
50(1)
Autosomal Dominant Inheritance,
50(1)
Autosomal Recessive Inheritance,
52(1)
X-linked Inheritance,
54(1)
Evaluation of Pedigrees,
56(1)
Linkage Analysis and Gene Mapping,
56(1)
Classical Pedigree Analysis,
57(1)
Complete Human Gene Map: Prospects and Benefits,
57(1)
Multifactorial Inheritance,
58(7)
3 Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology,
65(1)
Kathryn L. McCance
Todd C. Grey
Cellular Adaptation,
66(1)
Atrophy,
66(1)
Hypertrophy,
66(1)
Hyperplasia,
68(1)
Dysplasia: Not a True Adaptive Change,
68(1)
Metaplasia,
69(1)
Cellular Injury,
69(1)
General Mechanisms of Cell Injury,
70(1)
Hypoxic Injury,
70(1)
Free Radicals and Reactive Oxygen Species Injury,
72(1)
Mechanisms of Chemical Injury,
74(1)
Unintentional and Intentional Injuries,
78(1)
Infectious Injury,
84(1)
Immunologic and Inflammatory Injury,
84(1)
Manifestations of Cellular Injury,
85(1)
Water,
85(1)
Lipids and Carbohydrates,
86(1)
Glycogen,
87(1)
Proteins,
87(1)
Pigments,
87(1)
Calcium,
88(1)
Urate,
90(1)
Systemic Manifestations,
90(1)
Cellular Death,
90(1)
Necrosis,
90(2)
Apoptosis,
92(1)
Aging and Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology,
93(1)
Normal Life Span,
93(1)
Life Expectancy and Gender Differences,
93(1)
Theories and Mechanisms of Aging,
94(1)
Cellular Aging,
98(1)
Tissue and Systemic Aging,
98(1)
Somatic Death,
99(6)
4 fluids and Electolytes, Acids and Bases,
105(1)
Sue E. Huether
Distribution of Body Fluids,
106(1)
Maturation and the Distribution of Body Fluids,
106(1)
Pediatrics and Distribution of Body Fluids,
106(1)
Aging and Distribution of Body Fluids,
106(1)
Water Movement Between ICF and ECF,
107(1)
Water Movement Between Plasma and Interstitial Fluid,
107(1)
Alterations in Water Movement,
107(1)
Edema,
107(2)
Sodium, Chloride, and Water Balance,
109(1)
Water Balance,
109(1)
Sodium and Chloride Balance,
110(1)
Alterations in Sodium, Chloride, and Water Balance,
111(1)
Isotonic Alterations,
111(1)
Hypertonic Alterations,
112(1)
Hypotonic Alterations,
113(2)
Alterations in Potassium and Other Electrolytes,
115(1)
Potassium,
115(1)
Other Electrolytes,
118(1)
Acid-Base Balance,
118(1)
Hydrogen Ion and pH,
118(1)
Buffer Systems,
120(1)
Acid-Base Imbalances,
121(6)
Unit II Mechanisms of Self-Defense
5 Immunity,
127(1)
Neal S. Rote
Characteristics of the Immune Response,
129(1)
Natural Versus Acquired Immunity,
130(1)
Humoral Versus Cell-Mediated Immunity,
130(3)
Antigens,
133(1)
Histocompatibility Antigens,
133(1)
Blood Group Antigens,
134(1)
Humoral Immune Response,
135(1)
B Lymphocytes,
135(1)
Immunoglobulins,
135(1)
Secretory Immune System,
142(1)
Cell-Mediated Immune Response,
142(1)
Induction of the Immune Response,
144(1)
Primary and Secondary Immune Responses,
144(1)
Cellular Interactions in the Immune Response,
144(1)
Cytokines,
144(1)
Antigen Processing, Presentation, and Recognition,
147(1)
T Cell and B Cell Differentiation,
149(1)
Control of B Cell and T Cell Development,
150(1)
Pediatrics and Immune Function,
150(1)
Aging and Immune Function,
151(2)
6 Inflammation,
153(1)
Neal S. Rote
Sue E. Huether
The Acute Inflammatory Response,
154(1)
The Mast Cell,
155(1)
Degranulation of Vasoactive Amines and Chemotactic Factors,
155(1)
Synthesis of Leukotrienes and Prostaglandins,
157(1)
Plasma Protein Systems,
158(1)
Complement System,
158(1)
Clotting System,
160(1)
Kinin System,
160(1)
Control and Interaction of Plasma Protein Systems,
161(3)
Cellular Components of Inflammation,
164(1)
Function of Phagocytes,
164(1)
Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils,
166(1)
Monocytes and Macrophages,
167(1)
Eosinophils,
167(1)
Cellular Products,
168(1)
Inflammatory Cytokines,
168(1)
Interferons,
170(1)
Local Manifestations of Acute Inflammation,
170(1)
Systemic Manifestations of Acute Inflammation,
171(1)
Chronic Inflammation,
171(2)
Resolution and Repair,
173(1)
Reconstructive Phase,
175(1)
Maturation Phase,
175(1)
Dysfunctional Wound Healing,
176(1)
Pediatrics and Factors Affecting Mechanisms of Self-Defense,
177(1)
Aging and Factors Affecting Mechanisms of Self-Defense,
177(4)
7 Hypersensitivities, Infection, and Immunodeficiencies,
181(1)
Neal S. Rote
Sue E. Huether
Kathryn L. McCance
Hypersensitivity: Allergy, Autoimmunity, and Alloimmunity,
182(1)
Mechanisms of Hypersensitivity,
182(1)
Targets of Hypersensitivity,
188(1)
Autoimmune and Alloimmune Disorders,
190(2)
Infection,
192(1)
Microorganisms and Humans: A Dynamic Relationship,
193(1)
Classes of Infectious Microorganisms,
194(1)
Innate Host Resistance Mechanisms,
194(1)
Pathogenic Defense Mechanisms,
195(1)
Infection and Injury,
197(1)
Clinical Manifestations of Infection,
202(1)
Countermeasures Against Pathogenic Defenses,
203(1)
Recent Pathogenic Adaptations,
205(1)
The Future,
205(1)
Immunodeficiencies,
206(1)
Congenital Immunodeficiencies,
207(1)
Acquired Immunodeficiencies,
209(1)
Clinical Evaluation of Immunity,
217(1)
Replacement Therapies for Immunodeficiencies,
217(4)
8 Stress and Disease,
221(1)
Jane Shelby
Kathryn L. McCance
Concepts of Stress,
222(1)
General Adaptation Syndrome,
222(1)
Psychologic Mediators and Specificity,
223(1)
The Stress Response,
223(1)
Psychoneuroimmunologic Regulation,
223(1)
Neuroendocrine Regulation,
227(1)
Role of the Immune System,
230(1)
Stress, Personality, Coping, and Illness,
231(1)
Aging and Stress-Age Syndrome,
232(5)
Unit III Cellular Proliferation: Cancer
9 Biology of Cancer,
237(1)
David Virshup
Phillip Barnette
Kathryn L. McCance
Cancer Characteristics and Terminology,
238(1)
Tumor Classification and Nomenclature,
238(1)
Stages of Cancer Spread,
239(1)
Cell Differentiations,
239(1)
Tumor Markers,
243(1)
The Genetic Basis of Cancer,
244(1)
Cancer Is Caused by Mutations in Genes,
244(1)
Types of Genes Mutated in Cancer,
245(1)
Oncogenes and Tumor-Suppressor Genes: Accelerators and Brakes,
248(1)
Guardians of the Genome,
251(1)
Genetics and Cancer-Prone Families,
251(1)
Viral Causes of Cancer,
252(1)
Bacterial Causes of Cancer,
253(1)
Gene-Environment Interaction,
254(1)
Environmental Risk Factors,
254(1)
Hormones,
261(8)
10 Tumor Spread and Treatment,
269(1)
Kathryn L. McCance
Phillip Barnette
David Virshup
Tumor Manifestations,
270(1)
Tumor Spread,
270(1)
Local Spread,
270(1)
The Three-Step Theory of Invasion,
271(1)
Patterns of Spread: Metastasis,
272(4)
Clinical Manifestations of Cancer,
276(1)
Pain,
276(1)
Fatigue,
276(1)
Cachexia,
276(1)
Anemia,
277(1)
Leukopenia and Thrombocytopenia,
277(1)
Infection,
277(1)
Cancer Treatment,
278(1)
Chemotherapy,
278(1)
Radiation,
281(1)
Surgery,
281(1)
Immunotherapy,
281(1)
Side Effects of Cancer Treatment,
282(1)
Gastrointestinal Tract,
282(1)
Bone Marrow,
282(1)
Hair and Skin,
283(1)
Reproductive Tract,
283(4)
11 Cancer in Children,
287(1)
Elizabeth Kassner
Nanci Haze
Incidence and Types of Childhood Cancer,
288(1)
Etiology,
289(1)
Genetic Factors,
289(1)
Environmental Factors,
291(1)
Prognosis,
292(3)
Part Two Body Systems and Diseases
Unit IV The Neurologic System
12 Structure and Function of the Neurologic System,
295(1)
Richard A. Sugerman
Overview and Organization of the Nervous System,
296(1)
Cells of the Nervous System,
296(1)
The Neuron,
296(1)
Neuroglia and Schwann Cells,
297(1)
Nerve Injury and Regeneration,
297(2)
The Nerve Impulse,
299(1)
Synapses,
299(1)
Neurotransmitters,
299(2)
The Central Nervous System,
301(1)
The Brain,
301(1)
The Spinal Cord,
306(1)
Motor Pathways,
309(1)
Sensory Pathways,
309(1)
Protective Structures of the Central Nervous System,
309(1)
Blood Supply of the Central Nervous System,
312(3)
The Peripheral Nervous System,
315(3)
The Autonomic Nervous System,
318(1)
Anatomy of the Sympathetic Nervous System,
319(1)
Anatomy of the Parasympathetic Nervous System,
320(1)
Neurotransmitters and Neuroreceptors,
320(1)
Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System,
322(2)
Aging and the Nervous System,
324(5)
13 Pain, Temperature, Sleep, and Sensory Function,
329(1)
Sue E. Huether
Pain,
330(1)
The Experience of Pain,
330(1)
Clinical Manifestations of Pain,
330(1)
Neuroanatomy of Pain,
330(1)
Neurophysiology of Pain,
331(4)
Temperature Regulation,
335(1)
Hypothalamic Control of Temperature,
335(1)
Temperature Regulation in Infants and Elderly Persons,
337(1)
Pathogenesis of Fever,
337(1)
Benefits of Fever,
337(1)
Disorders of Temperature Regulation,
338(1)
Sleep,
338(1)
Sleep Disorders,
340(1)
The Special Senses,
340(1)
Vision,
340(1)
Hearing,
344(1)
Olfaction and Taste,
347(1)
Somatosensory Function,
348(1)
Touch,
348(1)
Proprioception,
348(7)
14 Concepts of Neurologic Dysfunction,
355(1)
Barbara J. Boss
Alterations in Cognitive Networks,
356(1)
Alterations in Arousal,
356(1)
Cognitive Disorders,
366(1)
Data Processing Deficits,
368(4)
Alterations in Cerebral Homeostasis,
372(1)
Cerebral Hemodynamica,
372(1)
Increased Intracranial Pressure,
372(1)
Cerebral Edema,
373(1)
Hydrocephalus,
375(1)
Alterations in Motor Function,
376(1)
Alterations in Muscle Tone,
376(1)
Alterations in Movement,
376(1)
Alterations in Complex Motor Performance,
384(1)
Extrapyramidal Motor Syndromes,
386(5)
15 Alterations of Neurologic Function,
391(1)
Barbara J. Boss
Central Nervous System Disorders,
392(1)
Trauma,
392(1)
Degenerative Disorders of the Spine,
401(1)
Cerebrovascular Disorders,
403(1)
Infection and Inflammation of the Central Nervous System,
408(1)
Degenerative Diseases,
412(6)
Peripheral Nervous System and Neuromuscular Junction Disorders,
418(1)
Peripheral Nervous System Disorders,
418(1)
Neuromuscular Junction Disorders,
418(1)
Myopathies,
420(1)
Tumors of the Central Nervous System,
420(1)
Cranial Tumors,
420(1)
Spinal Cord Tumors,
424(5)
16 Alterations of Neurologic Function in Children,
429(1)
Katherine Padgett
Barbara J. Boss
Normal Growth and Development of the Nervous System,
430(1)
Structural Malformations,
430(1)
Defects of Neural Tube Closure,
430(1)
Malformations of the Axial Skeleton,
432(3)
Encephalopathies,
435(1)
Static Encephalopathies,
435(1)
Inherited Metabolic Disorders of the Central Nervous System,
435(1)
Seizure Disorders,
436(1)
Acute Encephalopathies,
437(3)
Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Central Nervous System Involvement,
440(1)
Tumors,
441(1)
Brain Tumors,
441(1)
Embryonal Tumors,
443(6)
Unit V The Endocrine System
17 Mechanisms of Hormaonal Regulation,
449(1)
Sue E. Huether
Mechanisms of Hormonal Regulation,
450(1)
Regulation of Hormone Release,
450(1)
Hormone Transport,
450(1)
Mechanisms of Hormone Action,
451(5)
Structure and Function of the Endocrine Glands,
456(1)
Hypothalamic-Pituitary System,
456(1)
Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands,
460(1)
Endocrine Pancreas,
463(1)
Adrenal Glands,
465(1)
Neuroendocrine Response to Stressors,
468(1)
Aging and Its Effects on Specific Endocrine Glands,
469(4)
18 Alterations of Hormonal Regulation,
473(1)
Sue E. Huether
Mechanisms of Hormonal Alterations,
474
Alterations of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary System,
415(1)
Diseases of the Posterior Pituitary,
475(1)
Diseases of the Anterior Pituitary,
477(3)
Alterations of Thyroid Function,
480(1)
Hyperthyroidism,
480(1)
Hypothyroidism,
482(1)
Thyroid Carcinoma,
485(1)
Alterations of Parathyroid Function,
485(1)
Hyperparathyroidism,
485(1)
Hypoparathyroidism,
486(1)
Dysfunction of the Endocrine Pancreas: Diabetes Mellitus,
487(1)
Types of Diabetes Mellitus,
488(1)
Acute Complications of Diabetes Mellitus,
492(1)
Chronic Complications of Diabetes Mellitus,
492(5)
Alterations of Adrenal Function,
497(1)
Disorders of the Adrenal Cortex,
497(1)
Disorders of the Adrenal Medulla,
501(6)
Unit VI The Hematologie System
19 Structure and Function of the Hernatologic System,
507(1)
Kathryn L. McCance
Components of the Hematologie System,
508(1)
Composition of Blood,
508(1)
Lymphoid Organs,
513(1)
The Mononuclear Phagocyte System,
514(1)
Development of Blood Cells,
515(1)
Hematopoiesis,
515(1)
Development of Erythrocytes,
518(1)
Development of Leukocytes,
522(1)
Development of Platelets,
523(1)
Mechanisms of Hemostasis,
523(1)
Function of Platelets and Blood Vessels,
523(1)
Function of Clotting Factors,
525(1)
Control of Hemostatic Mechanisms,
526(1)
Retraction and Lysis of Blood Clots,
527(2)
Pediatrics and Hematologie Value Changes,
529(1)
Aging and Hematologie Value Changes,
529(8)
20 Alterations of Hematologic Function,
537(1)
Thom J. Mansen
Kathryn L. McCance
Alterations of Erythrocyte Function,
538(1)
Classification of Anemias,
538(1)
Macrocytic-Normochromic Anemias,
541(1)
Microcytic-Hypochromic Anemias,
543(1)
Normocytic-Normochromic Anemias,
545(2)
Myeloproliferative Red Cell Disorders,
547(1)
Polycythemia Vera,
547(1)
Alterations of Leukocyte Function,
548(1)
Quantitative Alterations of Leukocytes,
549(1)
Qualitative Alterations of Leukocytes,
552(7)
Alterations of Lymphoid Function,
559(1)
Lymphadenopathy,
559(1)
Malignant Lymphomas,
560(4)
Alterations of Splenic Function,
564(1)
Alterations of Platelets and Coagulation,
565(1)
Disorders of Platelet Function,
565(1)
Alterations of Platelet Function,
567(1)
Disorders of Coagulation,
568(11)
21 Alterations of Hematologic Function in Children,
579(1)
Nancy E. Kline
Kathryn L. McCance
Disorders of Erythrocytes,
580(1)
Acquired Disorders,
580(1)
Inherited Disorders,
583(5)
Disorders of Coagulation and Platelets,
588(1)
Inherited Hemorrhagic Disease,
588(1)
Antibody-Mediated Hemorrhagic Disease,
590(1)
Neoplastic Disorders,
591(1)
Leukemia and Lymphoma,
591(6)
Unit VII The Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems
22 Structure and Function of the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems,
597(1)
Kathryn L. McCance
The Circulatory System,
598(1)
The Heart,
598(1)
Structures That Direct Circulation Through the Heart,
598(1)
Structures That Support Cardiac Metabolism: The Coronary Vessels,
602(1)
Structures That Control Heart Action,
605(1)
Factors Affecting Cardiac Performance,
613(4)
Aging and Cardiovascular Function,
617(1)
The Systemic Circulation,
617(1)
Structure of Blood Vessels,
617(1)
Factors Affecting Blood Flow,
622(1)
Regulation of Blood Pressure,
626(1)
Regulation of the Coronary Circulation,
631(1)
The Lymphatic System,
632
23 Alterations of Cardiovascular Function,
631(1)
Valentina L. Brashers
Diseases of the Arteries and Veins,
640(1)
Arteriosclerosis,
640(1)
Atherosclerosis,
640(1)
Hypertension,
644(1)
Orthostatic (Postural) Hypotension,
650(1)
Aneurysm,
651(1)
Thrombus Formation,
652(1)
Embolism,
652(1)
Peripheral Arterial Disease,
653(1)
Diseases of the Veins,
654(1)
Coronary Artery Disease, Myocardial Ischemia, and Acute Coronary Syndromes,
655(12)
Disorders of the Heart Wall,
667(1)
Disorders of the Pericardium,
667(1)
Disorders of the Myocardium: The Cardiomyopathies,
670(1)
Disorders of the Endocardium,
670(1)
Cardiac Complications in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS),
679(1)
Manifestations of Heart Disease,
679(1)
Dysrhythmias,
679(1)
Heart Failure,
684(5)
Shock,
689(1)
Impairment of Cellular Metabolism,
689(1)
Types of Shock,
697(1)
Treatment for Shock,
697(1)
Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome,
698(11)
24 Alterations of Cardiovascular Function in Children,
709(1)
Jean Anne Connor
Kathryn L. McCance
Congenital Heart Disease,
710(1)
Obstructive Defects,
712(1)
Defects With Increased Pulmonary Blood Flow,
713(1)
Defects With Decreased Pulmonary Blood Flow,
716(1)
Mixed Defects,
717(1)
Congestive Heart Failure,
720(1)
Acquired Cardiovascular Disorders,
721(1)
Kawasaki Disease,
721(1)
Systemic Hypertension,
722(7)
Unit VIII The Pulmonary System
25 Structure and Function of the Plumonary System,
729(1)
Valentina L. Brashers
Sue E. Huether
Structures of the Pulmonary System,
730(1)
Conducting Airways,
730(1)
Gas-Exchange Airways,
731(1)
Pulmonary and Bronchial Circulation,
734(1)
Chest Wall and Pleura,
735(1)
Function of the Pulmonary System,
735(1)
Ventilation,
735(1)
Neurochemical Control of Ventilation,
736(1)
Mechanics of Breathing,
738(1)
Gas Transport,
741(1)
Control of the Pulmonary Circulation,
747(1)
Aging and the Pulmonary System,
748(3)
26 Alterations of Pulmonary Funcion,
751(1)
Valentina L. Brashers
Clinical Manifestations of Pulmonary Alterations,
752(1)
Signs and Symptoms of Pulmonary Disease,
752(1)
Conditions Caused by Pulmonary Disease or Injury,
754(8)
Pulmonary Disorders,
762(1)
Acute Respiratory Failure,
762(1)
Obstructive Pulmonary Disease,
764(1)
Respiratory Tract Infections,
771(1)
Pulmonary Vascular Disease,
774(1)
Lip Cancer,
777(1)
Laryngeal Cancer,
778(1)
Lung Cancer,
779(8)
27 Alterations of Pulmonary Function in Children,
787(1)
Deborah K Froh
Sue E. Huether
Pulmonary Disorders,
788(1)
Disorders of the Upper Airways,
788(1)
Disorders of the Lower Airways,
790(13)
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome,
803(4)
Unit IX The Renal and Urologic Systems
28 Structure and Function of the Renal and Urologic System,
807(1)
Sue E. Huether
Structures of the Renal System,
808(1)
Structures of the Kidney,
808(1)
Urinary Structures,
811(2)
Renal Blood Flow,
813(1)
Autoregulation,
813(1)
Neural Regulation,
813(1)
Hormonal Regulation,
814(1)
Kidney Function,
815(1)
Nephron Function,
815(1)
Concentration and Dilution of Urine,
818(1)
Renal Hormones,
820(1)
The Concept of Clearance,
821(1)
Pediatrics and Renal Function,
822(1)
Aging and Renal Function,
822(3)
29 Alterations of Renal and Urinary Tract Function,
825(1)
Mikel Gray
Sue E. Huether
Urinary Tract Obstruction,
826(1)
Consequences of Obstruction,
826(1)
Obstructive Disorders,
827(1)
Tumors,
831(1)
Urinary Tract Infection,
832(1)
Causes of Urinary Tract Infection,
832(1)
Types of Urinary Tract Infection,
833(2)
Glomerular Disorders,
835(1)
Glomerulonephritis,
836(1)
Nephrotic Syndrome,
838(1)
Renal Failure,
839(1)
Classification of Renal Dysfunction,
839(1)
Types of Renal Failure,
840(9)
30 Alterations of Renal and Urinary Tract Function in Children,
849(1)
Sue E. Huether
Structural Abnormalities,
850(1)
Hypospadias,
850(1)
Epispadias and Exstrophy of the Bladder,
850(1)
Bladder Outlet Obstruction,
851(1)
Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction,
851(1)
Hypoplastic/Dysplastic Kidneys,
851(1)
Polycystic Kidneys,
851(1)
Renal Agenesis,
852(1)
Glomerular Disorders,
852(1)
Nephrotic Syndrome,
852(1)
Glomerulonephritis,
852(1)
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome,
853(1)
Immunoglobulin A Neuropathy,
854(1)
Obstructive Disorders,
854(1)
Urinary Tract Infections,
854(1)
Vesicoureteral Reflux,
855(1)
Nephroblastoma,
856(1)
Enuresis,
856(1)
Types of Enuresis,
857(4)
Unit X The Reproductive Systems
31 Structure and Function of the Reproductive Systems,
861(1)
Angela Deneris
Sue E. Huether
Kristynia M. Robinson
Development of the Reproductive Systems,
862(1)
Sexual Differentiation in Utero,
862(1)
Puberty,
864(1)
The Female Reproductive System,
865(1)
External Genitalia,
865(1)
Internal Genitalia,
866(1)
Female Sex Hormones,
870(1)
Menstrual Cycle,
871(4)
The Male Reproductive System,
875(1)
External Genitalia,
875(1)
Internal Genitalia,
878(1)
Spermatogenesis,
879(1)
Male Sex Hormones,
880(1)
Structure and Function of the Breast,
880(1)
Female Breast,
880(1)
Male Breast,
882(1)
Aging and Reproductive Function,
882(1)
Aging and the Female Reproductive System,
882(1)
Aging and the Male Reproductive System,
884(5)
32 Alterations of the Reproductive Systems,
889(1)
Including Sexually Transmitted Infections
Katherine Morgan
Kathryn L. McCance
Kristynia M. Robinson
Alterations of Sexual Maturation,
890(1)
Delayed Puberty,
890(1)
Precocious Puberty,
890(1)
Disorders of the Female Reproductive System,
890(1)
Hormonal and Menstrual Alterations,
890(1)
Infection and Inflammation,
896(1)
Pelvic Relaxation Disorders,
900(1)
Benign Growths and Proliferative Conditions,
902(1)
Cancer,
905(1)
Sexual Dysfunction,
910(1)
Impaired Fertility,
911(1)
Disorders of the Male Reproductive System,
912(1)
Disorders of the Urethra,
912(1)
Disorders of the Penis,
912(1)
Disorders of the Scrotum, Testis, and Epididymis,
915(1)
Disorders of the Prostate Gland,
919(1)
Sexual Dysfunction,
926(1)
Disorders of the Breast,
927(1)
Disorders of the Female Breast,
927(1)
Disorders of the Male Breast,
940(1)
Sexually Transmitted Infections,
941(14)
Unit XI The Digestive System
33 Structure and Function of the Digestive System,
955(1)
Sue E. Huether
The Gastrointestinal Tract,
956(1)
Mouth and Esophagus,
956(1)
Stomach,
958(1)
Small Intestine,
961(1)
Large Intestine,
964(1)
Intestinal Bacteria,
968(1)
Splanchnic Blood Flow,
968(1)
Accessory Organs of Digestion,
968(1)
Liver,
969(1)
Gallbladder,
974(1)
Exocrine Pancreas,
974(3)
Aging and the Gastrointestinal System,
977(4)
34 Alterations of Digestive Function,
981(1)
Sue E. Huether
Disorders of the Gastrointestinal Tract,
982(1)
Clinical Manifestations of Gastrointestinal Dysfunction,
982(1)
Disorders of Motility,
984(1)
Gastritis,
990(1)
Peptic Ulcer Disease,
990(1)
Malabsorption Syndromes,
996(1)
Inflammatory Bowel Disease,
996(1)
Appendicitis,
999(1)
Vascular Insufficiency,
999(1)
Disorders of Nutrition,
1000(2)
Disorders of the Accessory Organs of Digestion,
1002(1)
Clinical Manifestations of Liver Disorders,
1002(1)
Disorders of the Liver,
1006(1)
Disorders of the Gallbladder,
1010(1)
Disorders of the Pancreas,
1011(1)
Cancer of the Digestive System,
1012(1)
Cancer of the Gastrointestinal Tract,
1012(5)
Cancer of the Accessory Organs of Digestion,
1017(10)
35 Alterations of Digestive Function in Children,
1027(1)
Deborah B. Evers
Disorders of the Gastrointestinal Tract,
1028(1)
Congenital Impairment of Motility,
1028(1)
Acquired Impairment of Motility,
1033(1)
Impairment of Digestion, Absorption, and Nutrition,
1035(1)
Diarrhea,
1039(1)
Disorders of the Liver,
1040(1)
Disorders of Biliary Metabolism and Transport,
1040(1)
Inflammatory Disorders,
1040(1)
Portal Hypertension,
1041(1)
Metabolic Disorders,
1041(6)
Unit XII The Musculoskeletal and Integumentary Systems
36 Structure and Function of the Musculoskeletal System,
1047(1)
Christy L. Crowther
Structure and Function of Bones,
1048(1)
Elements of Bone Tissue,
1048(1)
Types of Bone Tissue,
1051(1)
Characteristics of Bone,
1051(1)
Maintenance of Bone Integrity,
1053(1)
Structure and Function of Joints,
1054(1)
Fibrous Joints,
1055(1)
Cartilaginous Joints,
1055(1)
Synovial Joints,
1055(4)
Structure and Function of Skeletal Muscles,
1059(1)
Whole Muscle,
1059(1)
Components of Muscle Function,
1063(4)
Aging and the Musculoskeletal System,
1067(1)
Aging of Bones,
1067(1)
Aging of Joints,
1068(1)
Aging of Muscles,
1068(3)
37 Alterations of Musculoskeletal Function,
1071(1)
Christy L. Crowther
Kathryn L. McCance
Musculoskeletal Injuries,
1072(1)
Skeletal Trauma,
1072(1)
Support Structures,
1076(4)
Disorders of Bones,
1080(1)
Metabolic Bone Diseases,
1080(1)
Infectious Bone Disease: Osteomyelitis,
1088(2)
Disorders of Joints,
1090(1)
Noninflammatory Joint Disease,
1090(1)
Inflammatory Joint Disease,
1093(9)
Disorders of Skeletal Muscle,
1102(1)
Secondary Muscular Dysfunction,
1102(1)
Fibromyalgia,
1103(1)
Muscle Membrane Abnormalities,
1104(1)
Metabolic Muscle Diseases,
1105(1)
Inflammatory Muscle Diseases: Myositis,
1106(1)
Toxic Myopathies,
1107(1)
Musculoskeletal Tumors,
1108(1)
Bone Tumors,
1108(1)
Muscle Tumors,
1112(5)
38 Alterations of Musculoskeletal Function in Children,
1117(1)
Kristen Lee Carroll
Congenital Defects,
1118(1)
Clubfoot,
1118(1)
Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip,
1119(1)
Osteogenesis Imperfecta,
1119(1)
Bone Infection,
1120(1)
Osteomyelitis,
1120(1)
Septic Arthritis,
1122(1)
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis,
1122(1)
Osteochondroses,
1122(1)
Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease,
1123(1)
Osgood-Schlatter Disease,
1124(1)
Scoliosis,
1125(1)
Muscular Dystrophy,
1125(1)
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy,
1125(2)
Musculoskeletal Tumors,
1127(1)
Benign Bone Tumors,
1127(1)
Malignant Bone Tumors,
1128(2)
Nonaccidental Trauma,
1130(1)
Fractures in Nonaccidental Trauma,
1130(3)
39 Structure, Function, and Disorder of the Integument,
1133(1)
Sue E. Huether
Structure and Function of the Skin,
1134(1)
Layers of the Skin,
1134(1)
Clinical Manifestations of Skin Dysfunction,
1135(1)
Aging and Changes in Skin Integrity,
1135(8)
Disorders of the Skin,
1143(1)
Inflammatory Disorders,
1143(1)
Papulosquamous Disorders,
1144(1)
Vesiculobullous Disorders,
1147(1)
Infections,
1148(1)
Vascular Disorders,
1151(1)
Insect Bites,
1153(1)
Benign Tumors,
1153(1)
Cancer,
1154(1)
Bums,
1157(1)
Frostbite,
1161(1)
Disorders of the Hair,
1162(1)
Alopecia,
1162(1)
Hirsutism,
1162(1)
Disorders of the Nail,
1162(1)
Paronychia,
1162(1)
Onychomycosis,
1163(6)
40 Alterations of the Integument in Children,
1169(1)
Sue E. Huether
Dermatitis,
1170(1)
Atopic Dermatitis,
1170(1)
Diaper Dermatitis,
1170(1)
Acne Vulgaris,
1171(1)
Infections of the Skin,
1171(1)
Bacterial Infections,
1171(1)
Fungal Infections,
1172(1)
Viral Infections,
1173(3)
Insect Bites and Parasites,
1176(1)
Scabies,
1176(1)
Pediculosis (Lice Infestation),
1177(1)
Fleas,
1177(1)
Bedbugs,
1177(1)
Vascular Disorders,
1178(1)
Strawberry Hemangioma,
1178(1)
Cavernous Hemangiomas,
1178(1)
Salmon Patches,
1179(1)
Port-Wine Stain,
1179(1)
Other Skin Disorders,
1179(1)
Miliaria,
1179(1)
Erythema Toxicum Neonatorum,
1179
Appendix
Most Common Laboratory Values,
1183

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