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Understanding the Political World A Comparative Introduction to Political Science

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  • Edition: 11th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2012-02-14
  • Publisher: Pearson
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Updated in its 11thedition, Understanding the Political Worldoffers a comparative perspective on how politics works at the global, national, group, and individual level. Focusing on how fundamental concepts in political science relate to real political events, this bestselling text surveys political behavior, systems, and processes throughout the world and asks students to evaluate and apply this knowledge. Through an engaging writing style, numerous examples, and the instructive use of visuals, Understanding the Political Worldencourages readers to think like political scientists and to critically examine new and enduring political realities and challenges.

Author Biography

James N. Danziger is Professor of Political Science at the University of California, Irvine, where he also has served as Chair of the Department of Political Science, campus-wide Dean of Undergraduate Education, Chair of the Academic Senate, and Associate Director of the Center for Research on Information Technology and Organizations. He is recipient of many honors and awards, including a Marshall Scholarship (to Great Britain), a Foreign Area Fellowship, Woodrow Wilson Fellowship, Phi Beta Kappa, and an IBM Faculty Award. He received the first UC Irvine Distinguished Faculty Lectureship Award for Teaching in 1987 and the UC Irvine Distinguished Service Award in 1997. His Ph.D. is from Stanford University, and he has held visiting appointments at the universities of Aarhus (Denmark), Pittsburgh, and Virginia. His research has received awards from the American Political Science Association and the American Society for Public Administration. He has published extensively, particularly on information technology and politics, and he is on the editorial board of the International Journal of Electronic Government Research. He has also been an active participant in local politics.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
To the Readerp. xix
Mapsp. xxi
On Knowing the Political World
Politics and Knowledgep. 1
Towards a Definition of Politicsp. 3
On Political Knowledgep. 5
Types of Political Knowledgep. 5
Descriptionp. 5
Explanationp. 6
Prescriptionp. 7
The Acid Test Ip. 8
Sources of Political Knowledgep. 10
Authorityp. 10
Personal Thoughtp. 13
Sciencep. 14
Political Sciencep. 15
Doing Comparative Analysisp. 16
Political Science and Political Knowledgep. 16
The Debate In 1 Is Political Science Possible?p. 17
The Subfields of Political Science ?p. 18
Where is This Book Going?p. 19
The Political Knowledge of Different Age Groups in the United Statesp. 21
Political Behavior
Political Theory and Political Beliefsp. 26
Normative Political Theoryp. 29
Great Britain as a Context for Some Great Political Theoristsp. 30
Political Ideologyp. 31
Conservatismp. 33
Classical Liberalismp. 34
Socialismp. 36
Some Further Points About "Isms"p. 39
Individual Political Beliefsp. 42
Types of Political Orientationsp. 42
Identifying Specific Beliefsp. 43
Belief Systemsp. 45
Political Culturep. 48
National Character Studiesp. 48
Is There a "Clash of Civilizations"?p. 49
Survey Research Analysesp. 50
Value Differences Across Countriesp. 51
Looking Aheadp. 53
Political Actionsp. 57
Individual Political Actionsp. 60
Modes of Political Activityp. 60
Political Activistsp. 61
Political Participation Studiesp. 63
Extent of Political Actions in Mexico and Polandp. 66
Group Political Actionsp. 68
Political Interest Groupsp. 69
Activities of Political Interest Groupsp. 69
Constraints on a Group's Behaviorp. 71
Types of Interest Groupsp. 72
How Interested Are Interest Groups in Democracy?p. 73
Political Partiesp. 76
Activities of Political Partiesp. 76
Let's Party! The Rise of the Green Party in Germanyp. 77
Doing Politicsp. 79
Influences on Beliefs and Actionsp. 84
The Environmentp. 87
Agents of Political Socializationp. 89
The Familyp. 89
Political Socialization in Chinap. 90
Schoolsp. 92
Peer Groupsp. 92
The Mediap. 93
Do the New ICTs Substantially Change Our Political Beliefs and Actions?p. 94
Religionp. 96
Culturep. 96
Eventsp. 97
Personal Characteristicsp. 97
You Go Your Way, I'll Go Minep. 100
Political Personalityp. 102
Personalityp. 103
Biology and Human Naturep. 105
Concluding Observationsp. 106
Political Systems
Political Systems, States, and Nationsp. 111
The Statep. 113
A Legal Definition of the Statep. 113
A Structural-Functional Definition of the Statep. 115
Does Humanitarian Intervention Violate State Sovereignty?p. 116
Major Goalsp. 118
The Nationp. 121
Nation and Statep. 122
State and Nations: The Indian Subcontinentp. 123
The Political Systemp. 124
Power and Authorityp. 126
Conceptualization of the Political Systemp. 128
Three Major Concepts: A Reprisep. 131
Political Institutions I: Institutional Structuresp. 135
Executivesp. 137
Roles of Executivesp. 138
Structural Arrangementsp. 139
The Age of the Executive?p. 142
Legislaturesp. 142
Roles of the Legislaturep. 142
Electoral Systems and Legislative Representation: South Africap. 144
Legislative Structuresp. 147
The Decline of Legislaturesp. 149
Administrative Systemsp. 150
Administrative Functions and Powerp. 150
Bureaucracy as One Form of Administrationp. 151
Five Styles of Administrationp. 152
Judiciariesp. 153
Aspects of Adjudicationp. 154
Judicial Structuresp. 155
Is Judicial Review Democratic?p. 156
Styles of Adjudicationp. 158
Concluding Observationsp. 159
Political Institutions II: Institutional Arrangementsp. 163
Constitutions and Constitutional Regimesp. 166
Constitutionsp. 166
Constitutional Regimesp. 167
Nonconstitutional Regimesp. 167
Democracies and Nondemocraciesp. 168
Defining Democracyp. 170
Defining Nondemocraciesp. 172
A Democracy-Nondemocracy Measurep. 174
Areal Distribution of Powerp. 175
Unitary Statep. 175
Federationp. 177
Confederationp. 178
Forms of Executive-Legislative Relationsp. 179
Presidential Governmentp. 179
Parliamentary Governmentp. 180
Hybrid Systemsp. 182
Council Systemsp. 183
A Hybrid System in Action: Francep. 183
Assembly Systemsp. 184
Which Form Is Optimal?p. 185
Which Form of Government Is Preferable: Parliamentary, Presidential, or Hybrid?p. 185
Political Party Systemsp. 187
Two-Party Systemsp. 189
Multiparty Systemsp. 189
Dominant-Party Systemsp. 190
One-Party Systemsp. 191
Party Systems in Four Countriesp. 191
No-Party Systemsp. 192
Classification and Clarityp. 193
Political Economyp. 197
Politics and Economicsp. 199
A Political-Economic Frameworkp. 200
Factors, Firms, and Households/Consumersp. 200
Getting and Spendingp. 202
The State Joins Inp. 204
The World Joins Inp. 205
The Economy Strikes Backp. 206
Measuring Economic Prosperityp. 207
Wealth Inequalityp. 210
Two Ideal-Type Political Economiesp. 211
The Market Economy: Total Private Controp. 212
The Command Economy: Total State Controlp. 214
Key Problems of Each Ideal-Type Political Economyp. 215
Market Economyp. 215
Command Economyp. 216
The Mixed Economyp. 216
Mexico's Political Economyp. 219
Politics Plus Political Economy: The Other "ISMS"p. 220
The Three "Isms"p. 220
The Real Worldp. 221
Is Communism Dead?p. 222
Concluding Observationsp. 226
Political Processes
Public Policy, Power, and Decisionp. 230
Public Policyp. 233
Types of Public Policiesp. 233
Selected Public Policies in Seven Countriesp. 235
Analysis of the Stages of the Policy Processp. 236
Policy Impact Analysisp. 238
Policy Prescriptionp. 239
Explaining Public Policy Decision! Makingp. 239
The Elite Approachp. 240
Key Conceptsp. 240
Major Theoristsp. 240
The Public Policy Processp. 241
The Prevalence of Elite-Based Political Systemsp. 244
Elite Politics in Swazilandp. 242
The Class Approachp. 244
The Public Policy Processp. 245
The Pluralist Approachp. 246
The Policymaking Processp. 247
The Debate In 9p. 250
The Three Approaches Comparedp. 251
Which Approach Is Correct?p. 251
Essential Similarities and Differencesp. 252
Change and Political Developmentp. 257
Changep. 259
Developmentp. 260?
Characteristics of "'More Developed" Human Systemsp. 260
The Process of Developmentp. 262
The Dynamics of Economic Developmentp. 264
Political Developmentp. 268
Characteristics of Political Developmentp. 268
The Process of Political Developmentp. 269
Political Development and Modernization in Turkeyp. 270
Political Development as Democratizationp. 272
Is Economic Development a Necessary Prerequisite for Democracy?p. 273
World of Changesp. 275
Compare In 10p. 276
Concluding Observationsp. 279
Politics Across Bordersp. 283
Perspectives on States' Behaviorp. 286
Realist and Idealist Perspectives on the States' "Motives"p. 286
A Geopolitical Perspectivep. 287
Compare In 11 Geopolitics in Two Countriesp. 288
Mechanisms of Political Cooperation Across Bordersp. 289
Diplomacy and Interstate Agreementsp. 290
International Lawp. 293
International Organizationsp. 295
Political Competition Across Bordersp. 300
Transnational Systems of Powerp. 301
Domination and Dependencep. 303
The Faces of Colonialism: Congop. 305
Globalization?p. 306
The Debate In 11p. 308
Competition in the Globalizing Worldp. 309
Political Violencep. 315
Violencep. 317
Political Societyp. 318
Types of Political Violencep. 319
State Violence Against Individuals or Groupsp. 319
Individual Violence Against an Individualp. 321
Group Violence Against an Individualp. 322
Group Violence Against a Groupp. 325
The Debate In 12 Is Terrorism Ever a Justifiable Form of Political Violence?p. 326
Individual or Group Violence Against the Statep. 330
Use of Force Between Statesp. 334
Warp. 335
What Causes War?p. 336
Focus In 12p. 337
Compare In 12p. 339
Evaluating Political Violence: Means and Endsp. 342
Politics Among States
The Developed Countries of the Global Northp. 349
Grouping the States in the Contemporary Worldp. 351
The Developed Countries of the Global Northp. 352
The Developing Countries of the Global Southp. 353
The Transitional Developed Countriesp. 354
Goal: Prosperityp. 355
Mixed Economyp. 355
Sweden and Switzerlandp. 357
Performancep. 358
Challenges to Prosperityp. 360
Are the Social Democracies Dying?p. 362
Goal: Stabilityp. 363
Liberal Democraciesp. 363
Political Institutionalizationp. 364
Order Maintenancep. 365
Welcome to the Brave New World: Singaporep. 365
Challenges to Stabilityp. 367
Goal: Securityp. 369
The Era of Colonialismp. 369
The Cold War Periodp. 370
The Post-Cold War Periodp. 370
Challenges to Securityp. 371
The Developed Countries Overallp. 372
The Developing Countries of the Global Southp. 376
Grouping Countries in the Developing Worldp. 379
Developmental Classificationp. 379
Regional Classificationp. 380
Achieving Development in the Global South: Some Obstaclesp. 382
Obstacles to Development: Nigeria and the Philippinesp. 384
Goal: Prosperityp. 386
The Quest for Prosperity: Strategic Choicesp. 386
Poor Women and Development: Microcredit in Bangladeshp. 391
Current Outcomesp. 392
Goal: Securityp. 395
Interstate Violencep. 395
Economic Securityp. 397
Goal: Stabilityp. 398
Inadequate Political Developmentp. 398
The Decline of Orderp. 399
Democratizationp. 400
Political Approachesp. 402
Is it Getting Better all the Time?p. 405
The Debate In 14 Will There Always Be a Third World?p. 407
The Transitional Developed Countriesp. 412
The Postcommunist Developed Countriesp. 415
Acid Test IIp. 416
Goal: Prosperityp. 418
Strategyp. 418
Performancep. 418
Challengesp. 419
Goal: Stabilityp. 420
Strategies p420
Challengesp. 422
Social Disorderp. 422
Nationality Conflictsp. 423
Entry into Europe and Global Societyp. 423
Goal: Securityp. 424
The Newly Industrializing Countriesp. 425
Goal: Prosperityp. 426
Approachp. 426
Performancep. 427
FocusIn 15p. 431
Goal: Stabilityp. 433
Asian NICsp. 433
Latin American NICsp. 433
Democratization?p. 433
Goal: Securityp. 434
Asian NICsp. 434
Latin American NICsp. 435
The Future of the Transitional Developed Countriesp. 435
The Postcommunist Developed Countriesp. 436
The NICsp. 436
Next?p. 437
So…p. 437
The Final Debate What Time Is It?p. 438
Appendix: Political Analysisp. 443
Glossaryp. 457
Referencesp. 469
Photo Creditsp. 485
Indexp. 486
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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