Understanding Reading Problems Assessment and Instruction, Pearson eText with Loose-Leaf Version -- Access Card Package

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  • Edition: 9th
  • Format: Package
  • Copyright: 2016-07-11
  • Publisher: Pearson

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The market-leading, dependable guide for assessing literacy at every stage of development and implementing corrective instruction.

In this widely popular book, classroom teachers get up-to-date coverage of reading processes, their assessment, and their corrective instruction, including thorough treatment of reading and writing at every stage of development. The new edition provides updated coverage of the Common Core State Standards and the imperative to teach English learners. Included are an overview of essential reading processes—acquiring emergent literacy concepts, word recognition, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension, as well as spelling and writing—and a review of the stages of literacy development—emergent, beginning reading, building fluency, reading to learn and for pleasure, and mature reading. Thorough explanations and detailed procedures for assessing and teaching emergent literacy look at phonological awareness, phonics and word knowledge from beginning to advanced levels, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension of narrative and informational text. Teaching techniques range from the Response to Intervention framework to strategies for individual students, including those whose home language is not English. Diagnostic and week-to-week monitoring procedures, as well as formal assessments and testing terminology are covered in detail, and a full chapter covers laws and policies affecting children with special needs, as well as other physical and cognitive factors that impinge on students’ literacy growth. 


013384661X / 9780133846614 Understanding Reading Problems: Assessment and Instruction, Pearson eText with Loose-Leaf Version -- Access Card Package

Package consists of: 

  • 0134228448 / 9780134228440 Understanding Reading Problems: Assessment and Instruction, Loose-Leaf Version
  • 0134276981 / 9780134276984 Understanding Reading Problems: Assessment and Instruction, Pearson eText -- Access Card


Author Biography

Jean Gillet has been an elementary reading specialist in central Virginia. She has also served as a classroom teacher, staff development specialist, and university educator. Her professional interests include the diagnosis and correction of reading difficulties, children’s developmental spelling, and children’s writing. Jean’s extensive published work includes topics such as including contributing to classroom instructional materials on writing and spelling. The coauthor of several textbooks for teachers on language arts, reading, writing, and spelling, she received her doctorate from the University of Virginia.


Charles Temple teaches courses in literacy, children’s literature, and storytelling at Hobart and William Smith Colleges. He trained as a reading clinician at the McGuffey Reading Center at the University of Virginia where he earned his Ph.D. He has co-authored many textbooks for teacher education, including All Children Reading, Children’s Books in Children’s Hands, The Beginnings of Writing, and The Developmental Literacy Inventory.  Temple has worked on literacy and democratization projects on five continents, and currently volunteers as a teacher trainer and children’s book editor in Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Tanzania. He plays banjo and guitar, and is a children’s book author.


Codruca Temple teaches courses in literacy, applied linguistics, and teaching methods for English Language Learners at the State University of New York at Cortland, where she oversees certification programs for teachers of foreign languages and programs for TESOL, preschool through grade 12.  She earned her doctorate in English Education and Linguistics at Syracuse University. She is coauthor of The Beginnings of Writing. Charles and Codruca Temple have five children and two grandchildren between them. They enjoy reading, writing, sailing, traveling, and walking their dog Jackie along Seneca Lake in Geneva, New York.


Alan Crawford is Emeritus Professor of Education at California State University, Los Angeles. A Past President of the California Reading Association, he has done extensive teaching, consulting, and writing on teaching reading in the elementary school, especially for English language learners. Alan has written curriculum for teaching reading in Spanish and serves on the Editorial Review Board of Lectura y Vida. He served as IRA’s representative to UNESCO for many years and was a Senior Literacy Specialist at UNESCO in Paris during International Literacy Year (1989-90). He is a director of Critical Thinking International and frequently presents workshops on a volunteer basis for international development projects in Latin America, Europe, Asia, and Africa.

Table of Contents

Preface - xiii

Chapter 1 Reading and Its Assessment - 1

Literacy Now: Framing the Issues- 2

Why Does Reading Ability Matter? - 2

How Do Different Groups of Students Perform on Literacy Tasks? - 7

How Do English Language Learners Fare in Literacy? - 10

How Do We View Learning to Read at Different Stages? - 11

What Happens in the Emergent Literacy Stage? - 12

What Happens in the Beginning Reading Stage? - 12

What Happens in the Building Fluency Stage? - 13

What Happens in the Developing Reading Stage? - 14

What Happens in the Mature Reading and Disciplinary Reading Stage? - 14

Old and New: No Child Left Behind and the Common Core State Standards - 15

Reading Assessment - 16

Why Do We Assess Readers and Writers? - 16

Different Assessments for Different Phases of Instruction - 18

Summary - 18

References - 19

Chapter 2 Response to Intervention (RTI) and Struggling Readers -21

From a Discrepancy Model to Response to Intervention - 22

The Origins of RTI - 22

Response to Intervention (RTI) - 23

Characteristics of RTI: What It Is, What It Isn’t - 24

Recommended Principles of RTI from the International Reading Association - 24

The Multi-Tiered Structure of RTI - 26

Approaches and Models for Implementing RTI - 27

Interactive Strategies Approach (ISA) - 27

Comprehensive Intervention Model (CIM) - 28

Evidence-Based Literacy Programs- 29

The Role of Assessment in RTI- 30

Members of the RTI Team and Their Roles - 30

Classroom Teacher- 31

Special Education Teacher - 31

School Psychologist - 31

Building Principal - 31

Parents - 32

RTI in Middle Schools and High Schools - 32

Summary- 34

References - 34

Chapter 3 Assessing and Teaching Emergent Readers and Writers - 37

Emergent Literacy- 38

Aspects of Emergent Literacy -38
Assessing Emerging Readers - 39

Assessing Print Concepts - 39

Alphabet Knowledge- 41

The Concept of Word - 42

Phonological Awareness- 44

Oral Language Development - 51

Widely Distributed Tests of Emergent Literacy - 57

Teaching for Emergent Literacy- 61

Teaching Print Orientation Concepts- 62

Teaching the Alphabet- 62

Teaching the Concept of Word - 63

Teaching to Build Phonological Awareness -64

Teaching for Many Things at Once- 65

Reading Storybooks - 66

Teaching to Nurture Vocabulary Development- 71

Teaching Decontextualized Language- 72

Emergent Literacy and the Common Core State Standards - 74

Summary - 75

References - 75

Chapter 4 Assessing and Teaching Beginning and Fledgling Readers and Writers - 77

Components of Beginning and Fledgling Reading - 79

Word Recognition - 79

Reading Fluency -81

Vocabulary - 81

Comprehension, the Ability to Derive Meaning from Text - 81

Assessing Beginning and Fledgling Readers- 82

Running Records - 82

Running Records to Document Progress - 83

Further Assessments of Beginning and Fledgling Readers -86

Instruction for Beginning and Fledgling Readers - 91

Guided Reading - 92

The Language Experience Approach - 94

Working on Reading Skills- 96

Writing - 101

Word Study - 102

Reading Aloud - 105

Beginning and Fledgling Reading and the Common Core Standards -  105

Summary - 107

References - 107

Chapter 5 Teaching Developing Readers - 109

Phonics and Word Knowledge for Developing Readers - 111

Word Knowledge at Different Levels - 111

Teaching Phonics - 112

Word Study at More Advanced Levels - 114

Guiding Word Study - 116

Teaching Words with Shared Phonogram Patterns - 116

Teaching Words with Grammatical Affixes and Derivational Affixes - 117

Teaching Homophones and Homographs - 117

Developing Sight Vocabulary - 118

Dictated Stories and Language Experience - 118

Support Reading: Echo Reading and Choral Reading- 119

Developing Word Analysis Strategies  - 121

Using Context -121

Approaching Word Attack Strategically- 122

Developing Reading Fluency - 123

Modeling Fluent Oral Reading -  124

Providing Oral Support for Reading - 126

Providing Practice in Oral Reading 127

Repeated Reading for Fluency - 127

Predictable Books, “Easy Readers,” and Other Easy Reading Fare - 129

Developing Readers’ Vocabulary - 131

Levels of Vocabulary Knowledge -131

Dissecting Children’s Vocabulary- 132

Approaches to Teaching Vocabulary- 132

Exercises for Second Grade and Up- 133

Teaching the Use of Context Clues to Vocabulary- 135

Developing Reading Comprehension - 136

Strategies for the Phase of Anticipation- 136

Strategies for the Phase of Building Knowledge - 140

Strategies for the Phase of Consolidation- 147

Close Reading- 154

Six Close Readings - 154

Developing Listening Comprehension - 157

Summary - 162

References  - 163

Chapter 6 Informal Assessments of Reading and Reading Levels - 165

Introduction - 166

Informal Reading Inventories - 166

Selecting a Commercial Informal Reading Inventory - 170

Types of Text - 170

Format and Instructions- 171

Administering an Informal Reading Inventory- 172

Scoring an Informal Reading Inventory - 181

Scoring the Word Recognition Inventory - 187

Interpreting an Informal Reading Inventory- 188

Supplementing Informal Reading Inventories - 196

Observations of Reading Behaviors and Strategies - 199

Observing Readers -200

Recording Observation - 201

Monitoring Types and Difficulty of Texts Read - 204

Guided Reading Levels- 205

Readability Estimates  - 206

Lexiles - 207

Text Complexity - 208

Qualitative Factors- 210

Quantitative Factors - 210

Reader and Task Considerations - 210

Text Complexity and Reading Levels - 211

Student Portfolios - 211

Purposes of Portfolios - 211

Kinds of Portfolios - 212

What Goes into a Portfolio? - 213

Organizing a Portfolio Program - 215

Summary - 230

References  - 230

Chapter 7 Assessing and Teaching Middle and Secondary School Readers and Writers - 233

The Reading and Writing Issues of Older Students- 234

Why Should We Be Concerned About Older Students’ Reading and Writing Ability?- 234

Responding to the Needs of Readers and Writers in Middle and Secondary Grades - 235

Reading Strategies for Use across the Curriculum- 237

Strategies for the Anticipation Phase - 238

Strategies for the Building Knowledge Phase - 241

Strategies for the Reflection Phase - 244

Providing Close Support for Students’ Reading Development- 246

Organizing Focused Strategic and Intensive Instruction- 246

Assessing Readers for Focused Instruction - 247

Planning Lessons for Readers with Disabilities - 247

Teaching Strategies to Build Reading Competence -248

Introducing and Focusing Attention on New Vocabulary -251

Close Reading - 254

Helping Older Students Write- 256

Eleven Elements of Effective Adolescent Writing Instruction - 257

Teaching Writing Strategies and Teaching the Writing Process Approach- 258

Having Goals for Writing -262

Keyboarding Skill - 262

Writing for Inquiry - 262

Motivational and Emotional Issues of Adolescent Students with Reading Problems - 265

Guiding Principles and Theories - 265

Summary -274

References  - 274

Chapter 8 Assessing and Teaching Spelling and Writing - 277

Monitoring Spelling Progress and Problems  - 278

Developmental Spelling Stages  - 279

Nonalphabetic Stage - 280

Early Emergent Stage - 281

Later Emergent Stage - 281

Letter-Name Stage - 283

Within-Word Pattern Stage - 283

Syllables and Affixes Stage - 284

Derivational Constancy Stage - 286

Documenting Spelling Progress  - 286

Word Knowledge Inventory - 286

Developmental Spelling Analysis - 288

The Gentry Spelling Grade-Level Test - 289

Focused Teaching of Spelling  - 291

Monitoring Writing Progress - 294

Writing Samples - 294

Writing Checklists - 295

Six Traits Writing Evaluation - 296

Writing Rubrics - 297

Summary  - 299

References   - 300

Chapter 9 Working with Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students - 301

Introduction - 302

Cultural Differences in the Mainstream Classroom - 302

How Do Different Cultures Conceptualize Literacy? - 303

How Do Communication Styles Differ among Cultures? - 304

What Participation Structures Do Different Cultures Favor? - 304

What Task-Engagement Preferences Do People in Different Cultures Have? - 305

How Is Discourse Organized in Different Cultures? - 305

How Can Teachers Accommodate Cultural Differences in the Mainstream Classroom? - 307

Linguistic Differences in the Mainstream Classroom - 308

How Can Teachers Accommodate Nonstandard Dialects in the Mainstream Classroom? - 309

How Does English Compare to Other Languages? - 310

How Can Teachers Accommodate Linguistic Differences in the Mainstream Classroom? - 312

How Do People Learn a Second Language?  - 314

How Can Teachers Support English Language Development in the Mainstream Classroom? - 315

The Role of the First Language in Second Language and Literacy Development - 317

How Can Teachers Include English Language Learners’ First Language

in the Mainstream Classroom? - 319

Assessment of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students   - 321

Summary - 324

References - 324

Chapter 10 Formal Measures - 327

Understanding Formal Measures  - 328

Characteristics of Tests  - 330

Reliability - 330

Validity - 331

Interpreting Test Results  - 332

Distributions of Test Scores - 333

Measures of Central Tendency: Mean, Median, and Mode - 334

Measures of Dispersion: Range and Standard Deviation - 334

Forms of Test Scores - 335

Norm-Referenced Tests  - 336

Achievement Tests - 337

Diagnostic Tests - 338

Criterion-Referenced Tests  - 340

Goals and Objectives - 341

Benchmarks and Rubrics- 342

State Standards and Assessment   - 344

Summary  - 345

References  - 346

Chapter 11 Factors Related to Reading Problems - 347

Philosophical and Legal Issues Related to Students with Special Needs - 348

Past Legislation Affecting Students with Special Needs - 348

IDEA-2004 and NCLB - 350

Response to Intervention and Special Education - 350

Student Participation in General Education - 351

Identifying Students with Special Needs - 351

Assessment of Special Educational Needs - 352

Intellectual Factors - 353

Tests of Intelligence and Learning Aptitude - 354

The Role of Experience - 356

Language-Minority Students - 357

Physical Factors - 358

Vision and Visual Problems  358

Hearing and Auditory Problems 359

Language Factors    360

Language Acquisition and Difficulties in Infancy and Early Childhood                         360

Language Development and Difficulties in Preschool and Primary Grades                              361

Language Development and Difficulties in Later Childhood                                           362

Special Learning Problems                                                                                                                            363

Learning Disabilities                                                                                                                        363

Dyslexia                                                                                                                                               364

Designing Individualized Interventions                                                                                                    367

Interventions for Phonological Awareness                                                                           368

Interventions for Improving Fluency                                                                                       369

Interventions for Improving Comprehension                                                                      370

Summary                                                                                                                                                             372

References                                                                                                                                                           372

Name Index       

Subject Index

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