9780131148284

Underwater Forensic Investigation

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780131148284

  • ISBN10:

    0131148281

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2006-01-01
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
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Summary

A comprehensive approach to the processing of an underwater crime scene and the steps necessary to conduct the operation. Included is information on team formation, roles, deployment and accountability. The incorporation of the procedures presented in this book will make a true difference in the final outcome of water-related incidents.Debunks myths associated with Submerged evidence, a more sound understanding of the places in which evidence if found.Allows readers to see underwater crime scenes as "commuting time".Removes the "mystery" and "fear" of underwater recovery operations: When done knowingly can be done safely and effectively.A valuable tool for police, prosecutors, criminal investigators, rescue divers and recovery divers.

Table of Contents

Foreword xi
Preface xiii
Introduction
1(11)
Man and the Sea
1(2)
Law Enforcement and Underwater Evidence
3(7)
Review Questions
10(1)
References
11(1)
A Brief History of Diving
12(13)
Diving Dress
14(4)
Caisson Disease
15(1)
Nitrogen Narcosis
16(1)
Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus
16(2)
Underwater Investigation
18(1)
An Explanation of Pressure and the Laws of Boyle, Charles, Dalton, and Henry
19(3)
Important Dates in the History of Scuba Diving
22(2)
Review Questions
24(1)
References
24(1)
The Underwater Investigator
25(34)
The Team
27(11)
Prerequisites
28(10)
Incident Command Structure
38(8)
Incident Commander
39(4)
Dive Team Coordinator
43(1)
Public Information Officer (PIO)
44(1)
Incident Safety Officer
45(1)
Tool Pusher
45(1)
Team Structure
46(11)
Dive Team Coordinating Board
47(1)
Team Members
47(10)
Review Questions
57(1)
References
58(1)
Table of Cases
58(1)
The Law of Search and Seizure
59(14)
The U.S. Constitution and Due Process
59(3)
The Fourth Amendment
60(1)
The Fifth Amendment
61(1)
The Sixth Amendment
61(1)
The Exclusionary Rule
62(5)
History
62(1)
Exceptions
63(1)
Relevant Exceptions
63(1)
The ``Good Faith'' Exception
63(2)
Emergency Searches
65(2)
Exigent Circumstances Exception
67(1)
Warrantless Searches Based on Reasonableness
67(4)
Consent Searches
67(1)
Plain-View Searches
68(1)
Open-Field Exception
69(2)
Review Questions
71(1)
Key United States Supreme Court Cases
72(1)
The Underwater Crime Scene
73(29)
Search Briefing
76(1)
Bottom Structure
77(1)
Current
77(1)
Surf, Waves, and Tide
77(1)
Perimeter Marking
78(1)
The Underwater Search
78(10)
Boat Searches
79(2)
Search Patterns
81(1)
Random Search
82(1)
Sweep Search
82(1)
Parallel Searches
82(1)
Circular Search
83(2)
Snag Search
85(1)
Relocating the Search Site
86(1)
Profiling
87(1)
Temporal and Geographical Location of Evidence
88(12)
Photographic Log
89(1)
Video Log
89(1)
Photographing the Underwater Crime Scene
90(1)
Video Recordings
91(1)
Logging Photos
91(1)
Establishing a Reference Point
92(1)
Crime Scene Measurements
92(2)
Orienting Evidence
94(1)
Grid Searches
95(1)
Photogrammetry
96(1)
The Underwater Crime Scene Sketch
97(1)
Handling Evidence
98(1)
The Press
99(1)
Review Questions
100(1)
References
100(2)
Medicolegal Aspects of Underwater Death
102(23)
Introduction
103(1)
Unattended Water Deaths
103(3)
Body Recovery
103(2)
Identification of Submerged Bodies
105(1)
Identification through Personal Effects
105(1)
Identification through Dental Comparisons
106(1)
Identification through Shoe Wear
106(1)
Postmortem Changes
106(6)
Putrefaction
107(1)
Algor Mortis
108(1)
Rigor Mortis
108(1)
Ocular Changes
109(1)
Livor Mortis (Postmortem Lividity)
110(1)
Common Errors in Interpreting Postmortem Changes
110(1)
Postmortem Interval
111(1)
Drowning
112(2)
Exudate
113(1)
Skin
114(1)
Flotation
114(1)
Anthropophagy (Marine Depredation)
114(1)
Antemortem, Postmortem, and Perimortem Injuries
115(4)
Defense Wounds
116(1)
Travel Abrasions
117(1)
Thermal Injuries
117(2)
Death from Explosion
119(1)
Mass Disaster
120(3)
Review Questions
123(1)
References
123(1)
Suggested Readings
123(2)
Firearms Recovery and Investigation
125(30)
Introduction
126(5)
Firearms Investigation
131(4)
Fingerprints
131(1)
Ballistics Testing
132(1)
Barrel Blowback
132(2)
Serial Numbers
134(1)
Firearms Identification
135(5)
National Integrated Ballistics Information Network
135(2)
Types of Firearms
137(2)
The Firing Mechanism
139(1)
Ammunition
140(4)
Types of Bullets
140(2)
Propellants
142(1)
Primers
143(1)
Cartridge Cases
143(1)
Shot Shells
143(1)
Firearms and Forensics
144(9)
The Early History of the Examination of Firearms
144(1)
Examination of Weapons
145(2)
Examination of Bullets
147(3)
Examination of Cartridges
150(1)
Examination Objectives
150(1)
Legal Aspects
151(2)
Review Questions
153(1)
References
153(1)
Table of Cases
154(1)
Vehicle and Small Aircraft Investigations
155(17)
Aircraft Recovery Operations
155(7)
Locating the Aircraft
156(1)
Measuring the Debris Field
156(2)
Handling Evidence
158(1)
Aircraft Recovery
158(2)
Large-Aircraft Recovery Operations
160(2)
Vehicle Recovery Operations
162(9)
Vehicle Recoveries
164(5)
Recovery Checklist
169(1)
Occupant Recovery
169(1)
Auto Recovery
170(1)
Review Questions
171(1)
References
171(1)
Vessel Recoveries
172(19)
Introduction
172(1)
Nautical Terms and Measurements
173(2)
Boat Accident Investigation
175(7)
Propeller Injuries
179(3)
Fire
182(6)
Arson
182(6)
Vessel Explosions
188(1)
Light Filaments
189(1)
Review Questions
190(1)
References
190(1)
Equipping the Team
191(32)
Introduction
191(5)
Dive Equipment
196(25)
Dry Suits
196(2)
Dive Helmets
198(3)
Harnesses
201(6)
Buoyancy Control Devices
207(7)
Alternative Air Supply
214(2)
Face Masks
216(1)
Regulators, Gauges, and Computers
217(4)
Review Questions
221(1)
References
222(1)
Using Recovered Evidence in the Courtroom
223(26)
Introduction
223(14)
Preparing for Trial
226(1)
Identification
227(1)
Chain of Custody
228(2)
Authentication
230(1)
Photographs
230(1)
Diagrams, Maps, Plats
231(1)
Video Recordings
232(1)
Physical Evidence
233(1)
Multiple Predicates
234(1)
The Underwater Investigator as an Expert Witness
234(1)
Scientific Evidence
235(2)
Defense Lawyers, Prosecutors, and Investigators
237(10)
The Defense
237(1)
Defensive Burden
237(1)
Affirmative Defenses
238(1)
Defense Strategies
238(3)
Suppression Hearings
241(1)
The Prosecution
241(3)
Testimonial Devices to Avoid the Truth
244(1)
Error-Free Investigations
245(1)
Ethical Testimony
246(1)
Review Questions
247(1)
References
248(1)
Table of Cases
248(1)
A Look Back---A Look Forward
249(4)
Index 253

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