US Foreign Policy in Context: National Ideology from the Founders to the Bush Doctrine

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2010-01-22
  • Publisher: Routledge

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This work blends strategic analysis of contemporary US foreign policy with long-term historical discussion, producing an important argument relevant to the debates surrounding both the merits of contemporary US foreign policy and the long-term trends at work in American political culture. Rather than a detailed historical study of the Bush administration itself, the book seeks to locate Bush within the historical context of the US foreign policy tradition. It makes the case for nationally specific ideological factors as a driver of foreign policy and for importance of interaction between the domestic and the international in the emergence of national strategy. The contemporary element focuses on critiquing the George W. Bush administration#xE2;#xAC;"s National Security Strategy, perceived by many as a radical and unwelcome ideological departure from past policy, and its broader foreign policy, concentrating especially on its embrace of liberal universalism and rejection of realism. This critique is supported by the cumulative argument, based upon the historical cases, seeking to explain American leaders#xE2;#xAC;" persistent resistance to the prescriptions of realism. Quinn argues for some causal connection between historically evolved ideological constructions and the character of the nation#xE2;#xAC;"s more recent international strategy. Providing a valuable addition to the field, this book will be of great interest to scholars in American politics, US foreign policy and US history.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgementsp. viii
Introductionp. 1
International relations, history and national ideologyp. 10
Introductionp. 10
Positioning within IR and American historyp. 10
Defining 'ideology'p. 22
Continuity and change in national ideologyp. 24
The relationship of national ideas and national circumstances, and the relevance of historyp. 25
The usefulness of public statements as evidencep. 27
Conclusionp. 29
The Founders' Era consensus: 'A Hercules in the cradle'p. 31
Introductionp. 31
National and international contextp. 33
The Union as a means of excluding the balance-of-power systemp. 36
Trapped between titans: a divided America's vulnerability to European power politicsp. 41
The Farewell Address and the emergence of the non-alignment consensusp. 49
Consensus emerges: Jefferson's embrace of Washington's doctrinep. 52
'Our hemisphere … of freedom': the Monroe Doctrine as a logical extension of the Founders' Era consensusp. 55
Conclusionp. 59
Theodore Roosevelt: 'The nation that has dared to be great'p. 61
Introductionp. 61
National and international contextp. 63
The 'strenuous life' and the pursuit of national greatnessp. 64
Military strength, restraint and the 'soldierly virtues'p. 67
Realism in Rooseveltp. 69
Moralism in Rooseveltp. 71
The 'Roosevelt Corollary' and American quasi-imperialismp. 74
The First World War, progress and the moral case for armsp. 78
Conclusionp. 83
Woodrow Wilson: 'Conquest of the spirits of men'p. 86
Introductionp. 86
National and international contextp. 87
Moralism and idealism in Wilsonian foreign policyp. 88
The expanded Monroe Doctrine as prototype of global Wilsonianismp. 90
Wilson's justification of war entry and European entanglementp. 94
Conditional US engagement and the abolition of the balance of powerp. 96
Interests, peoples and international cooperationp. 100
Universal liberal democracy as a necessary condition of Wilsonian orderp. 102
'Leader and umpire both': American primacy and destinyp. 105
Wilson's divergence from Roosevelt: 'moral force' and the role of armsp. 108
Mortality, personal and politicalp. 109
Conclusionp. 111
The Truman administration: 'In the struggle for men's minds, the conflict is world-wide'p. 114
Introductionp. 114
National and international contextp. 115
From 'one world' to 'two ways of life': Truman's inheritance and the deterioration of US-Soviet relationsp. 116
Truman's conception of the Cold Warp. 119
George Kennan and the sources of Soviet conductp. 126
Polarization and militarization: the Clifford-Elsey Report and NSC-68p. 130
Conclusionp. 137
The George W. Bush administration: 'A balance of power that favours freedom'p. 139
Introductionp. 139
National and international contextp. 140
'A balance of power that favours freedom': the National Security Strategyp. 141
'Universal, human hopes': the universal legitimacy of liberal valuesp. 143
Democratic peace: 'This advance of freedom will bring greater security'p. 146
'Common interests and … common values'p. 150
Peoples and governmentsp. 153
The dynamic of historical inevitabilityp. 154
'Military forces that are beyond challenge': hegemonic US hard powerp. 156
Critiques of Bushp. 157
The road not taken: ideological choice and the Bush administrationp. 159
Conclusionp. 164
Conclusion: the Bush strategy and national ideologyp. 166
The historical evolution of American internationalismp. 167
The influence of national ideological history on the Bush worldviewp. 173
Notesp. 176
Bibliographyp. 202
Indexp. 213
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