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Vertebrate Life

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  • Edition: 11th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2022-05-25
  • Publisher: Sinauer Associates is an imprint of Oxford University Press

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Vertebrate Life distills the necessary information from vertebrate anatomy, physiology, ecology, and behavioral studies and then helps students see important connections across levels of biological scale. The result is students come to understand how organisms function effectively in their environments and how lineages of organisms change through evolutionary time. Processing complex detailed information about expansive phylogenies and diverse anatomies can be difficult for even the most motivated students, and Vertebrate Life addresses this challenge by combining appropriately-detailed, clearly-written text with outstanding phylogenies and figures, making it a thorough and engaging reference for students and instructors alike. The text's impressive illustration program helps students visualize complex concepts, allowing them to parse difficult anatomical information. The 11th edition will have an upgraded illustration program with several new and revised figures, including layered figures presented in the new enhanced eBook.

Author Biography

F. Harvey Pough, Professor Emeritus at Rochester Institute of Technology, is a herpetologist, specializing in environmental and evolutionary physiology, a past president of the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, and the senior author of textbooks on Herpetology and Vertebrate Zoology. He has taught courses in Animal Behavior, Ecology, Herpetology, Human Biology, Introductory Biology, Physiological Ecology, and Vertebrate Zoology.

William E. Bemis is Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at Cornell University and Faculty Curator of Ichthyology at the Cornell University Museum of Vertebrates. He has studied the anatomy, systematics, and evolution of extant and fossil vertebrates for 50 years with a focus on fishes. He currently teaches Vertebrate Biology, Ichthyology, and Herpetology.

Betty McGuire is a retired Senior Lecturer from the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at Cornell University. She has studied social behavior, reproduction, and ecology of small mammals and currently studies behavior of domestic dogs. She coauthored textbooks on Animal Behavior and Human Biology, and taught courses in Vertebrate Biology, Mammalogy, Human Biology, Animal Behavior, Evolution, and Introductory Biology.

Christine M. Janis is Professor Emerita at Brown University, USA, and currently an Honorary Professor at the University of Bristol, UK. She is a mammalian paleobiologist who has studied the feeding and locomotion of Cenozoic mammals, especially ungulates (hoofed mammals) and kangaroos, and their paleobiology in the context of climatic and environmental change. She has taught courses in Comparative Anatomy and Vertebrate Paleontology.

Sergi Lâopez-Torres is an Assistant Professor at the University of Warsaw, Poland, and Research Associate at the American Museum of Natural History, New York. He is a mammalian paleontologist who studies the early stages of primate evolution and the functional morphology and paleoecology in fossil Euarchontoglires. He currently teaches Human Origins, Primate Evolution, Zoology, and Paleobiology.

Emanuel Tschopp is a Humboldt Fellow at University of Hamburg, Germany, and Research Associate at the American Museum of Natural History, New York. He studies osteological variability in extant and extinct animals, and how it can be used to infer systematics and evolution of dinosaurs and lizards.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Chapter 1
Diversity, Classification, and Evolution of Vertebrates
1.1 The Vertebrate Story
--Binominal nomenclature
--Extant vertebrate groups
1.2 Phylogenetic Systematics
1.3 Applying Phylogenetic Criteria
--Evaluating possible phylogenies
--Molecules and morphology
--The problem of dating
--Dagger (†) convention adopted in this book
1.4 Using Phylogenetic Trees
--Extant phylogenetic brackets
--Crown and stem groups
1.5 Genetic Mechanisms of Evolutionary Change
--Phenotypes and fitness
--Developmental regulatory genes
1.6 Epigenetic Effects
1.7 Earth History and Vertebrate Evolution
Chapter 2
What Is a Vertebrate??
2.1 Vertebrates in Relation to Other Animals?
2.2 Characteristics of Chordates?
--Chordate origins and evolution?
--Extant nonvertebrate chordates?
2.3 What Distinguishes a Vertebrate??
2.4 Vertebrate Embryonic Development?
--Development of the body?
--Development of the pharyngeal region?
--Development of the brain?
--Other neurogenic tissues of vertebrates?
2.5 Vertebrate Tissues?
--Adult tissue types
--Mineralized tissues
2.6 Vertebrate Organ Systems
--Integumentary system
--Skeletal system
--Muscular system
--Nervous system and sense organs
--Endocrine system
--Respiratory system
--Circulatory system
--Digestive system
--Excretory and reproductive systems
Chapter 3
Jawless Vertebrates and the Origin of Gnathostomes
3.1 Earliest Evidence of Vertebrates
--Enigmas: †Conodonts and †Tullimonstrum
---Early mineralized tissues
--Environment of early vertebrate evolution
3.2 Cyclostomes: Extant Jawless Vertebrate
--Characters of cyclostomes
--Hagfishes: Myxiniformes
--Lampreys: Petromyzontiformes
3.3 Jawless Osteognathostomes
3.4 Gnathostome Body Plan
--Gnathostome skeletons
--What about soft anatomical features?
3.5 Origin of Jaws
--Hypotheses of jaw origins
--Importance of the nose
--Selective value of jaws
3.6 Origin of Paired Appendages
--Fin development and the lateral somitic frontier
--Advantages of fins
3.7 Extinct Paleozoic Jawed Fishes
Chapter 4
Living in Water
4.1 Aquatic Environment
--Obtaining oxygen from water using gill
--Obtaining oxygen from air using lungs and other respiratory structure
--Adjusting buoyancy
4.2 Sensory World of Aquatic Vertebrates
--Chemosensation: Olfaction and taste
--Detecting water displacement
--Hearing and equilibrium
--Electroreception and electrogenesis
4.3 Maintaining an Internal Environment
--Nitrogenous wastes and kidney
--Regulation of ions and body fluids
4.4 Osmoregulation in Different Environments
--Marine cartilaginous fishes and coelacanths
--Marine teleosts
--Freshwater teleosts and lissamphibians
--Euryhaline vertebrates
Chapter 5
Geography and Ecology of the Paleozoic
5.1 Deep Time
--The Precambrian world
--The Paleozoic
5.2 Continental Geography
--Continental drift and plate tectonics
--Shifting continents of the Paleozoic
--Shifting continents and changing climates
5.3 Paleozoic Climates
5.4 Paleozoic Ecosystems
--Aquatic life
--Terrestrial flora
--Terrestrial fauna
5.5 Extinctions
Chapter 6
Origin and Radiation of Chondrichthyans
6.1 Acanthodii
6.2 Chondrichthyes
--Habitats and diversity
--Placoid scales
--Cartilaginous skeleton
--Teeth and tooth plates
--Jaws and jaw suspension
--Internal fertilization and claspers
--Distinctive soft tissue and physiological features
6.3 Euchondrocephali and Chimaeriformes
--Biology of extant Chimaeriformes
6.4 Elasmobranchii, Euselachii, and Neoselachii
--Selachii: Sharks
--Batomorphi: Skates and rays
6.5 Biology of Neoselachii
--Bioluminescence and biofluorescence
---Hypoxia and the epaulette shark
--Endothermal heterothermy
--Elasmobranch brains
--Social networks and migration in sand tiger sharks
6.6 Declining Elasmobranch Populations
--Conservation and sawfishes
--Threats to chondrichthyans
--Vulnerabilities of chondrichthyans
--Ecological impacts of shark population declines
--Policies to protect sharks
Chapter 7
Origin of Osteichthyes and Radiation of Actinopterygian
7.1 Osteichthyes, Actinopterygii, and Sarcopterygi
--Osteichthyan character
--Fin adaptations
--Other differences between actinopterygians and sarcopterygians
7.2 Actinopterygii: Basal Group
--Neopterygii: Holostei
--Neopterygii: Teleoste
7.3 Characters of Teleostei
7.4 Teleostei: Basal Groups
--Basal euteleosts
7.5 Teleostei: Acanthopterygii
--Basal acanthopterygians
7.6 Swimming and Hydrodynamics
--Generating forward thrust
--Modes of locomotion
--Speed and drag
--Steering, stopping, and staying in place
7.7 Reproduction and Development
--Sex change in teleosts
7.8 Ecology of Marine Teleosts
--Black-water diving and larval teleosts
--The photic zone and its subdivisions
--Coral reef fishes
--Pelagic and deep-sea fishes
Chapter 8
Sarcopterygians and the Origin of Tetrapods
8.1 Phylogenetic Concepts of Tetrapoda and Characters for Sarcopterygii
8.2 The Miguasha Lagerstätte and the “Good Fossil Effect”
8.3 Actinistia
8.4 Dipnomorpha
8.5 Tetrapodomorpha
--Basal tetrapodomorphs
8.6 Moving onto Land
--How did fins become limbs?
--Body support and locomotion of early tetrapods
8.7 Paleoecology of Devonian Tetrapodomorphs
Chapter 9
Origins of Lissamphibia and Amniota
9.1 Paleozoic Tetrapods and the Origins of Extant Groups
--Origins of Lissamphibia
--Reptiliomorpha and the origin of amniotes
--Paleozoic diversification of amniotes
9.2 Characters of Amniotes
--Skeletal characters
--The amniotic egg
--Other soft-tissue characters of amniotes
9.3 Diversification of Amniotes
--Temporal fenestration: Synapsids and diapsid
--Ankle evolution in amniote
Chapter 10
Geography and Ecology of the Mesozoic
10.1 Continental Geography and Climates
--Continental movements
--Climate shifts
10.2 Terrestrial Ecosystems
10.3 Marine Ecosystems
--Faunal composition: Apex predators
--Other clades
10.4 Extinctions
--Triassic and Jurassic extinctions
--Cretaceous extinctions
Chapter 11
Living on Land
11.1 Support on Land
--Axial skeleton
--Axial muscle
--Appendicular skeleton
--Size and scaling
11.2 Locomotion
11.3 Eating
11.4 Breathing Air
11.5 Pumping Blood Uphill
11.6 Sensory Systems
--Hearing and equilibrium
11.7 Conserving Water in a Dry Environment
--Cutaneous water loss
--Respiratory water loss
--Excretory water loss
Chapter 12
12.1 Diversity of Lissamphibians
--Synapomorphies of Lissamphibia
12.2 Life Histories of Lissamphibians
--Mating and reproduction in salamanders
--Anuran mating and reproduction
--Anuran metamorphosis
--The ecology of tadpoles
--Caecilian reproduction and development
12.3 Respiration and Circulation
--Cutaneous respiration and blood flow
--Blood flow in larvae and adults
12.4 Water Relations
--Uptake and storage of water
--Cutaneous water loss
--Behavioral control of cutaneous water loss
12.5 Crypsis, Warning Colors, Toxins, and Venoms
--Skin glands and toxins
--Toxicity and diet
--Venomous lissamphibians
12.6 Why Are Lissamphibians Vanishing?
--Chytrid fungi
--Synergisms and domino effects
Chapter 13
Synapsids and Sauropsids: Two Ways of Living on the Land
13.1 Conflicts between Locomotion and Respiration
13.2 Lungs and Lung Ventilation: Supplying Oxygen to the Blood
--Synapsid lungs
--Sauropsid lungs
13.3 Circulatory Systems: Supplying Oxygen to Tissues
--Systemic arches of mammals and birds
--Hearts with a ventricular septum: Mammals and birds
--Hearts without a ventricular septum: Turtles and lepidosaurs
--Shunting blood when the heart has a ventricular septum: Crocodylians
13.4 Getting Rid of Wastes: The Kidneys
--Nitrogenous waste products
--Nitrogen excretion by synapsids: The mammalian kidney
--Nitrogen excretion by sauropsids: Renal and extrarenal routes
Chapter 14
Ectothermy and Endothermy: Two Ways of Regulating Body Temperature
14.1 Why Regulate Body Temperature?
14.2 Ectothermal Thermoregulation
--Energy exchange and mechanisms of ectothermy
--Thermal ecology of ectotherms
14.3 Endothermal Thermoregulation
--Mechanisms of endothermal thermoregulation?
14.4 Pure Ectothermy and Pure Endothermy Lie at the Extremes of a Continuum
--Endothermal ectotherms
--Heterothermal endotherms: Torpor and hibernation
--Heterothermal endotherms: Hyperthermia and life in the desert
14.5 Evolution of Endothermy
--How did endothermy evolve?
--Evaluating the models
--Many factors
14.6 Thermoregulation, Energy Use, and Body Size
--Energy requirements
--Body size
--Gigantothermy and the body temperatures of dinosaurs
14.7 Ectotherms, Endotherms, and Ecosystems
Chapter 15
15.1 Characters and Diversity of Lepidosaurs
--Rhynchocephalians and the biology of tuatara
--Squamata: Lizards
--Squamata: Serpentes
15.2 Foraging Modes
15.3 Skull Kinesis and Feeding
--Feeding specializations of snakes
--Venom and fangs
--Hearts and stomachs
15.4 Predator Avoidance and Defense
--Crypsis, aposematism, and mimicry
--Venom and poisons as defense mechanisms
15.5 Social Behavior
--Courtship and territoriality
--Sociality and parental care
15.6 Reproductive Modes
--Oviparity and viviparity
--Sex determination
15.7 Climate Change
Chapter 16
16.1 Form and Function
--Shell and skeleton
--Head retraction
--Lung ventilation
--Evolution of the turtle body plan
16.2 Diversity
16.3 Social Behavior, Communication, and Courtship
16.4 Reproduction
--Environmental sex determination
--Parental care
--Hatching and the behavior of baby turtles
16.5 Navigation and Migration
--Navigation by adult sea turtles
--Navigation by hatchling and juvenile sea turtles
16.6 Turtles in Trouble
--Life history
--Turtles are both delicious and considered medicinal
--Turtles are in demand as pets
--Sea turtles face extra risks
Chapter 17
17.1 Diversity of Extant Crocodylians
--Distribution of extant crocodylians
17.2 The Crocodylomorph Lineage
17.3 Predatory Behavior and Diet
17.4 Communication and Social Behavior
17.5 Reproduction and Parental Care
--Environmental sex determination
--Parental care
17.6 Threats to and from Crocodylians
--Threats from crocodylians
--Threats to crocodylians
--Reconciling humans and crocodylians
Chapter 18
Avemetatarsalia and the Origin of Dinosauria
18.1 Characters and Systematics of Avemetatarsalia
18.2 †Pterosaurs: Vertebrates Achieve Powered Flight
--Structure of †pterosaurs
--Reproduction, eggs, and parental care
--Did the evolution of birds doom †pterosaurs
18.3 Dinosaurs: One of the Most Successful Tetrapod Radiations
--The structure of dinosaurs
18.4 †Ornithischia
--Social behavior of †ornithischian dinosaurs
--Nesting and parental care by †ornithischians
--Social behavior of †ornithischian dinosaurs
--Nesting and parental care by †ornithischians
18.5 †Sauropodomorpha
--Social behavior of †sauropod
--Nesting and parental care by †sauropodomorphs?
Chapter 19
Theropods and the Origin of Birds
19.1 Characters and Systematics of Theropods
--Phylogenetic overview of Theropoda
--†Coelophysoids: Early theropods
--Community ecology of theropods
--Social behavior of theropods
19.2 †Archaeopteryx, Mesozoic Avialans, and the Mosaic Evolution of Avian Characters
--Discovery of †Archaeopteryx
--Cretaceous avialans
--Mosaic evolution of some avialan characters
--Other avian features
--Body size
19.3 Evolution of Powered Flight
--How-and why-birds got off the ground
--Gliding and flying by other Mesozoic paravians
19.4 Reproduction and Parental Care by Theropods
--Eggs and nests
--Parental care of hatchlings
Chapter 20
Geography and Ecology of the Cenozoic
20.1 Continental Geography and Climates
--Continental movements
--Cenozoic climates
20.2 Cenozoic Ecosystems
--Fossil Lake
--Freshwater habitats
--Marine habitats
--Terrestrial flora
--Terrestrial fauna
20.3 The Great American Biotic Interchange
--Terrestrial vertebrates of North and South America
--Faunal interchange
--Marine fauna and isthmian pairs
20.4 Extinctions
Chapter 21
Extant Birds
21.1 Diversity of Aves
21.2 Structural Specializations for Flight and Bipedalism
--Body size
--Streamlining and weight reduction
21.3 Wings and Flight
--Flight mechanics
--Wing shape and flight
21.4 Feet and Locomotion
--Hopping, walking, and running
21.5 Bills, Feeding, and Digestion
--Bills, cranial kinesis, and tongues
--Digestive tract
21.6 Sensory Systems
21.7 Communication
--Visual displays
21.8 Reproduction
--Reproductive organs and insemination
--Egg structure
--Maternal effects
---Sex determination
-Hatching and developmental state of young
21.9 Parental Care
--Nest building
--Feeding young
--Interspecific brood parasitism
21.10 Orientation, Navigation, and Migration
--Navigational abilities
--Using multiple cues during navigation
--Seasonal migration
21.11 Conservation
Chapter 22
Synapsids and the Origin of Mammals
22.1 Synapsid Evolution
--Cranial skeleton and teeth
--Phylogenetic history of synapsids
22.2 Jaw Joints and Middle Ear Bones
22.3 Other Mammalian Features
--Specializations of the palate and tongue for swallowing
--Facial muscles
--Lactation, nursing, and suckling
--Brain and senses
--Internal anatomy
22.4 Basal Mammalian Clades
Chapter 23
23.1 Therian Features and Origins of Marsupialia and Placentalia
--Therian skeletons
23.2 Diversity of Marsupials
--Marsupials and the Australian fauna
23.3 Diversity of Placentals
23.4 Reproduction
--Urogenital tracts
--Evolution of therian viviparity
23.5 Teeth and Feeding Specializations
--Cusps and lophs
--Carnivores and herbivores: Differences in jaw muscles
--Digestive tracts
23.6 Locomotion
--Limbs: Speed versus power
--Cursorial adaptations of ungulate limbs
--Powered flight of bats
--Cetacean evolution
23.7 Trophy Hunting and Extinction Risk
--Bighorn sheep: A case study
--Endangering the endangered: The effect of perceived rarity
--The extinction vortex
Chapter 24
Primate Evolution and the Emergence of Humans
24.1 Primate Origins and Diversification
--Basal primates
--New World monkeys
--Old World monkeys and apes
24.2 Origin and Evolution of Hominoidea
24.3 Origin and Evolution of Hominini
--Distinctive features of hominins
--Early hominins
24.4 The Genus Homo
--†Homo habilis
--†Homo erectus
--†Dmanisi hominins
--†Denisovan hominins
--†Homo longi
--Island species and miniaturization
--†Homo naledi
--†Homo bodoensis
--Origin and radiation of Homo sapiens
--What happened to the humans who were already there?
24.5 Evolution of Human Characters
--Large brains
--Speech and language
24.6 Humans and Other Vertebrates
--Humans as superpredators and environmental disruptors
--Megafaunal extinctions
--Is this the Anthropocene?

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