The Violence of Hate Confronting Racism, Anti-Semitism, and Other Forms of Bigotry

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  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2010-04-05
  • Publisher: Pearson
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Author Biography

JACK LEVIN, Ph.D. is the Irving and Betty Brudnick Professor of Sociology and Criminology and co-director of the Brudnick Center on Conflict and Violence at Northeastern University, where he teaches courses in prejudice and violence. He has authored or co-authored 30 books and hundreds of articles in professional journals and columns in newspapers, such as The New York Times, Boston Globe, Dallas Morning News, Philadelphia Inquirer, Christian Science Monitor, Chicago Tribune, and USA Today. He appears frequently on national television programs, including 48 Hours, 20/20, Dateline NBC, The Today Show, Good Morning America, Oprah, Rivera Live, Larry King Live, and all network newscasts. Dr. Levin was honored by the Massachusetts Council for Advancement and Support of Education as its “Professor of the Year," and was the recipient of the American Sociological Association's 2009 Public Understanding of Sociology Award. He has spoken to a wide variety of community, academic, and professional groups, including the White House Conference on Hate Crimes, the Department of Justice, the Department of Education, and the International Association of Chiefs of Police.


JIM NOLAN is an associate professor in the Division of Sociology and Anthropology at West Virginia University where he teaches courses on the topic of deviance and hate crime. His research currently focuses on community policing, intergroup relations, and the measurement of hate crimes and other crimes that are reported to the police. Dr. Nolan’s professional career began as a police officer in Wilmington, Delaware. He is a 1992 graduate of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) National Academy.  Just prior to joining the faculty at West Virginia University, Dr. Nolan worked for the FBI as a unit chief in the Crime Analysis, Research and Development Unit that provided management oversight for the National Hate Crime Data Collection Program.  He was recently involved in a project sponsored by the Organization for Security & Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) to implement hate crime reporting throughout Europe.  His recent publications have appeared in the American Behavioral Scientist, Journal of Quantitative Criminology, Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, The Justice Professional, Policing & Society, Criminal Justice Studies, Homicide Studies, Journal of Criminal Justice, and The American Sociologist. Dr. Nolan earned a Ph.D. from Temple University.  His graduate work focused on the study of group and social processes.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xi
Perspectives on Hate and Violencep. 1
Hate, Prejudice, and Discriminationp. 1
Transforming the Termsp. 1
Prejudice Versus Discriminationp. 2
The Role of the Individualp. 4
Hate as a Justification for Violencep. 5
Social Construction of Differencesp. 6
When Stereotypes Turn Nastyp. 9
Is Hate on the Decline?p. 11
Underestimating Bigotryp. 13
The Difference Between Small and Insignificantp. 15
Hate Crimes Are Vastly Under-Reportedp. 16
It Takes Only a Few Bad Applesp. 19
Threatening Situations Can Inspire Hatep. 19
A Continuing Racial Gapp. 23
The Obama Factorp. 26
Is the Significance of Hate on the Decline?p. 27
The Environmental Viewp. 28
The Hereditary Viewp. 33
The Situationist View of Hate and Violencep. 40
Conclusionp. 44
Hate Crimesp. 45
Motive Mattersp. 45
The Hate Crime Statistics Actp. 46
The FBI's Uniform Crime Reporting Programp. 47
NIBRS Hate Crime Datap. 47
Why Now?p. 51
Pros and Cons of Hate Crime Lawsp. 51
Hate Crime Laws Todayp. 53
Federal Civil Rights Statutesp. 56
New Federal Legislation (2009)p. 57
State Hate Crime Statutesp. 58
Hate Crime Laws and the U.S. Constitutionp. 61
Policing Hate Crimesp. 63
Seeing Hate Crimesp. 66
Intension and Extension of the Term "Hate Crime"p. 67
Classification of Hate Crime Incidentsp. 70
Why is this Distinction Important?p. 74
Hate Crimes in Europep. 75
The Roma in Europep. 76
Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Violencep. 77
Conclusionp. 79
A Typology of Hatep. 81
Hatemongersp. 81
The Role of Organized Hatep. 82
Hate from a Distancep. 83
Biblical Bigotryp. 83
The Militia Movement and White Supremacyp. 85
Expanding the Influence of Organized Hatep. 87
Dabblersp. 90
Getting a Thrillp. 90
Being Defensivep. 93
Getting Evenp. 97
Sympathizersp. 99
Behind Closed Doorsp. 100
An Eliminationist Anti-Semitismp. 100
Cultural Hatep. 101
Culture Transcends Generationsp. 104
Spectatorsp. 105
The Failure to Actp. 105
Middleman Minoritiesp. 107
Middleman Minorities in the United Statesp. 108
The American Version of Spectatorshipp. 109
Conclusionp. 112
The Benefits of Bigotryp. 115
Protest by Proxyp. 122
Psychological Advantagesp. 126
Enhancing and Protecting Self-Esteemp. 127
Reducing Uncertaintyp. 132
Economic and Status Advantagesp. 133
Getting the Dirty Work Donep. 133
Eliminating Opponentsp. 136
Maintaining Political Powerp. 144
Conclusionp. 145
The Production of Rebels, Deviants, and Other Decent Peoplep. 147
The Power of the Situationp. 147
When Normal People Do Abnormally Nasty Thingsp. 147
Fighting Spectatorshipp. 149
Intergroup Contactp. 150
The Impact of Competitionp. 150
Reducing Hostility Between Groupsp. 151
Structuring Opportunities for Cooperationp. 153
Follow the Leaderp. 156
Obeying Ordersp. 157
The Role of Leadershipp. 159
The Impact of Deviancep. 161
When Rebels Rebelp. 162
The Importance of Empathy Across Groupsp. 163
Human Agency: The Ability to Create "Good" Situationsp. 167
The Agentic Perspectivep. 167
Collective Efficacy in Neighborhoodsp. 170
Neighborhood Agency and Collective Efficacyp. 170
Conclusionp. 173
Anti-Hate Websitesp. 175
Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Actp. 177
Referencesp. 189
Indexp. 203
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