Ways of Social Change : Making Sense of Modern Times

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  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2011-09-15
  • Publisher: SAGE Publications, Inc
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This text is accessible and informative, acquainting students in the narratives of contemporary social change and teaching the critical thinking skills needed to make sense of the changing world of the 21st century. The question of the book is not: why does social change happen? Rather, it examines five forces that are, and will continue to be, major drivers of social change: science and technology, social movements, corporate power, government actions, and war.This book is very topical. The author unpacks key events in history, such as#xE1;the election of Barak Obama and the uprisings in Egypt that forced President Hosni Mubarak to step down. Not since the 1960s has there been such a time when students wanted and needed to understand social change. This text takes this desire for social change into the realm of social science where clarification, understanding, inquiry and involvement can help provide for both informed opinions and a path to effective engagement.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xii
Acknowledgmentsp. xvi
The Personal Experience of Social Changep. 1
A Twentieth-Century Life: Iris Summersp. 2
From Farm to Factoryp. 3
Extending the Reachp. 6
Generations of Stability and Changep. 8
Decades of Social Movementsp. 11
The Means to Being Modernp. 13
A Woman in a Changing Societyp. 13
The Changing World of Workp. 15
The Personal Challenge of Social Changep. 17
Not Every Person's Story: Capturing Social Change in Personal Experiencep. 20
Defining and Understanding Social Changep. 21
A Very Brief History of Human Societies (With Apologies to Mel Brooks)p. 23
Before the Last Ice Agep. 23
World Population Growthp. 24
Urbanizationp. 25
New Forms of Production and the Development of Capitalismp. 26
Dominance of the National Statep. 30
Iris Summers' Time and Place in Global Contextp. 31
A More Crowded Continent, a More Crowded Worldp. 33
Do Population Dynamics Drive Social Change?p. 34
The More Things Change …p. 35
Drivers of Social Changep. 37
Topics for Discussion and Activities for Further Studyp. 40
Recognizing Social Changep. 42
Ways of Recognizing Social Changep. 44
Science as a Special Approach to Inquiryp. 47
How Is Research Done?p. 48
Asking Good Questionsp. 49
Concepts and Variable Languagep. 50
From Questions to Hypothesesp. 52
Tracing and Untangling Causalityp. 56
Gathering Informationp. 57
Sampling and Drawing Inferencesp. 58
Measures of Central Tendency and Associationp. 63
Analyzing Informationp. 64
The Problem of Recallp. 67
Drawing Conclusions From Empirical Datap. 71
Research Ethics and a Cautionary Talep. 72
Social Policy and Social Changep. 74
Generations and Social Changep. 76
The Concept of Generationsp. 77
Generations in the Past Centuryp. 77
Birth Cohorts and Social Changep. 82
Cohort, Age, and Period Effects on Social Changep. 85
Cohort Effectsp. 85
Age Effectsp. 86
Period Effectsp. 87
Topics for Discussion and Activities for Further Studyp. 89
Understanding and Explaining Social Changep. 91
The Ubiquity of Changep. 92
Individuals, Groups, Social Structure, and Agencyp. 94
The Enigma of Timep. 97
Images of Timep. 97
Measuring Timep. 98
Social Timep. 100
Making Sense of Large-Scale Social Changep. 100
Theory as a Narrativep. 101
Social History and Social Changep. 101
A Way of Understanding or Ways of Understanding?p. 104
Society as an Evolving Systemp. 105
Evolutionary Change in Spencer, Veblen, and Sorokinp. 107
Society as a Site of Conflict, Power, and the Resolution of Contradictionsp. 113
Conflict Perspectives of Karl Marx, C. Wright Mills, and Georg Simmelp. 115
Understanding Social Change: Two Explanations of a Warp. 120
The Initial Explanation: Ethnic Hatredp. 121
A Better Explanation: Elite Manipulationp. 125
Making Sense of Modern Timesp. 127
Topics for Discussion and Activities for Further Studyp. 128
Technology, Science, and Innovation: The Social Consequences of New Knowledge and New Ways to Do Thingsp. 130
The Technology of Literacyp. 131
A World Without Writingp. 131
Literacy and Powerp. 132
Literacy and Social Changep. 133
Understanding Technology as an Agent of Social Changep. 134
From Stirrups to Citiesp. 135
The Twentieth Century, an Age of Technological Changep. 137
A Changing Social Realityp. 138
Technology as Device, Activity, and Social Organizationp. 139
What Is Technology?p. 139
Technological Change and Social Changep. 141
Instrumental and Technical Rationalityp. 144
Technology and Sciencep. 145
Pure and Applied Researchp. 145
State Funding for Sciencep. 147
The Science-Practice-Technology Nexusp. 148
Innovation and Social Changep. 151
Diffusion of Innovationsp. 152
Technology and Western "Exceptionalism"p. 154
Why the West?p. 154
Max Weber on the Morality of Workp. 155
Technology and Economic Growthp. 158
Technology and Social Change in the Peripheryp. 159
Imperialism and the Quest for Coloniesp. 159
Resistance to Technology or Resistance to Changep. 162
Utopia, Dystopia, and the Lessons of Dr. Frankensteinp. 162
Japan's Return to the Swordp. 164
Conservative Peasantsp. 166
The Technological Fix as Resistance to Changep. 168
The Global Spread of Technologyp. 169
Technology Transferp. 170
The Debate Over Technology Transferp. 171
International Development and Appropriate Technologyp. 174
Topics for Discussion and Activities for Further Studyp. 178
Social Movements: Human Agency and Mobilization for Changep. 181
Making Social Change Happenp. 182
How Social Movements Matterp. 183
Understanding Social Movements as Change Agentsp. 185
What Is a Social Movement?p. 186
Common Goods and Free Ridersp. 188
Who Are Social Movement Participants?p. 190
Resource Mobilizationp. 192
Social Movement Framingp. 193
Social Movement Tacticsp. 196
Political Opportunity for Social Movementsp. 198
Resistance to Social Changep. 200
Social Movements Opposing the Direction of Social Changep. 200
State Resistance to Social Movements as Agents of Changep. 201
Crowds, Social Movements, and Popular Democracyp. 204
Social Movements as Drivers of Social Changep. 206
Linking Social Movements to Social Changep. 206
Social Movements as Effective Change Agentsp. 208
The Movement to Win Collective Bargainingp. 211
Tracing the Effects of Social Movement Actionsp. 214
Abortion and the Battle for Public Opinionp. 217
Personal Change as a Consequence of Social Movement Participationp. 222
Topics for Discussion and Activities for Further Studyp. 225
War, Revolution, and Social Change: Political Violence and Structured Coercionp. 227
War as an Instrument of Social Changep. 228
Versions of War as Coercive Politicsp. 229
Ethnic Conflict and Civil Warsp. 234
War and the Statep. 238
Creating Nationalism and Patriotismp. 239
Power and Coercionp. 240
Purification of Spacep. 241
War as a Driver of Social Changep. 244
Lessons From Twentieth-Century World Warsp. 244
Migration and War Refugeesp. 246
Psychology of Warp. 250
Constructing Mentalities for Warp. 251
The Social Economy of Warp. 255
Military Research and Developmentp. 261
State and Corporate Planningp. 263
Revolution and Social Transformationp. 265
Ways of Understanding Revolutionp. 265
War-Weakened States and Defecting Militariesp. 269
Revolutionary Outcomes: Political Change and Social Changep. 270
War and Resistance to Social Changep. 271
War in Opposition to Social Changep. 272
Resistance to War: Peace as a Trajectory for Social Changep. 273
Topics for Discussion and Activities for Further Studyp. 277
Corporations in the Modern Era: The Commercial Transformation of Material Life and Culturep. 280
Understanding Corporations and Social Changep. 282
Corporations as Evolutionary Systemsp. 283
Corporations in the Conflict Perspectivep. 283
Businesses, Firms, and Large Corporationsp. 285
Tort Victims and the Actual Price You Payp. 289
The Corporation's Varied Historyp. 290
Monopoly Capitalismp. 294
The Ways Large Corporations Direct Social Changep. 298
Technology and the Corporate Dynamicp. 299
Control and Investment of Capitalp. 302
Transformation of the Labor Processp. 304
Advertising and the Corporate Creation of Culturep. 311
Political Power and Agenda Settingp. 316
Large Corporations and Resistance to Social Changep. 322
Corporations Working Against Changep. 322
Organizational Entropyp. 323
Corporate Culture Versus Innovationp. 324
Resistance to Corporate-Driven Changep. 325
The Environmental Crisis and Corporations of the Futurep. 329
Topics for Discussion and Activities for Further Studyp. 331
States and Social Change: The Uses of Public Resources for the Common Goodp. 333
Strong States and Social Changep. 334
The Role of Strong States in Modern Timesp. 336
The State and Social Change: The United States in the Twentieth Centuryp. 336
Public Health: Reducing Sickness and Deathp. 337
The Public Watering of the Westp. 345
The Judicial Road to Civil Rightsp. 352
Political Generations in the Modern Civil Rights Movementp. 360
State-Driven Social Change in Modern Chinap. 369
Two Versions of Democracyp. 369
Mao's Revolutionary China, 1949-1976p. 372
Post-Mao China: The Deng Xiaoping Erap. 378
The Three Gorges Damp. 384
Resistance to State-Directed Social Changep. 386
Using the State in Oppositionp. 387
Opposing the Power of the Statep. 388
Topics for Discussion and Activities for Further Studyp. 390
Making Social Change: Engaging a Desire for Social Changep. 392
Using Human Agency, Now or Laterp. 393
Vocations of Social Changep. 394
Nongovernmental Organizations and Gap Year Experiencesp. 397
Agency and Ethical Responsibilityp. 398
Activism as a Part of Lifep. 400
Social Change Happensp. 402
Topics for Discussion and Activities for Further Studyp. 404
Referencesp. 406
Name Indexp. 424
Subject Indexp. 429
About the Authorp. 447
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