Ways of the World with Sources for AP*, Second Edition A Global History

  • ISBN13:


  • ISBN10:


  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2013-06-10
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's

Note: Supplemental materials are not guaranteed with Rental or Used book purchases.

Purchase Benefits

  • Free Shipping On Orders Over $35!
    Your order must be $35 or more to qualify for free economy shipping. Bulk sales, PO's, Marketplace items, eBooks and apparel do not qualify for this offer.
  • Get Rewarded for Ordering Your Textbooks! Enroll Now
  • We Buy This Book Back!
    In-Store Credit: $21.00
    Check/Direct Deposit: $20.00
  • eCampus.com Device Compatibility Matrix

    Click the device icon to install or view instructions

    Apple iOS | iPad, iPhone, iPod
    Android Devices | Android Tables & Phones OS 2.2 or higher | *Kindle Fire
    Windows 10 / 8 / 7 / Vista / XP
    Mac OS X | **iMac / Macbook
    Enjoy offline reading with these devices
    Apple Devices
    Android Devices
    Windows Devices
    Mac Devices
    iPad, iPhone, iPod
    Our reader is compatible
    Android 2.2 +
    Our reader is compatible
    Kindle Fire
    Our reader is compatible
    10 / 8 / 7 / Vista / XP
    Our reader is compatible
    Our reader is compatible
List Price: $162.60 Save up to $99.61
  • Rent Book $97.56
    Add to Cart Free Shipping


Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

  • The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.
  • The Rental and eBook copies of this book are not guaranteed to include any supplemental materials. Typically, only the book itself is included. This is true even if the title states it includes any access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.


Comparisons, Connections, & Change-contexts for the particulars
Ways of the World is the textbook preferred by AP World History teachers and students across North America. Like the AP course it supports, Ways of the World focuses on significant historical trends, themes, and developments in world history. Author Robert W. Strayer provides a thoughtful and insightful synthesis that helps students see the big picture. Each chapter then culminates with collections of primary sources (written and visual) organized around a particular theme, issue, or question, thus allowing students to consider the evidence the way historians do. The second edition includes a wealth of supporting resources and supplements for the AP course, including an AP Skills Primer and AP Chapter Wrap-Ups, and rolls out Bedford/St. Martin's new digital history tools, including LearningCurve, an adaptive quizzing engine that garners over a 90% student satisfaction rate, and LaunchPad, the all new interactive e-book and course space that puts high quality easy-to-use assessment at your fingertips. Featuring video, additional primary sources, a wealth of adaptive and summative quizzing, and more, LaunchPad cements student understanding of the text while helping them make progress toward learning outcomes. It's the best content joined up with the best technology.

Author Biography

Robert W. Strayer (PhD, University of Wisconsin) taught African, Soviet, and world history for many years at SUNY College at Brockport, where he received Chancellor’s Awards for Excellence in Teaching and for Excellence in Scholarship. In 1998 he was visiting professor of world and Soviet history at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand. Since 2002, he has taught world history at the University of California, Santa Cruz; California State University, Monterey Bay; and Cabrillo College. His scholarship includes work in African history (Kenya: Focus on Nationalism, 1975; The Making of Mission Communities in East Africa, 1978); Soviet history (Why Did the Soviet Union Collapse?,1998;  The Communist Experiment, 2007) and World History (The Making of the Modern World, 1988, 1995; Ways of the World, 2009, 2011). He is a long-time member of the World History Association and served on its Executive Committee.

Table of Contents


Versions and Supplements 


Special Features

Working with Primary Sources

Prologue: From Cosmic History to Human History

The History of the Universe

The History of a Planet 

The History of the Human Species… in a Single Paragraph

Why World History?  

Comparison, Connection, and Change: The Three Cs of World History

Snapshot: A History of the Universe as a Cosmic Calendar 

Part One: First Things First: Beginnings in History, to 500 b.c.e.

The Big Picture

Turning Points in Early World History 

The Emergence of Humankind

The Globalization of Humankind

The Revolution of Farming and Herding

The Turning Point of Civilization

A Note on Dates

*Mapping Part One

1 Chapter One: First Peoples; First Farmers: Most of History in a Single Chapter, To 4000 b.c.e.

Out of Africa to the Ends of the Earth: First Migrations 

Into Eurasia 

Into Australia

Into the Americas 

Into the Pacific

The Ways We Were

The First Human Societies 

Economy and the Environment 

The Realm of the Spirit 

Settling Down: The Great Transition

Breakthroughs to Agriculture

Common Patterns 


The Globalization of Agriculture

Triumph and Resistance 

The Culture of Agriculture

Social Variation in the Age of Agriculture

Pastoral Societies 

Agricultural Village Societies 


Reflections: The Uses of the Paleolithic

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance 

Big Picture Questions 

Next Steps: For Further Study


Snapshot: Paleolithic Era in Perspective

*Portrait: Ishi, The Last of His People

Considering the Evidence

*Visual and Documentary Sources: History before Writing: How Do We Know?

Document: A Paleolithic Woman in the Twentieth Century: Nisa: The Life and Words of an !Kung Woman, 1969-1976

Visual Sources: Lascaux Rock Art

Women, Men, and Religion in Çatalhüyük

Otzi the Iceman 


Using the Evidence

2 First Civilizations: Cities, States, and Unequal Societies, 3500 b.c.e.–500 b.c.e.

Something New: The Emergence of Civilizations

Introducing the First Civilizations

The Question of Origins

An Urban Revolution

The Erosion of Equality

Hierarchies of Class

Hierarchies of Gender

Patriarchy in Practice

The Rise of the State

Coercion and Consent

Writing and Accounting

The Grandeur of Kings

Comparing Mesopotamia and Egypt

Environment and Culture

Cities and States

Interaction and Exchange

Reflections: "Civilization": What’s in a Word?

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For Further Study


Snapshot: Writing in Ancient Civilizations

*Portrait: Paneb of Egypt

Considering the Evidence

Documents: Life and Afterlife in Mesopotamia and Egypt

2.1—In Search of Eternal Life: The Epic of Gilgamesh, ca. 2700 B.C.E.–2500 b.c.e.

2.2--Law and Justice in Ancient Mesopotamia: The Law Code of Hammurabi, ca. 1800 b.c.e.

2.3—The Afterlife of a Pharaoh: A Pyramid Text, 2333 b.c. e.

2.4—A New Basis for Egyptian Immortality: Book of the Dead, ca. 1550-1064 b.c.e.

2.5—The Occupations of Old Egypt: Be a Scribe, ca. 2066-1650 b.c.e.

Using the Evidence

Visual Sources: Indus Valley Civilization

A Seal from the Indus Valley

Man from Mohenjo Daro

Dancing Girl

Using the Evidence

Part Two: Second Wave Civilizations in World History, 500 b.c.e.–500 c.e.

The Big Picture

After the First Civilizations: What Changed and What Didn’t?

Continuities in Civilization

Changes in Civilization

Snapshot: World Population during the Age of Agricultural Civilization

*Mapping Part Two

3 State and Empire in Eurasia/North Africa, 500 b.c.e.–500 c.e.

Empires and Civilizations in Collision: The Persians and the Greeks

The Persian Empire

The Greeks

Collision: The Greco-Persian Wars

Collision: Alexander and the Hellenistic Era

Comparing Empires: Roman and Chinese

Rome: From City-State to Empire

China: From Warring States to Empire

Consolidating the Roman and Chinese Empires

The Collapse of Empires

Intermittent Empire: The Case of India

Reflections: Enduring Legacies of Second-Wave Empires

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For Further Study


Snapshot: Distinctive Features of Second-Wave Eurasian Civilizations

*Portrait: Trung Trac, Resisting the Chinese Empire

Considering the Evidence

Documents: Political Authority in Second Wave Civilizations

3.1—In Praise of Athenian Democracy: Pericles, Funeral Oration, 431-430 b.c.e.

3.2—In Praise of the Roman Empire: Aelius Aristides, The Roman Oration, 155 c.e.

3.3—Governing a Chinese Empire: The Writings of Master Han Fei, third century b.c.e.

3.4—Governing an Indian Empire: Ashoka, The Rock Edicts, ca. 268-232 b.c.e.

Using the Evidence

*Visual Sources: Representing Political Authority

Bihustun Inscription

Harmodius and Aristogeiton

Qin Shihuangdi Funerary Complex


Using the Evidence

4 Culture and Religion in Eurasia/North Africa, 500 b.c.e.–500 c.e.

China and the Search for Order

The Legalist Answer

The Confucian Answer

The Daoist Answer

Cultural Traditions of Classical India

South Asian Religion: From Ritual Sacrifice to Philosophical Speculation

Buddhist Challenge

Hinduism as a Religion of Duty and Devotion

Moving toward Monotheism: The Search for God in the Middle East



The Cultural Tradition of Classical Greece: The Search for a Rational Order

The Greek Way of Knowing

The Greek Legacy

The Birth of Christianity…with Buddhist Comparisons

The Lives of the Founders

The Spread of New Religions

Institutions, Controversies, and Divisions

Reflections: Religion and Historians

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study


Snapshot: Thinkers and Philosophies of the Second-Wave Era

*Portrait: Perpetua, Christian Martyr

Considering the Evidence

Documents: The Good Life in Eurasian Civilizations

4.1—Reflections from Confucius: Confucius, The Analects, ca. 479-221 b.c.e.

4.2—Reflections from the Hindu Scriptures: Bhagavad Gita, ca. fifth to second century b.c.e.

4.3—Reflections from Socrates: Plato, Apology, ca. 399 b.c.e.

4.4—Reflections from Jesus: The Gospel of Matthew, ca. 70-100 c.e.

Using the Evidence

Visual Sources: Representations of the Buddha

Footprints of the Buddha

A Gandhara Buddha

A Bodhisattva of Compassion: Kannon of 1,000 Arms

The Chinese Maitreya Buddha

Using the Evidence

5 Society and Inequality in Eurasia/North Africa, 500 b.c.e.–500 c.e.

Society and the State in China

An Elite of Officials

The Landlord Class



Class and Caste in India

Caste as Varna

Caste as

The Functions of Caste

Slavery: The Case of the Roman Empire

Slavery and Civilization

The Making of Roman Slavery

Resistance and Rebellion

Comparing Patriarchies

A Changing Patriarchy: The Case of China

Contrasting Patriarchies in Athens and Sparta

Reflections: Arguing with Solomon and the Buddha

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study


Snapshot: Social Life and Duty in India

*Portrait: Ge Hong, a Chinese Scholar in Troubled Times

Considering the Evidence

Documents: Patriarchy and Women’s Voices

5.1—A Chinese Woman’s Instructions to Her Daughters: Ban Zhao, Lessons for Women, Late First century c.e.

5.2—An Alternative to Patriarchy in India: Psalms of the Sisters, First Ccentury b.c.e.

5.3—Roman Women in Protest: Livy, History of Rome, Late First Century b.c.e. to Early First Century c.e.

Using the Evidence

Visual Sources: Pompeii as a Window on the Roman World

Terentius Neo and His Wife

A Pompeii Banquet

Scenes in a Pompeii Tavern

A Domestic Shrine

Mystery Religions: The Cult of Dionysus

Using the Evidence

6 Commonalities and Variations: Africa and the Americas, 500 b.c.e.–1200 c.e.

Continental Comparisons

African Civilizations

Meroë: Continuing a Nile Valley Civilization

Axum: The Making of a Christian Kingdom

Along the Niger River: Cities without States

Civilizations of Mesoamerica

The Maya: Writing and Warfare

Teotihuacán: The Americas’ Greatest City

Civilizations of the Andes

Chavín: A Pan-Andean Religious Movement

Moche: A Civilization of the Coast

Wari and Tiwanaku: Empires of the Interior

Alternatives to Civilization: Bantu Africa

Cultural Encounters

Society and Religion

Alternatives to Civilization: North America

The Ancestral Pueblo: Pit Houses and Great Houses

Peoples of the Eastern Woodlands: The Mound Builders

Reflections: Deciding What’s Important: Balance in World History

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For Further Study


Snapshot: Continental Population in the Second-Wave Era

*Portrait: Piye, Kushite Conqueror of Egypt

Considering the Evidence

Documents: Axum and the World

6.1—A Guidebook to the World of Indian Ocean Commerce: The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, First Century c.e.

6.2—The Making of an Axumite Empire: Inscription on a Stone Throne, Second or Third century c.e.

6.3—The Coming of Christianity to Axum: Rufinus, On the Evangelization of Abyssinia, Late Fourth Century c.e.

6.4—Axum and the Gold Trade: Cosmas, The Christian Topography, Sixth Century c.e.

Using the Evidence

Visual Sources: Art and the Maya Elite

Shield Jaguar and Lady Xok: A Royal Couple of Yaxchilan

The Presentation of Captives

A Bloodletting Ritual

The Ball Game

Using the Evidence

Part Three: An Age of Accelerating Connections, 500–1500

The Big Picture

Defining a Millennium

Third-Wave Civilizations: Something New, Something Old, Something Blended

The Ties That Bind: Transregional Interaction in the Third Wave Era

*Mapping Part Three

7 Commerce and Culture, 500–1500

Silk Roads: Exchange across Eurasia

The Growth of the Silk Roads

Goods in Transit

Cultures in Transit

Disease in Transit

Sea Roads: Exchange across the Indian Ocean

Weaving the Web of an Indian Ocean World

Sea Roads as a Catalyst for Change: Southeast Asia

Sea Roads as a Catalyst for Change: East Africa

Sand Roads: Exchange across the Sahara

Commercial Beginnings in West Africa

Gold, Salt, and Slaves: Trade and Empire in West Africa

An American Network: Commerce and Connection in the Western Hemisphere

Reflections: Economic Globalization—Ancient and Modern

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For Further Study


Snapshot: Economic Exchange along the Silk Roads

Snapshot: Economic Exchange in the Indian Ocean Basin

*Portrait: Thorfinn Karlsefni, Viking Voyager

Considering the Evidence

Documents: Travelers’ Tales and Observations

7.1—A Chinese Buddhist in India: Huili, A Biography of the Tripitaka Master and Xuanzang, Record of the Western Region, Seventh Century c.e.

7.2—A European Christian in China: Marco Polo, The Travels of Marco Polo, 1299

7.3—A Arab Muslim in West Africa: Ibn Battuta, Travels in Asia and Africa, 1354

Using the Evidence

*Visual Sources: Traveling the Silk Road

Silk Road Merchants Encounter Bandits

A Stop at a Caravanserai

A Buddhist Monk on the Silk Road

Greek Culture, Buddhism, and the Kushans

Islam, Shamanism, and the Turks

Using the Evidence

8 China and the World: East Asian Connections, 500–1300

Together Again: The Reemergence of a Unified China

A "Golden Age" of Chinese Achievement

Women in the Song Dynasty

China and the Northern Nomads: A Chinese World Order in the Making

The Tribute System in Theory

The Tribute System in Practice

Cultural Influence across an Ecological Frontier

Coping with China: Comparing Korea, Vietnam, and Japan

Korea and China • Vietnam and China • Japan and China

China and the Eurasian World Economy

Spillovers: China’s Impact on Eurasia

On the Receiving End: China as Economic Beneficiary

China and Buddhism

Making Buddhism Chinese

Losing State Support: The Crisis of Chinese Buddhism

Reflections: Why Do Things Change?

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For Further Study


*Snapshot: Chinese Technological Achievements

*Portrait: Izumi Shikibu, Japanese Poet and Lover

Considering the Evidence

Documents: The Making of Japanese Civilization

8.1—Japanese Political Ideals: Shotoku, The Seventeen Article Constitution, 604

8.2—The Uniqueness of Japan: Kitabatake Chikafusa, The Chronicle of the Direct Descent of Gods and Sovereigns, 1339

8.3—Social Life at Court: Sei Shonagon, Pillow Book, ca. 1000

8.4—The Way of the Warrior: Shiba Yosimasa, Advice to Young Samurai, ca. 1400 and Imagawa Ryoshun, The Imagawa Letter, 1412

Using the Evidence

Visual Sources: The Leisure Life of China’s Elites

A Banquet with the Emperor

At Table with the Empress

A Literary Gathering

An Elite Night Party

Using the Evidence

9 The Worlds of Islam: Afro-Eurasian Connections, 600–1500

The Birth of a New Religion

The Homeland of Islam

The Messenger and the Message

The Transformation of Arabia

The Making of an Arab Empire

War, Conquest, and Tolerance


Divisions and Controversies

Women and Men in Early Islam

Islam and Cultural Encounter: A Four-Way Comparison

The Case of India

The Case of Anatolia

The Case of West Africa

The Case of Spain

The World of Islam as a New Civilization

Networks of Faith

Networks of Exchange

Reflections: Past and Present: Choosing Our History

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For Further Study


Snapshot: Key Achievements in Islamic Science and Scholarship

*Portrait: Mansa Musa, West African Monarch and Muslim Pilgrim

Considering the Evidence

Documents: Voices of Islam

9.1—The Voice of Allah: The Quran, Seventh Century c.e.

9.2—The Voice of the Prophet Muhammad: The Hadith, Eighth and Ninth centuries

9.3—The Voice of the Law: The Sharia, ninth century

9.4—The Voice of the Sufis: Inscription on Rumi’s Tomb, Thirteenth Century, Rumi, Poem, Thirteenth Century, and Rumi, Mathnawi, Thirteenth Century

Using the Evidence

*Visual Sources: The Life of the Prophet

Muhammad and the Archangel Gabriel

The Night Journey of Muhammad

The Battle at Badr

The Destruction of the Idols

Using the Evidence

10 The Worlds of Christendom: Contraction, Expansion, and Division, 500–1300

Christian Contraction in Asia and Africa

Asian Christianity

African Christianity

Byzantine Christendom: Building on the Roman Past

The Byzantine State

The Byzantine Church and Christian Divergence

Byzantium and the World

The Conversion of Russia

Western Christendom: Rebuilding in the Wake of Roman Collapse

Political Life in Western Europe, 500–1000

Society and the Church, 500–1000

Accelerating Change in the West, 1000–1300

Europe Outward Bound: The Crusading Tradition

The West in Comparative Perspective

Catching Up

Pluralism in Politics

Reason and Faith

Reflections: Remembering and Forgetting: Continuity and Surprise in the Worlds of Christendom

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For Further Study


*Snapshot: European Borrowing

*Portrait: Cecilia Penifader, An English Peasant and Unmarried Woman

Considering the Evidence

Documents: The Making of Christian Europe

10.1—The Conversion of Clovis: Gregory of Tours, History of the Franks, Late Sixth Century

10.2—Advice on Dealing with "Pagans": Pope Gregory, Advice to the English Church, 603

10.3—Charlemagne and the Saxons: Charlemagne, Capitulary on Saxony, 785

10.4— The Persistence of Tradition: Willibald, Life of Boniface, ca. 760 and 10.5— The Leechbook, Tenth Century

Using the Evidence

Visual Sources: Reading Byzantine Icons

Christ Pantokrator

The Nativity

Ladder of Divine Ascent

Using the Evidence

11: Pastoral Peoples on the Global Stage: The Mongol Moment, 1200–1500

Looking Back and Looking Around: The Long History of Pastoral Nomads

The World of Pastoral Societies

Before the Mongols: Pastoralists in History

Breakout: The Mongol Empire

From Temujin to Chinggis Khan: The Rise of the Mongol Empire

Explaining the Mongol Moment

Encountering the Mongols: Comparing Three Cases

China and the Mongols

Persia and the Mongols

Russia and the Mongols

The Mongol Empire as a Eurasian Network

Toward a World Economy

Diplomacy on a Eurasian Scale

Cultural Exchange in the Mongol Realm

The Plague: An Afro-Eurasian Pandemic

Reflections: Changing Images of Nomadic Peoples

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For Further Study


Snapshot: Varieties of Pastoral Societies

*Portrait, Khutulun, A Mongol Wrestler Princess

Considering the Evidence

Documents: Perspectives on the Mongols

11.1—Mongol History from a Mongol Source: The Secret History of the Mongols, ca. 1240

11.2—A Letter from Chinggis Khan: Chinggis Khan, Letter to Changchun, 1219

11.3—A Russian View of the Mongols: The Chronicle of Novgorod, 1238

11.4—Chinese Perceptions of the Mongols: Epitaph for the Honorable Menggu, 1274

Using the Evidence

Visual Sources:
The Black Death and Religion in Western Europe

The Flagellants

Burying the Dead

A Culture of Death

In the Face of Catastrophe—Questioning or Affirming the Faith Using the Evidence

12 The Worlds of the Fifteenth Century

The Shapes of Human Communities

Paleolithic Persistence: Australia and North America

Agricultural Village Societies: The Igbo and the Iroquois

Herding Peoples: Central Asia and West Africa

Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: Comparing China and Europe

Ming Dynasty China

European Comparisons: State Building and Cultural Renewal

European Comparisons: Maritime Voyaging

Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: The Islamic World

In the Islamic Heartland: The Ottoman and Safavid Empires

On the Frontiers of Islam: The Songhay and Mughal Empires

Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: The Americas

The Aztec Empire

The Inca Empire

Webs of Connection

A Preview of Coming Attractions: Looking Ahead to the Modern Era, 1500–2012

Reflections: What If? Chance and Contingency in World History

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For Further Study


Snapshot: Major Developments around the World in the Fifteenth Century

Snapshot: World Population Growth, 1000–2000

*Portrait: Zheng He, China's Non-Chinese Admiral

Considering the Evidence

Documents: The Aztecs and the Incas through Spanish Eyes

12.1—Diego Duran on the Aztecs: King Moctezuma I, Laws, Ordinances and Regulations, ca. 1450 and Diego Duran, Book of the Gods and Rites, 1574-1576

12.2— Pedro de Cieza de Léon on the Incas: Pedro de Cieza de Léon, Chronicles of the Incas, ca. 1550

Using the Evidence

*Visual Sources: Islam and Renaissance Europe

Gentile Bellini, Portrait of Mehmed II

The Venetian Ambassador Visits Damascus

Aristotle and Averroes

St. George Baptizes the Pagans of Jerusalem

Giovanni da Modena, Muhammad in Hell

Using the Evidence 

Part Four: The Early Modern World, 1450–1750

The Big Picture

Debating the Character of an Era

An Early Modern Era?

A Late Agrarian Era?

*Mapping Part Four

13 Political Transformations: Empires and Encounters, 1450–1750

European Empires in the Americas

The European Advantage

The Great Dying

The Columbian Exchange

Comparing Colonial Societies in the Americas

In the Lands of the Aztecs and the Incas

Colonies of Sugar

Colonies in North America

The Steppes and Siberia: The Making of a Russian Empire

Experiencing the Russian Empire

Russians and Empire

Asian Empires

Making China an Empire

Muslims and Hindus in the Mughal Empire

Muslims and Christians in the Ottoman Empire

Reflections: The Centrality of Context in World History

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For
Further Study


Snapshot: Ethnic Composition of Colonial Societies in Latin America

*Portrait: Doña Marina, Between Two Worlds

Considering the Evidence

Documents: State Building in the Early Modern Era

13.1—The "Self-Portrait" of a Chinese Emperor: The Emperor Kangxi, Reflections, 1671-1722

13.2—The Memoirs of Emperor Jahangir: Jahangir, Memoirs, 1605-1627

13.3—An Outsider’s View of Suleiman I: Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq, The Turkish Letters, 1555-1562

13.4—French State-Building and Louis XIV: Louis XIV, Memoirs, 1670 Using the Evidence

Visual Sources: The Conquest of Mexico through Aztec Eyes

Disaster Foretold

Moctezuma and Cortés

The Massacre of the Nobles

The Spanish Retreat from Tenochtitlán

Using the Evidence

14 Economic Transformations: Commerce and Consequence, 1450–1750

Europeans and Asian Commerce

A Portuguese Empire of Commerce

Spain and the Philippines

The East India Companies

Asian Commerce

Silver and Global Commerce

The "World Hunt": Fur in Global Commerce

Commerce in People: The Atlantic Slave Trade

The Slave Trade in Context

The Slave Trade in Practice

Consequences: The Impact of the Slave Trade in Africa

Reflections: Economic Globalization—Then and Now

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For
Further Study


Snapshot: The Slave Trade in Numbers (1501-1866)

*Portrait: Ayuba Suleiman Diallo, To Slavery and Back

Considering the Evidence

Documents: Voices from the Slave Trade 00

14.1—The Journey to Slavery: Olaudah Equiano, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, 1789

14.2—The Business of the Slave Trade: Thomas Phillips, "A Journal of a Voyage Made in the Hannibal of London," 1694

14.3—The Slave Trade and the Kingdom of Kongo: King Affonso I, Letters to King Jao of Portugal, 1526

14.4—The Slave Trade and the Kingdom of Asante: Osei Bons, Conversation with Joseph Dupuis, 1820

Using the Evidence

Visual Sources: Exchange and Status in the Early Modern World

Tea and Porcelain in Europe

A Chocolate Party in Spain

An Ottoman Coffeehouse

Clothing and Status in Colonial Mexico

Using the Evidence

15 Cultural Transformations: Religion and Science, 1450–1750

The Globalization of Christianity

Western Christendom Fragmented: The Protestant Reformation

Christianity Outward Bound

Conversion and Adaptation in Spanish America

An Asian Comparison: China and the Jesuits

Persistence and Change in Afro-Asian Cultural Traditions

Expansion and Renewal in the Islamic World

China: New Directions in an Old Tradition

India: Bridging the Hindu/Muslim Divide

A New Way of Thinking: The Birth of Modern Science

The Question of Origins: Why Europe?

Science as Cultural Revolution
• Science and Enlightenment

Looking Ahead: Science in the Nineteenth Century

European Science beyond the West

Reflections: Cultural Borrowing and Its Hazards

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For
Further Study


Snapshot: Catholic/Protestant Differences in the Sixteenth Century

Snapshot: Major Thinkers and Achievements of the Scientific Revolution

*Portrait: Ursula de Jesus, An Afro-Peruvian Slave and Christian Visionary

Considering the Evidence

Documents: Renewal and Reform in the Early Modern World

15.1—Luther’s Protest: Martin Luther, Table Talk, early sixteenth century

15.2—Progress and Enlightenment: Marquis de Condorcet, Sketch of the Progress of the Human Mind, 1793-1794

15.3—The Wahhabi Perspective on Islam: Abdullah Wahhab, "History and Doctrines of the Wahhabis," 1803

15.4—The Poetry of Kabîr: Kabîr, Poetry, ca. late fifteenth century

Using the Evidence

Visual Sources: Global Christianity in the Early Modern World

Pieter Seanredam, Interior of a Dutch Reformed Church

Catholic Baroque: Interior of Pilgrimage Church, Mariazell, Austria

Cultural Blending in Andean Christianity

Making Christianity Chinese

Christian Art at the Mughal Court

Using the Evidence

Part Five: The European Moment In World History, 1750–1914

The Big Picture European Centrality and the Problem of Eurocentrism

Eurocentric Geography and History

Countering Eurocentrism

*Mapping Part Five

16 Atlantic Revolutions, Global Echoes, 1750–1914

Atlantic Revolutions in a Global Context

Comparing Atlantic Revolutions

The North American Revolution, 1775–1787

The French Revolution, 1789–1815

The Haitian Revolution, 1791–1804

Spanish American Revolutions, 1810–1825

Echoes of Revolution

The Abolition of Slavery

Nations and Nationalism

Feminist Beginnings

Reflections: Revolutions Pro and Con

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For Further Study


Snapshot: Key Moments in the Growth of Nationalism

*Portrait: Kartini, Feminism and Nationalism in Java

Considering the Evidence

Documents: Claiming Rights

16.1—The French Revolution and the "Rights of Man": The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, 1789

16.2—Rights and National Independence: Simón Bolívar, The Jamaica Letter, 1815

16.3—Rights and Slavery: Frederick Douglass, "What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July?", 1852

16.4—The Rights of Women: Elizabeth Cady Stanton, The Solitude of Self, 1892

Using the Evidence

Visual Sources: Representing the French Revolution

The Early Years of the French Revolution: "The Joyous Accord"

A Reversal of Roles: The Three Estates of Revolutionary France

Revolution and Religion: "Patience, Monsignor, your turn will come"

An English Response to Revolution: "Hell Broke Loose or The Murder of Louis"

Using the Evidence

17 Revolutions of Industrialization, 1750–1914

Explaining the Industrial Revolution

Why Europe?

Why Britain?

The First Industrial Society

The British Aristocracy

The Middle Classes

The Laboring Classes

Social Protest

Europeans in Motion

Variations on a Theme: Comparing Industrialization in the United States and Russia

The United States: Industrialization without Socialism

Industrialization and Revolution

The Industrial Revolution and Latin America in the Nineteenth Century

After Independence in Latin America

Facing the World Economy

Becoming like Europe?

Reflections: History and Horse Races

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For Further Study


Snapshot: Measuring the Industrial Revolution

Snapshot: The Industrial Revolution and the Global Divide

*Portrait: Ellen Johnston, Factory Girl and Poet

Considering the Evidence

*Documents: Experiencing Industrialization

17.1— The Experience of an English Factory Worker: Elizabeth Bentley, Factory Worker, Testimony, 1831 and William Harter, Mill Owner, Testimony, 1832

17.2—A Weaver’s Lament: Only a Weaver, 1860s

17.3—A Middle-Class Understanding of the Industrial Poor: Samuel Smiles, Thrift, 1875

17.4—Socialism According to Marx: Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The Communist Manifesto, 1848

17.5—Socialism in Song: Eugene Pottier (trans. Charles Kerr), The Internationale, 1871

Using the Evidence

Visual Sources: Art and the Industrial Revolution

The Machinery Department of the Crystal Palace

The Railroad as a Symbol of the Industrial Era

Outside the Factory: Eyre Crowe, The Dinner Hour, Wigan

Inside the Factory: Lewis Hine, Child Labor, 1912

John Leech, Capital and Labour

Using the Evidence

18 Colonial Encounters in Asia and Africa, 1750–1950

Industry and Empire

A Second Wave of European Conquests

Under European Rule

Cooperation and Rebellion

Colonial Empires with a Difference

Ways of Working: Comparing Colonial Economies

Economies of Coercion: Forced Labor and the Power of the State

Economies of Cash-Crop Agriculture: The Pull of the Market

Economies of Wage Labor: Migration for Work

Women and the Colonial Economy: Examples from Africa

Assessing Colonial Development

Believing and Belonging: Identity and Cultural Change in the Colonial Era



"Race" and "Tribe"

Reflections: Who Makes History?

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions • Next Steps: For Further Study


Snapshot: Long-Distance Migration in an Age of Empire, 1846–1940

*Portrait: Wanjiku of Kenya, An Ordinary Woman in Extraordinary Times

Considering the Evidence

Documents: Indian Responses to Empire

18.1—Seeking Western Education: Ram Mohan Roy, Letter to Lord Amherst, 1823

18.2—The Indian Rebellion: Prince Feroze Shah, The Azamgarh Proclamation, 1857

18.3—The Credits and Debits of British Rule in India: Dadabhai Naoroji, Speech to a London Audience, 1871

18.4—Gandhi on Modern Civilization: Mahatma Gandhi, Indian Home Rule, 1908

Using the Evidence

Visual Sources: The Scramble for Africa

Prelude to the Scramble

Conquest and Competition

From the Cape to Cairo

British and French in North Africa

The Ethiopian Exception

Using the Evidence

19 Empire in Collision: Europe, the Middle East, and East Asia, 1800–1914

Reversal of Fortune: China’s Century of Crisis

The Crisis Within

Western Pressures

The Failure of Conservative

The Ottoman Empire and the West in the Nineteenth Century

"The Sick Man of Europe"

Reform and Its Opponents

Outcomes: Comparing China and the Ottoman Empire

The Japanese Difference: The Rise of a New East Asian Power

The Tokugawa Background

American Intrusion and the Meiji Restoration

Modernization Japanese Style

Japan and the World

Reflections: Success and Failure in History

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For Further Study


Snapshot: Chinese/British Trade at Canton, 1835–1836

*Portrait: Commissioner Lin, Confronting the Opium Trade

Considering the Evidence

*Documents: Changing China

19.1—Towards a Constitutional Monarchy: Kang Youwei, Memorial to Emperor Guangxu, 1898

19.2—Education and Examination: Anonymous, Editorial on China’s Examination System, 1898, and Emperor Guangxu, Edict on Education, 1898

19.3—Gender, Reform, and Revolution: Qiu Jin, An Address to Two Hundred Million Fellow Countrywomen, 1904

19.4—Prescriptions for a Revolutionary China: Sun Yat-sen, The Three People’s Principles and the Future of the Chinese People, 1906

Using the Evidence

Visual Sources: Japanese Perceptions of the West

The Black Ships

Women and Westernization

Kobayashi Kiyochika’s Critique of Wholesale Westernization

Japan, China, and Europe: A Reversal of Roles

Using the Evidence

Part Six: The Most Recent Century, 1914–2012

The Big Picture

Since World War I: A New Period in World History?

*Mapping Part Six

20: Collapse at the Center: World War, Depression, and the Rebalancing of Global Power, 1914–1970s

The First World War: European Civilization in Crisis, 1914–1918

An Accident Waiting to Happen

Legacies of the Great War

Capitalism Unraveling: The Great Depression

Democracy Denied: Comparing Italy, Germany, and Japan

The Fascist Alternative in Europe

Hitler and the Nazis

Japanese Authoritarianism

A Second World War

The Road to War in Asia

The Road to War in Europe

Outcomes of Global Conflict

The Recovery of Europe

Reflections: War and Remembrance: Learning from History

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For Further Study


Snapshot: Comparing the Impact of the Depression

*Portrait: Etty Hillesum, Witness to the Holocaust

Considering the Evidence

Documents: Ideologies of the Axis Powers

20.1—Hitler on Nazism: Adolph Hitler, Mein Kampf (My Struggle), 1925-1926

20.2—The Japanese Way: Cardinal Principles of the National Entity of Japan, 1937

Using the Evidence

Visual Sources: Propaganda and Critique in World War I

Defining the Enemy

War and the Colonies

Women and the War

War and the Colonies

The Battlefield

The Aftermath of War

Using the Evidence

21 Revolution, Socialism, and Global Conflict: The Rise and Fall of World Communism, 1917–Present

Global Communism

Comparing Revolutions as a Path to Communism

Russia: Revolution in a Single Year

China: A Prolonged Revolutionary Struggle

Building Socialism in Two Countries

Communist Feminism

Socialism in the Countryside

Communism and Industrial Development

The Search for Enemies

East versus West: A Global Divide and a Cold War

Military Conflict and the Cold War

Nuclear Standoff and Third World Rivalry

Paths to the End of Communism

China: Abandoning Communism and Maintaining the Party

The Soviet Union: The Collapse of Communism and Country

Reflections: To Judge or Not to Judge

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For Further Study


Snapshot: China under Mao, 1949–1976

*Portrait: Anna Dubova, A Peasant Woman and Soviet Communist

Considering the Evidence

Documents: Experiencing Stalinism

21.1—Stalin on Stalinism: Joseph Stalin, "The Results of the First Five-Year Plan," 1933

21.2—Living through Collectivization: Maurice Hindus, Red Bread, 1931

21.3—Living through Industrialization: Personal Accounts of Soviet Industrialization, 1930s

21.4—Living through the Terror: Personal Accounts of the Terror, 1930s

Using the Evidence

Visual Sources: Poster Art in Mao’s China

Smashing the Old Society

Building the New Society: The People’s Commune

Women, Nature, and Industrialization

The Cult of Mao

Using the Evidence

22 The End of Empire: The Global South on the Global Stage, 1914–Present

Toward Freedom: Struggles for Independence

The End of Empire in World History

Explaining African and Asian Independence

Comparing Freedom Struggles

The Case of India: Ending British Rule

The Case of South Africa: Ending Apartheid

Experiments with Freedom

Experiments in Political Order: Party, Army, and the Fate of Democracy

Experiments in Economic Development: Changing Priorities, Varying Outcomes

Experiments with Culture: The Role of Islam in Turkey and Iran

Reflections: History in the Middle of the Stream

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For Further Study


Snapshot: World Population Growth, 1950-2011

*Portrait: Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Muslim Pacifist

Considering the Evidence

Documents: Contending for Islam

22.1—A Secular State for an Islamic Society in Turkey: Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Speech to the General Congress of the Republican Party, 1927

22.2—Political Islam: Ayatollah Khomeini, Sayings of the Ayatollah Khomeini, 1980

22.3—Progressive Islam: Kabir Helminski, "Islam and Human Values," 2009

22.4—Abandoning Islam: Ayaan Hirsi Ail, From Islam to America, 2010

Using the Evidence

Visual Sources: Representing Independence

African National Congress

Vietnamese Independence and Victory over the United States

Winning a Jewish National State

A Palestinian Nation in the Making

Using the Evidence

23 Capitalism and Culture: A New Phase of Global Interaction, since 1945

The Transformation of the World Economy


Growth, Instability, and Inequality

Globalization and an American Empire

The Globalization of Liberation: Focus on Feminism

Feminism in the West

Feminism in the Global South

International Feminism

Religion and Global Modernity

Fundamentalism on a Global Scale

Creating Islamic Societies: Resistance and Renewal in the World of Islam

Religious Alternatives to Fundamentalism

Experiencing the Anthropocene Era: Environment and Environmentalism

The Global Environment Transformed

Green and Global

Final Reflections: Pondering the OAR

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For Further Study


*Snapshot: Global Development and Inequality: 2011

*Portrait: Rachel Carson, Pioneer of Environmentalism

Considering the Evidence

*Documents: Voices of Global Feminism

23.1—Communist Feminism: Alexandra Kollotai, "Communism and the Family," 1920

23.2—Western Feminism: Andrea Dworkin, "Remember, Resist, Do Not Comply," 1995

23.3—Black American Feminism: Combahee River Collective, A Black Feminist Statement, 1977

23.4—Islamic Feminism: Benzair Bhutto, Politics and the Muslim Woman, 1985

23.5—Mexican Zapatista Feminists: Indigenous Women's Petition, March 1, 1994 and The Women's Revolutionary Law, January 1, 1994

Using the Evidence

Visual Sources: Experiencing Globalization

Globalization and Work

Globalization and Consumerism

Globalization and Protest

Globalization: One World or Many?

Using the Evidence




About the Author

*new to this edition

Rewards Program

Write a Review