The Western Humanities Volume 2

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  • Edition: 7th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2010-02-22
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages

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Chronologically organized,The Western Humanitiespresents the cultural achievements of western civilization--art and architecture, music, history, literature, philosophy, theater, film and the other arts--within their historical context. By examining the historical and material conditions that influenced the form and content of the arts and humanities, the authors provide students with a clear framework, a deeper understanding of the meaning of cultural works, and a broader basis for analyzing and appreciating the cultural achievements of the West. Hundreds of illustrations bring the arts and humanities to life, while extensive pedagogy consistently asks students to think about, interpret, and apply the information throughout the text and at the end of each chapter.

Table of Contents

Introduction: Why Study Cultural History?
A Humanities Primer: How to Understand the Arts
Prehistory and Near Eastern Civilizations
Prehistory and Early Cultures
Paleolithic Period
The Neolithic Revolution
The Age of Metals,
The Rise of Civilization: Mesopotamia
The Sumerian, Akkadian, and Babylonian Kingdoms
The Cradle of Civilization
Encounter: The Phoenicians and the Alphabet
Science, Mathematics, and Medicine
Slice of Life:"A Sumerian Father Lectures His Son"
Anonymous, from clay tablets
Art and Architecture
The Civilization of the Nile Rover Valley: Egypt
Continuity and Change over Three Thousand Years
A Quest for Eternal Cultural Values
Writing and Literature
Science and Medicine
Slice of Life: Life's Instruction Book for Egyptians, Anonymous, from A Papyrus Text
Sculpture, Painting, and Minor Arts
Heirs to the Mesopotamian and Egyptian Empires
The Assyrians
The Neo-Babylonians
The Medes and the Persians
The Legacy of Early Near Eastern Civilizations
Key Cultural Terms
Questions for Critical Thinking
Aegean Civilizations: the Minoans, the Mycenaeans, and the Greeks of the Archaic Age
Prelude: Minoan Civilization, 3000-1100 B.C.E.
Beginnings: Mycenaean Civilization, 1900-1100 B.C.E.
The Greek Dark Ages, 1100-800 B.C.E
Technology in Minoan Crete and Mycenae
The Archaic Age, 800-479 B.C.E.
Political, Economic, and Social Structures
The Greek Polis: Sparta and Athens
Technology in Archaic Greece
The Emergence of Greek Genius: The Mastery of Form
Epic Poetry
Lyric Poetry
Interpreting Art: Red Figure Ware: Achilles Killing the Amazon Queen Penthesilea
Encounter Near Eastern Art and Greek Pottery
Philosophy and Science
Natural Philosophy
Slice of Life The Worlds of Women and Men in Ancient
Greece Sappho, "He Seems to Be a God" and Alcaeus, "Longing for Home"
The Legacy of Archaic Greek Civilization
Key Cultural Terms
Questions for Critical Thinking
Classical Greek Civilization: The Hellenic Age
Domestic and Foreign Affairs: War, Peace, and the Triumph of Macedonia
Political Phases of the Hellenic Age
The Arts of Hellenic Greece: The Quest for Perfection
Encounter: The Representation of Blacks in Greek Art
History, Philosophy, Science, and Medicine
Philosophy, Science, and Medicine
The Pre-Socratics
The Sophists
The Socratic Revolution
The Visual Arts
Slice of Life Xenophon, "Secrets of a Successful Marriage in Ancient Greece", from Oeconomicus
The Legacy of Hellenic Civilization
Key Cultural Terms
Questions for Critical Thinking
Hellenistic Civilization and the Rise of Rome
The Changing Framework of Politics
The Hellenistic Monarchies
The Rise of Rome
The Nature of Government
The Tenor of Life
The Experiences of Women
Urban Life
Roman Values
Hellenistic Cultures
Slice of Life: Street Scene in Hellenistic Egypt
Theocritus, from Idylls
Drama and Literature
Philosophy and Religion
Science and Technology
Encounter: The Invention of Parchment and the Birth of the Secular Library
Interpreting Art: Hagesandros, Polydoros, and Athanadoros
The Laocoon Group
The Legacy of Hellenistic Civilization and the Rise of Rome
Key Cultural Terms
Questions for Critical Thinking
Judaism and the Rise Christianity
The People and Their Religion
Egypt, Exodus, and Moses
The Kingdom of Israel
The Babylonian Captivity and the Postexilic Period
The Hellenistic and Roman Periods
Societal and Family Relationships
The Bible
Slice of Life a Jewish Eyewitness to the Destruction of the Second Temple, Flavius Josephus, from History of the Jewish War (75-59 C.E.)
Early Jewish Art and Architecture
Encounter: Baal, a Rival to the Israelites' God
The Life of Jesus Christ and the New Testament
Christians and Jews
Christianity and Greco-Roman Religions and Philosophies
Christians in the Roman Empire
Early Christian Literature
Slice of Life: A Christian Mother Faces Death from Roman Authorities, Vibia Perpetua, A Martyr in the Early Christian Church
The Legacy of Biblical Judaism and Early Christianity
Key Cultural Terms
Questions for Critical Thinking
Roman Imperial Civilization and the Triumph of Christianity
The Augustan Principate
The Principate
The Pax Romana
Encounter: Roman Conquests and Romance Languages
The Crisis of the Third Century
The Reforms of Diocletian and Constantine
The Later Roman Empire in West and East
The End of the Western Empire
Slice of Life a Roman Delegate at a Barbarian Banquet, Priscus
The Eastern Empire
The Triumph of Christianity
The Growth of the Catholic Church
Christian Monasticism
Christianity and the Roman State
Roman Imperial Civilization
Secular Latin Literature
Science and Medicine
From the Secular to the Spiritual: Christian Literature
The Fathers of the Church
Church History
The Visual Arts
Interpreting Art: The Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus
Painting and Mosaics
The Legacy of Roman Imperial Civilization
Key Cultural Terms
Questions for Critical Thinking
The Heirs of the Roman Empire: Byzantium and the West in the Early Middle Ages
The Byzantine World
The Birth of Byzantium: War and Government
The Birth of Byzantium: Culture and Religion
The early Medieval West
The World of Charlemagne
The Reign of Charlemagne
The Carolingian Renaissance
The Post-Carolingian World
Encounter: Globalization: The Silk Road
The Literary Arts in the Early Middle Ages
Byzantine Writers
The Latin West
Slice of Life: Marriage Diplomacy Nets a Diplomatic Insult
The Vernacular Achievement
The Visual Arts in the Early Middle Ages
Byzantine Art
Byzantine Architecture
Western Art
Western Architecture
Military Technology: Byzantine
Military Technology: Western European
The Legacy of the Early Middle Ages
Key Cultural Terms
Questions for Critical Thinking
The World of Islam, 630-1517
Muhammad, The Prophet
Imperial Islam
The Post-Muhammad Years
The Umayyad Dynasty
The Abbasid Dynasty
The Fragmentation of the Caliphate
Islam as Religion
Medieval Islamic Culture
Philosophy and History
Mechanical Engineering
Art and Architecture
Encounter: An International Community of Scholars
Painting 0
Slice of Life: Fears of Assimilation in a Multicultural Society, Paul Albar
Interpreting Art: The Night Journey of Muhammad
The Legacy of Medieval Islam
Key Cultural Terms
Questions for Critical Thinking
The High Middle Ages: The Christian Centuries
Politics and Society
Lords and Vassals: Those Who Fight
Those Who Work: Peasants
The Rise of Towns (and the Rest of Those Who Work)
Medieval Government
The French Monarchy
The English Monarchy
The German Empire
The Papal Monarchy
Medieval Christianity and the Church
Christian Beliefs and Practices
Encounter: Pagan Vikings Versus Christian Europeans
Religious Orders and Lay Piety
The Crusades
The Age of Synthesis: Equilibrium between the Spiritual and the Secular
Theology and Learning
Slice of Life: When Love Knows No Boundaries,
Heloise, from a letter
The Development of Scholasticism
Peter Abelard
The Rise of the Universities
Intellectual Controversy and Thomas Aquinas
Science and Medicine
Courtly Writing
Architecture and Art
Romanesque Churches and Related Arts
Churches and Related Arts
The Legacy of the Christian Centuries
Key Cultural Terms
Questions for Critical Thinking
The Late Middle Ages, 1300-1500
Hard Times Come to Europe
Ordeal by Plague, Famine, and War
The Secular Monarchies
The Papal Monarchy
The Rise of Industries
The Printing Press
The Cultural Flowering of the Late Middle Ages
Theology and Philosophy
The Via Antiqua Versus the Via Moderna
Duns Scotus and William of Ockham 0
Slice of Life: A Gossip Columnist of the Late Middle Ages, Henry Knighton, from his Chronicle
Northern Italian Literature: Petrarch and Boccaccio
Encounter A New Look at the Spread of Byzantine Scholarship in the West
English Literature: Geoffrey Chaucer
French Literature: Christine de Pizan
Art and Architecture
Late Gothic Architecture
Late Gothic Sculpture
Late Gothic Painting and the Rise of New Trends
New Trends in Italy: Giotto
Flemish Painting: Jan van Eyck and hans Memling
Interpreting Art: Jan van Eyck, Arnolfini Wedding or Arnolfini Double Portrait
The Legacy of the Late Middle Ages
Key Cultural Terms
Questions for Critical Thinking
The Early Renaissance: Return to Classical Roots, 1400-1494
The Early Renaissance: Schools of Interpretation
Early Renaissance History and Institutions
Italian City-States during the Early Renaissance
Florence, the Center of the Renaissance
The Resurgent Papacy, 1450-1500
International Developments
The Spirit and Style of the Early Renaissance
Slice of Life: Battle of the Sexes, Fifteenth-Century Style, Laura Cereta, from a letter
Humanism, Scholarship, and Schooling
Thought and Philosophy
Architecture, Sculpture, and Painting
Artistic Ideals and Innovations
Encounter The Influence of Islam on the European Renaissance
The Legacy of the Early Renaissance
Key Cultural Terms
Questions for Critical Thinking
The High Renaissance and Early Mannerism, 1494-1564
The Rise of the Modern Sovereign State
The Struggle for Italy, 1494-1529
Economic Expansion and Social Developments
Demographics, Prosperity, and the Beginning of a Global World
Science and Medicine
From High Renaissance to Early Mannerism
Encounter Portuguese Exploration Sets the Stage for a New World 360
Leonardo da Vinci
Interpreting Art: Michelangelo, The Libyan Sibyl
The Venetian School: Giorgione and Titian
The School of Parma: Parmigianino
Slice of Life: Artists and Their Critics: Michelangelo's Strategy, Giorgio Vasari, from Life of Michelangelo
Choral Music
Other Developments
The Legacy of the High Renaissance and Early Mannerism
Key Cultural Terms
Questions for Critical Thinking
Northern Humanism, Northern Renaissance, Religious Reformations, and Late Mannerism, 1500-1603
Northern Humanism
The Northern Renaissance
Northern Renaissance Thought and Science
Jean Bodin
Andreas Vesalius
Northern Renaissance Literature
Michel de Montaigne
William Shakespeare
Northern Renaissance Painting
Albrecht Durer
Matthias Grunewald
Hieronymus Bosch
Pieter Bruegel the Elder
The Breakup of Christendom: Causes of the Religious Reformations
The Protestant Order
Luther's Revolt
Encounter: Indigenous Peoples and New Spain
Luther's Beliefs
Social and Political Implications of Luther's Revolt
Slice of Life: The Conscience of Sixteenth-Century Christian Europe, Bartolome de las Casas from A Short
Account of the Destruction of the Indies
The Reforms of John Calvin
The Reform of the English Church
The Counter-Reformation
The Revitalized Papacy
New Monastic Orders
The Council of Trent
Warfare as a Response to Religious Dissent, 1520-1603
Late Mannerism
Spanish Painting
Spanish Literature
Late Mannerist Painting in Italy: Tintoretto
Music in Late-Sixteenth-Century Italy and England
The Legacy of Northern Humanism, Northern Renaissance, Religious Reformations, and Late Mannerism
Key Cultural Terms
Questions for Critical Thinking
The Baroque Age I: Glamour and Grandiosity, 1600-1715
Absolutism, Monarchy, and the Balance of Power
France: The Supreme Example of Absolutism
England: From Monarchy to Republic to Limited Monarchy
Warfare in the Baroque Period: Maintaining the Balance of Power
The Thirty Years' War, 1618-1648
The Wars of Louis XIV, 1665-1713
Slice of Life: Two Views of Power: Master (Louis XIV) and Servant (Duke of Saint-Simon)
Warfare Technology
Household Technology
The Baroque: Variations on an International Style
The Florid Baroque
Encounter: Japan Closes Its Door, Nearly
The Classical Baroque
The Restrained Baroque
Interpreting Art: Christopher Wren, St. Paul's Cathedral
Baroque Literature in France
Baroque Literature in England
Bach, Handel, and Vivaldi
The Legacy of the Baroque Age
Key Cultural Terms
Questions for Critical Thinking
The Baroque Age II: Revolutions in Scientific and Political Thought, 1600-1715
Theories of the Universe before the Scientific Revolution
The Magical and the Practical in the Scientific Revolution
Astronomy and Physics: From Copernicus to Newton
Nicolas Copernicus
Johannes Kepler
Galileo Galilei
Isaac Newton
Medicine and Chemistry
The Impact of Science on Philosophy
Francis Bacon
Rene Descartes
Blaise Pascal
Ironies and Contradictions of the Scientific Revolution
The Revolution in Political Philosophy
Natural Law and Divine Right: Grotius and Bossuet
Absolutism and Liberalism: Hobbes and Locke
Slice of Life: Innocent or Guilty? A Seventeenth-Century Witch Trial, Suzanne Gaudry: Trial Court Records, June, 1652
European Exploration and Expansion
Responses to the Revolutions in Thought
The Spread of Ideas
Encounter: The Sinews of Trade
Impact on the Arts
The Legacy of the Revolutions in Scientific and Political Thought
Key Cultural Terms
Questions for Critical Thinking
The Age of Reason, 1700-1789
The Enlightenment
The Philosophes and Their Program
Popular Religion
The Encyclopedie
The Physiocrats
The Great Powers During the Age of Reason
Society: Continuity and Change Absolutism, Limited Monarchy, and Enlightened Despotism
France: The Successors to the Sun King
Great Britain and the Hanoverian Kings
Enlightened Despotism in Central and Eastern Europe
Cultural Trends in the Eighteenth Century: From Rococo to Neoclassical
The Rococo Style in the Arts
Rococo Painting
Rococo Interiors
The English Response
The Challenge of Neoclassicism
Neoclassical Painting
Interpreting Art: Jacques-Louis David, The Oath of the Horatii
Encounter: Chinoiserie: Fantasy of the East
The Print
Neoclassical Architecture
Political Philosophy
David Hume
French Writers: The Development of New Forms
Neoclassicism in English Literature
The Rise of the Novel
Slice of Life: "How to Manipulate the System: Lady Mary Wortley Montagu," Letter, March 25, 1744
The Legacy of the Age of Reason
Key Cultural Terms
Questions for Critical Thinking
Revolution, Reaction, and Cultural Response, 1760-1830
The Industrial Revolution
Industrialization in England
Classical Economics: The Rationale for Industrialization
Slice of Life: Life Inside a "Satanic Mill" in 1815: Elizabeth Bentley, Report of Parliamentary Committee on the Bill to Regulate the Labour of Children in Mills and Factories, 1832
Political Revolutions, 1760-1815
The American Revolution
The French Revolution
Changes in Military Weaponry
Composition of Armies
Changes to Naval Warfare
Reaction, 1815-1830 519
Encounter: Slavery and the French Revolution
Revolutions in Art and Ideas: From Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Neoclassicism in Literature after 1789
Neoclassical Painting and Architecture after 1789
Romanticism: Its Spirit and Expression
The Romantic Movement in Literature
Romantic Painting
Science and Philosophy
The Birth of Romantic Music
The Legacy of the Age of Revolution and Reaction
Key Cultural Terms
Questions for Critical Thinking
The Triumph of the Bourgeoisie, 1830-1871
The Political and Economic Scene: Liberalism and Nationalism
The Revolutions of 1830 and 1848
European Affairs in the Grip of Realpolitik
Limited Reform in France and Great Britain
Wars and Unification in Central Europe
Civil War in the United States
Industrialism, Technology, and Warfare
Industrialism: The Shrinking Globe
New Technologies
The Spread of Industrialism
Symbols of the Bourgeois Age: The Crystal Palace and the Suez Canal
Nineteenth-Century Thought: Philosophy, Religion, and Science
Liberalism Redefined
Encounter: The Tragedy of the Cherokee Nation
Religion and the Challenge of Science
Cultural Trends: From Romanticism to Realism
Slice of Life: Observing Human Behavior: The Classes and the Masses, Charlotte Bronte, The First World's Fair, 1851; Hippolyte Taine, A Day at the Races, 28 May 1861
The Height of French Romanticism
Romanticism in the English Novel
Interpreting Art: Edouard Manet
A Bar at the Folies-Bergere
Romanticism in American Literature
Realism in French and English Novels
The Russian Realists
Realism among African American Writers
Art and Architecture
Neoclassicism and Romanticism after 1830
The Rise of Realism in Art
The Legacy of the Bourgeois Age
Key Cultural Terms
Questions for Critical Thinking
The Age of Early Modernism, 1871-1914
Europe's Rise to World Leadership
The Second Industrial Revolution, New Technologies, and the Making of Modern Life
Response to Industrialism: Politics and Crisis
Domestic Policies in the Heavily Industrialized West
Slice of Life Winning the Right to Vote: Lady Constance Lytton, Notes from a diary
Domestic Policies in Central, Southern, and Eastern Europe
Imperialism and International Relations
The Scramble for Colonies
The Outbreak of World War I
Early Modernism
Philosophy, Psychology, and Religion
Freud and Jung
Religious Developments
Naturalistic Literature
Decadence in Literature
Expressionist Literature
The Advance of Science
The Modernist Revolution in Art
Encounter The French Impressionists Meet Ukiyo-e Art
Fauvism, Cubism, and Expressionism
New Directions in Sculpture and Architecture
Music: From Impressionism to Jazz
The Legacy of Early Modernism
Key Cultural Terms
Questions for Critical Thinking
The Age of the Masses and the Zenith of Modernism: 1914-1945
The Collapse of Old Certainties and the Search for New Values
World War I and Its Aftermath
The Great Depression of the 1930s
Encounter: Civil Disobedience and the Campaign for Indian Independence
The Rise of Totalitarianism
Russian Communism
European Fascism
World War II: Origins and Outcome
The Zenith of Modernism
Mass Culture, Technology, and Warfare Mass Culture and New Technologies
Experimentation in Literature
The Novel
Philosophy, Science, and Medicine
Slice of Life: The Face of Evil: A Nazi Death Camp, Elie Wiesel, from Night
Art, Architecture, Photography, and Film
Interpreting Art: Piet Mondrian, Composition with Blue and Yellow
Music: Atonality, Neoclassicism, and an American Idiom
The Legacy of the Age of the Masses and High Modernism
Key Cultural Terms
Questions for Critical Thinking
The Age of Anxiety and Late Modernism, 1945-1970
Transformations in the Postwar World
The Era of the Superpowers, 1945-1970
Postwar Recovery and the New World Order
The Cold War
Emergence of the Third World
Mass Culture
The End of Modernism
Philosophy and Religion
Political and Social Movements
Science and Technology
Slice of Life: Humans in Space: "One Giant Leap for Mankind," Neil Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin, astronauts, voice transmittal from the Moon
The Literature of Late Modernism: Fiction, Poetry, and Drama
Late Modernism and the Arts
Late Modern Music
Encounter: The Globalization of Popular Music
The Legacy of the Age of Anxiety and Late Modernism
Key Cultural Terms
Questions for Critical Thinking
The Contemporary World: Globalization, Terror, and Post-Modernism, 1970-
Toward a New Global Order, 1970-2001
Economic, National, and International Developments
The Fall of Communism
The Post-Cold War World
The Age of Terror, 2001-
The Birth of Post-Modernism
Medicine, Science, and Technology
Philosophy and Religion
Religion and Religious Thought
The Literature of Post-Modernism
Encounter: Continental Drift: Demography and Migration
Post-Modernism and the Arts
Interpreting Art: Anselm Kiefer, Osiris and Isis
Installation Art
Environmental Art
Video Art
Post-Modern Music
Performance Art
Mass Culture
Summing Up
Slice of Life "How Did We Get Here? Where Are We Going?" Amin Maalouf, from Origins
The Legacy of the Contemporary World
Key Cultural Terms
Questions for Critical Thinking
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

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