Wind Energy Engineering

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2010-09-22
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education
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A practical, professional guide to engineering and managing wind energy in real-world implementationsWind Energy Engineeringoffers a collective and holistic engineering approach for effectively using wind energy as a viable and economical energy source. Wind energy is a multidisciplinary engineering field that requires mechanical, aeronautical, electrical, civil, materials engineering, meteorology, and land developing knowledge. This comprehensive volume covers all of these areas.The book provides wind engineering training for engineers, technicians, and technical managers. It is ideal for those who are entering the field of wind energy as well as experienced, practicing engineers.Wind Energy Engineeringcovers everything from wind physics to optimal location and installation.Wind Energy Engineering Discusses foundation design, civil works design, and electrical engineering design Covers optical layout of turbines Includes information on wind assessments, measurements and detailed wind energy assessment methodologies Is written by a global expert in the planning of wind projects Provides practical planning and installation skills as well as technical knowledgeFeatures detailed information on: Physics of wind; Wind energy and power; Small turbines; Utility scale turbines; Electrical components of turbines; Aerodynamics of wind turbine blades; Project Siting; Wind resource assessment; Wind speed and direction measurement; Assessment and planning of wind projects; Installation and commissioning of wind projects; Wind energy economics; and more

Author Biography

Author Information
Pramod Jain, Ph.D.
is a co-founder and head of engineering consulting at Wind Energy Consulting and Contracting, Inc. (WECC). He is recognized as a global expert in the planning of wind projects and has worked on projects in the United States, Caribbean, and Latin America that range from a single 100kW turbine to a 100MW wind farm. His clients include Fortune 100 companies, the U.S. government, universities, utilities, municipalities, and land developers.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xii
Acknowledgmentsp. xvii
Overview of Wind Energy Businessp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Worldwide Business of Wind Energyp. 1
Cost of Wind Energyp. 4
Benefits of Wind Energyp. 4
Wind Energy Is Not a Panaceap. 6
Basics of Wind Energy and Powerp. 9
Introductionp. 9
Kinetic Energy of Windp. 9
Sensitivity of Power to Rotor Radius and Wind Speedp. 11
Basic Concepts/Equationsp. 12
Conservation of Massp. 12
Conservation of Energyp. 13
Conservation of Momentump. 14
Derivation of Betz Limitp. 16
The Meaning of Betz Limitp. 20
Wind versus Waterp. 22
Properties of Windp. 25
Introductionp. 25
How Is Wind Generated?p. 25
Statistical Distribution of Wind Speedp. 26
Mean and Mode of Weibull Distribution for Wind Speedp. 29
Power Densityp. 30
Wind Classesp. 31
Wind Shearp. 33
Understanding Wind Shearp. 36
Density of Air as a Function of Elevationp. 37
Density of Air as a Function of Humidityp. 39
Aerodynamics of Wind Turbine Bladesp. 41
Introductionp. 41
Airfoilsp. 41
Relative Velocity of Windp. 44
Rotor Disk Theoryp. 47
Lift Forcep. 51
Equal Transit Time Fallacyp. 51
Rotation Fluid Flow, Circulation, and Vorticesp. 51
Real Fluidsp. 55
Flow of Fluid over an Airfoilp. 56
Effect of Reynolds Number on Lift and Drag Coefficientsp. 58
Drag-Based Turbinesp. 59
Advanced Aerodynamics of Wind Turbine Bladesp. 63
Introductionp. 63
Blade Element Modelp. 63
Constant-Speed Turbines, Stall-Versus Pitch-Regulatedp. 68
Variable-Speed Turbinesp. 70
Power Curvesp. 70
Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT)p. 72
Wind Measurementp. 75
Introductionp. 75
Definition of Wind Speedp. 75
Configurations to Measure Windp. 76
Anemometerp. 77
Calibration of Anemometersp. 81
Wind Vanep. 81
Placement of Sensorsp. 82
Impact of Inflow Anglep. 85
Uncertainty in Wind Speed Measurement with Anemometersp. 85
Example of Error Estimatep. 88
Other Sensorsp. 89
Data Logger and Communication Devicep. 89
Designing a Wind Measurement Campaignp. 90
Installation of Met-Towersp. 93
Example of Met-Tower Installationp. 94
Data Managementp. 94
Data Processingp. 96
Computed Quantitiesp. 101
Turbulencep. 101
Wind Shearp. 103
Air Densityp. 104
Power Densityp. 105
Remote Sensing to Measure Wind Speedp. 105
Pros and Cons of Remote Sensing for Wind Measurementsp. 106
Wind Resource Assessmentp. 111
Introductionp. 111
Overview of Wind Resource Assessmentp. 111
Source of Wind Datap. 113
Resource Estimation Modelsp. 114
Mesoscale Modelsp. 114
CFD Modelsp. 115
WasP, a Microscale Modelp. 115
Definitionsp. 115
Phases of Resource Assessmentp. 122
Preliminary Wind Resource Assessmentp. 123
Wind Resource Map Lookupp. 123
Preliminary Analysis of Data from Neighboring Airports and Other Met-Towersp. 125
Detailed Analysis of Wind Data from Neighboring Airports and Other Met-Towersp. 125
Onsite Wind Measurementp. 126
Spatial Extrapolation of Wind Resources from Measured Locations to Planned Wind Turbine Locationsp. 126
Hindcasting/MCP of Measured Datap. 127
Predictp. 133
Annual Energy Computationsp. 145
Advanced Wind Resource Assessmentp. 147
Introductionp. 147
Extreme Wind Speed (EWS)p. 148
WAsP Model in Rugged Terrainp. 151
Wake of Turbinesp. 153
N.O. Jensen Model for Wakep. 154
Ainslie's Eddy Viscosity Modelp. 155
Combining Wind Speed Deficits from Multiple Turbinesp. 155
Turbulence Modelingp. 156
Optimal Layout of Turbines in Wind Farmp. 156
Wind Turbine Class Selectionp. 158
Estimation of Lossesp. 160
Uncertainty Analysisp. 164
Estimating Uncertainty of Annual Energy Production: Framework for Combining Uncertaintyp. 165
Nonbankable versus Bankable Resource Estimatesp. 167
Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) Componentsp. 169
Introductionp. 169
Rotor Systemp. 169
Bladesp. 170
Forces and Momentsp. 172
Rotor Hubp. 173
Alternative Configurations of Turbinesp. 173
Pitchp. 177
Nacellep. 178
Gearboxp. 178
Yaw Drivep. 178
Nacelle Housing and Framep. 179
Lifting/Lowering Mechanismp. 180
Towersp. 180
Foundationp. 181
Spread-Footing Foundationp. 182
Design Loads of Wind Turbinesp. 185
Design Wind Conditionsp. 186
Normal Wind Profile Model (NWP)p. 186
Extreme Wind Speed Model (EWM)p. 188
Turbine Certificationp. 189
Basics of Electricity and Generatorsp. 197
Introductionp. 197
Basic Principles of Electromagnetismp. 197
Faraday's Law of Inductionp. 198
Lenz Lawp. 198
Lorenz Law or Biot-Savart Lawp. 198
Basic Principles of Alternating Currentp. 199
Basic Principles of Electrical Machinesp. 200
Conversion of Mechanical to Electrical Powerp. 202
Synchronous Generatorp. 203
Analysis of Synchronous Generatorp. 205
Variable-Speed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generatorsp. 208
Direct-Drive Synchronous Generator (DDSG)p. 211
Asynchronous Generatorsp. 212
Variable Speedp. 216
Deploying Wind Turbines in Gridp. 221
Introductionp. 221
What Happens on a Grid When There Is No Wind?p. 221
"Scheduling" and Dispatch of Wind Resourcesp. 223
Single-Line Diagramp. 224
Transmission and Distributionp. 227
Standards for Interconnectionp. 229
Power Factor and Reactive Powerp. 229
Low-Voltage Ride-Throughp. 231
Power Quality: Flicker, and Harmonicsp. 232
Short-Circuit Powerp. 232
Wind Farm Topologiesp. 233
Protection Systemsp. 236
Grounding for Overvoltage and Lightning Protectionp. 237
Lightning Protectionp. 238
Transformers for Wind Applicationsp. 239
Wind-Plant Interconnection and Transmission Studyp. 240
Transmission Bottlenecksp. 242
SCADA Systemsp. 242
Data Acquisitionp. 243
Reportingp. 243
Controlp. 244
Environmental Impact of Wind Projectsp. 247
Introductionp. 247
Framework for Analyzing Environmental Impactp. 248
Context of Environmental Impactp. 248
Temporal and Spatial Scalep. 249
Cumulative Effectsp. 249
Quick Comparison of Wind Versus Fossil Fuel-Based Electricity Productionp. 249
Impact of Wind Farms on Wildlifep. 250
Noise from Wind Turbinesp. 254
Mitigation of Noisep. 256
Low-Frequency Noisep. 257
Shadow Flickerp. 258
Aesthetic Impactp. 258
Hazard to Aviationp. 260
Electromagnetic Interferencep. 261
Microwavep. 261
TV and Radio Transmissionsp. 263
Radarp. 263
Financial Modeling of Wind Projectsp. 269
Introductionp. 269
Financial Modelp. 269
Revenue Modelp. 269
Renewable Energy Credits and Carbon Creditsp. 274
Revenue Computationsp. 275
Capital Costsp. 275
Cost of Turbinep. 278
Cost of Foundation, Erection, Access Roads, and Other Civil Worksp. 278
Substation, Control System, Cables, Installation, and Others Related to Grid Connectionp. 279
Other Costsp. 279
Operating Costsp. 279
Depreciation and Taxesp. 281
Financial Statementsp. 282
Income Statement and Cash Flow for a Wind Projectp. 282
Balance Sheet for A Wind Projectp. 282
Financial Performancep. 283
Net Present Value (NPV)p. 286
Payback Periodp. 286
Internal Rate of Return (IRR)p. 287
Impact of Tax Credits and Accelerated Depreciation on Financial Performancep. 287
Financing and Structure of Wind Projectsp. 294
Financial Evaluation of Alternativesp. 297
Planning and Execution of Wind Projectsp. 301
Introductionp. 301
High-Level Project Plan and Timelinep. 301
Developmentp. 302
Prospectingp. 303
Wind Measurement and Detailed Wind Assessmentp. 303
Project Siting, Interconnection, and PPAp. 305
Project Engineering and Procurementp. 307
Project Financingp. 312
Construction, Installation, and Commissioningp. 313
Construction of Infrastructurep. 314
Site Preparationp. 314
Foundation Construction and Turbine Erectionp. 315
Collection System and Substation Constructionp. 318
Commissioningp. 318
Operationsp. 320
Indexp. 323
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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