9780521837163

Wireless Communications

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780521837163

  • ISBN10:

    0521837162

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2005-08-08
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press

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Summary

Wireless technology is a truly revolutionary paradigm shift, enabling multimedia communications between people and devices from any location. It also underpins exciting applications such as sensor networks, smart homes, telemedicine, and automated highways. This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the underlying theory, design techniques and analytical tools of wireless communications, focusing primarily on the core principles of wireless system design. The book begins with an overview of wireless systems and standards. The characteristics of the wireless channel are then described, including their fundamental capacity limits. Various modulation, coding, and signal processing schemes are then discussed in detail, including state-of-the-art adaptive modulation, multicarrier, spread spectrum, and multiple antenna techniques. The concluding chapters deal with multiuser communications, cellular system design, and ad-hoc network design. Design insights and tradeoffs are emphasized throughout the book. It contains many worked examples, over 200 figures, almost 300 homework exercises, over 700 references, and is an ideal textbook for students. The book is also a valuable reference for engineers in the wireless industry. Andrea Goldsmith received her Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley, and is an Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering at Stanford University. Prior to this she was an Assistant Professor at the California Institute of Technology. She has also held positions in industry at Maxim Technologies and AT&T Bell Laboratories. She is a Fellow of the IEEE, has received numerous other awards and honors, and is the author of over 150 technical papers in the field of wireless communications.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
List of Abbreviations
xxii
List of Notation
xxvii
Overview of Wireless Communications
1(26)
History of Wireless Communications
1(3)
Wireless Vision
4(2)
Technical Issues
6(2)
Current Wireless Systems
8(13)
Cellular Telephone Systems
8(5)
Cordless Phones
13(2)
Wireless Local Area Networks
15(1)
Wide Area Wireless Data Services
16(1)
Broadband Wireless Access
17(1)
Paging Systems
17(1)
Satellite Networks
18(1)
Low-Cost, Low-Power Radios: Bluetooth and ZigBee
19(1)
Ultrawideband Radios
20(1)
The Wireless Spectrum
21(2)
Methods for Spectrum Allocation
21(1)
Spectrum Allocations for Existing Systems
22(1)
Standards
23(4)
Problems
24(2)
References
26(1)
Path Loss and Shadowing
27(37)
Radio Wave Propagation
28(1)
Transmit and Receive Signal Models
29(2)
Free-Space Path Loss
31(2)
Ray Tracing
33(9)
Two-Ray Model
34(3)
Ten-Ray Model (Dielectric Canyon)
37(1)
General Ray Tracing
38(3)
Local Mean Received Power
41(1)
Empirical Path-Loss Models
42(4)
Okumura Model
42(1)
Hata Model
43(1)
Cost 231 Extension to Hata Model
44(1)
Piecewise Linear (Multislope) Model
44(1)
Indoor Attenuation Factors
45(1)
Simplified Path-Loss Model
46(2)
Shadow Fading
48(3)
Combined Path Loss and Shadowing
51(1)
Outage Probability under Path Loss and Shadowing
52(1)
Cell Coverage Area
53(11)
Problems
56(4)
References
60(4)
Statistical Multipath Channel Models
64(35)
Time-Varying Channel Impulse Response
65(5)
Narrowband Fading Models
70(12)
Autocorrelation, Cross-Correlation, and Power Spectral Density
71(7)
Envelope and Power Distributions
78(1)
Level Crossing Rate and Average Fade Duration
79(3)
Finite-State Markov Channels
82(1)
Wideband Fading Models
82(10)
Power Delay Profile
86(2)
Coherence Bandwidth
88(2)
Doppler Power Spectrum and Channel Coherence Time
90(1)
Transforms for Autocorrelation and Scattering Functions
91(1)
Discrete-Time Model
92(1)
Space-Time Channel Models
93(6)
Problems
94(3)
References
97(2)
Capacity of Wireless Channels
99(27)
Capacity in AWGN
100(2)
Capacity of Flat Fading Channels
102(14)
Channel and System Model
102(1)
Channel Distribution Information Known
102(1)
Channel Side Information at Receiver
103(4)
Channel Side Information at Transmitter and Receiver
107(6)
Capacity with Receiver Diversity
113(1)
Capacity Comparisons
114(2)
Capacity of Frequency-Selective Fading Channels
116(10)
Time-Invariant Channels
116(3)
Time-Varying Channels
119(2)
Problems
121(3)
References
124(2)
Digital Modulation and Detection
126(46)
Signal Space Analysis
127(15)
Signal and System Model
128(1)
Geometric Representation of Signals
129(3)
Receiver Structure and Sufficient Statistics
132(2)
Decision Regions and the Maximum Likelihood Decision Criterion
134(3)
Error Probability and the Union Bound
137(5)
Passband Modulation Principles
142(1)
Amplitude and Phase Modulation
142(11)
Pulse Amplitude Modulation (MPAM)
144(2)
Phase-Shift Keying (MPSK)
146(2)
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (MQAM)
148(1)
Differential Modulation
149(3)
Constellation Shaping
152(1)
Quadrature Offset
152(1)
Frequency Modulation
153(4)
Frequency-Shift Keying (FSK) and Minimum-Shift Keying (MSK)
155(1)
Continuous-Phase FSK (CPFSK)
156(1)
Noncoherent Detection of FSK
156(1)
Pulse Shaping
157(3)
Symbol Synchronization and Carrier Phase Recovery
160(12)
Receiver Structure with Phase and Timing Recovery
161(2)
Maximum Likelihood Phase Estimation
163(2)
Maximum Likelihood Timing Estimation
165(2)
Problems
167(3)
References
170(2)
Performance of Digital Modulation over Wireless Channels
172(32)
AWGN Channels
172(10)
Signal-to-Noise Power Ratio and Bit/Symbol Energy
172(1)
Error Probability for BPSK and QPSK
173(2)
Error Probability for MPSK
175(1)
Error Probability for MPAM and MQAM
176(3)
Error Probability for FSK and CPFSK
179(1)
Error Probability Approximation for Coherent Modulations
180(1)
Error Probability for Differential Modulation
180(2)
Alternate Q-Function Representation
182(1)
Fading
182(10)
Outage Probability
183(1)
Average Probability of Error
184(3)
Moment Generating Function Approach to Average Error Probability
187(4)
Combined Outage and Average Error Probability
191(1)
Doppler Spread
192(3)
Intersymbol Interference
195(9)
Problems
197(5)
References
202(2)
Diversity
204(24)
Realization of Independent Fading Paths
204(2)
Receiver Diversity
206(11)
System Model
206(2)
Selection Combining
208(3)
Threshold Combining
211(3)
Maximal-Ratio Combining
214(2)
Equal-Gain Combining
216(1)
Transmitter Diversity
217(3)
Channel Known at Transmitter
217(2)
Channel Unknown at Transmitter -- The Alamouti Scheme
219(1)
Moment Generating Functions in Diversity Analysis
220(8)
Diversity Analysis for MRC
221(3)
Diversity Analysis for EGC and SC
224(1)
Diversity Analysis for Noncoherent and Differentially Coherent Modulation
224(1)
Problems
225(2)
References
227(1)
Coding for Wireless Channels
228(55)
Overview of Code Design
229(1)
Linear Block Codes
230(16)
Binary Linear Block Codes
231(1)
Generator Matrix
232(2)
Parity-Check Matrix and Syndrome Testing
234(2)
Cyclic Codes
236(2)
Hard Decision Decoding (HDD)
238(2)
Probability of Error for HDD in AWGN
240(2)
Probability of Error for SDD in AWGN
242(2)
Common Linear Block Codes
244(1)
Nonbinary Block Codes: The Reed Solomon Code
245(1)
Convolutional Codes
246(12)
Code Characterization: Trellis Diagrams
246(3)
Maximum Likelihood Decoding
249(3)
The Viterbi Algorithm
252(1)
Distance Properties
253(1)
State Diagrams and Transfer Functions
254(3)
Error Probability for Convolutional Codes
257(1)
Concatenated Codes
258(1)
Turbo Codes
259(3)
Low-Density Parity-Check Codes
262(1)
Coded Modulation
263(4)
Coding with Interleaving for Fading Channels
267(4)
Block Coding with Interleaving
267(3)
Convolutional Coding with Interleaving
270(1)
Coded Modulation with Symbol/Bit Interleaving
271(1)
Unequal Error Protection Codes
271(3)
Joint Source and Channel Coding
274(9)
Problems
275(4)
References
279(4)
Adaptive Modulation and Coding
283(38)
Adaptive Transmission System
284(1)
Adaptive Techniques
285(3)
Variable-Rate Techniques
285(1)
Variable-Power Techniques
286(1)
Variable Error Probability
287(1)
Variable-Coding Techniques
288(1)
Hybrid Techniques
288(1)
Variable-Rate Variable-Power MQAM
288(17)
Error Probability Bounds
289(1)
Adaptive Rate and Power Schemes
290(2)
Channel Inversion with Fixed Rate
292(1)
Discrete-Rate Adaptation
293(5)
Average Fade Region Duration
298(2)
Exact versus Approximate Bit Error Probability
300(1)
Channel Estimation Error and Delay
300(3)
Adaptive Coded Modulation
303(2)
General M-ary Modulations
305(9)
Continuous-Rate Adaptation
305(4)
Discrete-Rate Adaptation
309(1)
Average BER Target
310(4)
Adaptive Techniques in Combined Fast and Slow Fading
314(7)
Problems
315(4)
References
319(2)
Multiple Antennas and Space-Time Communications
321(30)
Narrowband MIMO Model
321(2)
Parallel Decomposition of the MIMO Channel
323(2)
MIMO Channel Capacity
325(9)
Static Channels
325(4)
Fading Channels
329(5)
MIMO Diversity Gain: Beamforming
334(1)
Diversity-Multiplexing Trade-offs
335(2)
Space-Time Modulation and Coding
337(5)
ML Detection and Pairwise Error Probability
337(2)
Rank and Determinant Criteria
339(1)
Space-Time Trellis and Block Codes
339(1)
Spatial Multiplexing and Blast Architectures
340(2)
Frequency-Selective MIMO Channels
342(1)
Smart Antennas
343(8)
Problems
344(3)
References
347(4)
Equalization
351(23)
Equalizer Noise Enhancement
352(1)
Equalizer Types
353(1)
Folded Spectrum and ISI-Free Transmission
354(3)
Linear Equalizers
357(5)
Zero-Forcing (ZF) Equalizers
358(1)
Minimum Mean-Square Error (MMSE) Equalizers
359(3)
Maximum Likelihood Sequence Estimation
362(2)
Decision-Feedback Equalization
364(1)
Other Equalization Methods
365(1)
Adaptive Equalizers: Training and Tracking
366(8)
Problems
368(4)
References
372(2)
Multicarrier Modulation
374(29)
Data Transmission Using Multiple Carriers
375(3)
Multicarrier Modulation with Overlapping Subchannels
378(2)
Mitigation of Subcarrier Fading
380(3)
Coding with Interleaving over Time and Frequency
381(1)
Frequency Equalization
381(1)
Precoding
381(1)
Adaptive Loading
382(1)
Discrete Implementation of Multicarrier Modulation
383(10)
The DFT and Its Properties
383(1)
The Cyclic Prefix
384(2)
Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM)
386(2)
Matrix Representation of OFDM
388(2)
Vector Coding
390(3)
Challenges in Multicarrier Systems
393(3)
Peak-to-Average Power Ratio
393(2)
Frequency and Timing Offset
395(1)
Case Study: The IEEE 802.11a Wireless LAN Standard
396(7)
Problems
398(3)
References
401(2)
Spread Spectrum
403(49)
Spread-Spectrum Principles
403(6)
Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS)
409(12)
DSSS System Model
409(4)
Spreading Codes for ISI Rejection: Random, Pseudorandom, and m-Sequences
413(4)
Synchronization
417(2)
RAKE Receivers
419(2)
Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS)
421(3)
Multiuser DSSS Systems
424(19)
Spreading Codes for Multiuser DSSS
425(3)
Downlink Channels
428(5)
Uplink Channels
433(5)
Multiuser Detection
438(3)
Multicarrier CDMA
441(2)
Multiuser FHSS Systems
443(9)
Problems
443(6)
References
449(3)
Multiuser Systems
452(53)
Multiuser Channels: The Uplink and Downlink
452(2)
Multiple Access
454(7)
Frequency-Division Multiple Access (FDMA)
455(1)
Time-Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
456(2)
Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA)
458(1)
Space-Division Multiple Access (SDMA)
459(1)
Hybrid Techniques
460(1)
Random Access
461(5)
Pure ALOHA
462(1)
Slotted ALOHA
463(1)
Carrier-Sense Multiple Access (CSMA)
464(2)
Scheduling
466(1)
Power Control
466(3)
Downlink (Broadcast) Channel Capacity
469(15)
Channel Model
470(1)
Capacity in AWGN
470(6)
Common Data
476(1)
Capacity in Fading
477(6)
Capacity with Multiple Antennas
483(1)
Uplink (Multiple Access) Channel Capacity
484(6)
Capacity in AWGN
484(4)
Capacity in Fading
488(2)
Capacity with Multiple Antennas
490(1)
Uplink-Downlink Duality
490(4)
Multiuser Diversity
494(2)
MIMO Multiuser Systems
496(9)
Problems
497(3)
References
500(5)
Cellular Systems and Infrastructure-Based Wireless Networks
505(30)
Cellular System Fundamentals
505(3)
Channel Reuse
508(6)
SIR and User Capacity
514(4)
Orthogonal Systems (TDMA/FDMA)
514(2)
Nonorthogonal Systems (CDMA)
516(2)
Interference Reduction Techniques
518(2)
Dynamic Resource Allocation
520(4)
Scheduling
520(1)
Dynamic Channel Assignment
521(1)
Power Control
522(2)
Fundamental Rate Limits
524(11)
Shannon Capacity of Cellular Systems
524(1)
Area Spectral Efficiency
525(3)
Problems
528(3)
References
531(4)
Ad Hoc Wireless Networks
535(38)
Applications
535(5)
Data Networks
537(1)
Home Networks
537(1)
Device Networks
538(1)
Sensor Networks
538(1)
Distributed Control Systems
539(1)
Design Principles and Challenges
540(2)
Protocol Layers
542(12)
Physical Layer Design
543(1)
Access Layer Design
544(3)
Network Layer Design
547(5)
Transport Layer Design
552(1)
Application Layer Design
553(1)
Cross-Layer Design
554(2)
Network Capacity Limits
556(2)
Energy-Constrained Networks
558(15)
Modulation and Coding
559(1)
MIMO and Cooperative MIMO
560(1)
Access, Routing, and Sleeping
561(1)
Cross-Layer Design under Energy Constraints
562(1)
Capacity per Unit Energy
562(2)
Problems
564(2)
References
566(7)
Appendix A Representation of Bandpass Signals and Channels
573(4)
Appendix B Probability Theory, Random Variables, and Random Processes
577(11)
Probability Theory
577(1)
Random Variables
578(5)
Random Processes
583(3)
Gaussian Processes
586(2)
Appendix C Matrix Definitions, Operations, and Properties
588(7)
Matrices and Vectors
588(1)
Matrix and Vector Operations
589(3)
Matrix Decompositions
592(3)
Appendix D Summary of Wireless Standards
595(10)
Cellular Phone Standards
595(5)
First-Generation Analog Systems
595(1)
Second-Generation Digital Systems
596(2)
Evolution of Second-Generation Systems
598(1)
Third-Generation Systems
599(1)
Wireless Local Area Networks
600(1)
Wireless Short-Distance Networking Standards
601(4)
Bibliography 605(28)
Index 633

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