World Civilizations: The Global Experience, Combined Volume

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  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2007-01-01
  • Publisher: Longman
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The primary goal ofWorld Civilizationsis to present a truly global historysince the development of agriculture and herding to the present. Overview of World History.Readers interested in the history and development of civilization worldwide.

Table of Contents

Mapsp. xiii
Prefacep. xv
Supplementsp. xx
About the Authorsp. xxiii
Prologuep. xxiv
From Hunting and Gathering to Civilizations, 2.5 million-1000 B.C.E.: Originsp. 2
The Neolithic Revolution and the Birth of Civilizationp. 8
Human Life in the Era of Hunters and Gatherersp. 9
Document: Tales of the Hunt: Paleolithic Cave Paintings as Historyp. 13
Agriculture and the Origins of Civilization: The Neolithic Revolutionp. 15
Visualizing the Past: Representations of Women in Early Artp. 19
The First Towns: Seedbeds of Civilizationp. 20
In Depth: The Idea of Civilization in World Historical Perspectivep. 22
Global Connections: The Neolithic Revolution as the Basis for World Historyp. 24
Further Readingsp. 24
On the Webp. 24
The Rise of Civilization in the Middle East and Africap. 26
Civilization in Mesopotamiap. 27
Visualizing the Past: Mesopotamia in Mapsp. 32
Document: Hammurabi's Law Codep. 34
Ancient Egyptp. 35
In Depth: Women in Patriarchal Societiesp. 38
Egypt and Mesopotamia Comparedp. 39
Civilization Centers in Africa and the Eastern Mediterraneanp. 40
The Issue of Heritagep. 43
Global Connections: The Early Civilizations and the Worldp. 44
Further Readingsp. 44
On the Webp. 44
Asia's First Civilizations: India and Chinap. 46
The Indus Valley and the Birth of South Asian Civilizationp. 49
Aryan Incursions and Early Aryan Society in Indiap. 52
Document: Aryan Poetry in Praise of a War Horsep. 54
A Bend in the River and the Beginnings of Chinap. 55
The Decline of the Shang and the Era of Zhou Dominancep. 59
In Depth: The Legacy of Asia's First Civilizationsp. 60
Visualizing the Past: Mapping the Rise of Civilizationsp. 63
Global Connections: Contrasting Legacies: Harappan and Early Chinese Civilizationsp. 64
Further Readingsp. 65
On the Webp. 65
The Classical Period, 1000 B.C.E.-500 C.E.: Uniting Large Regionsp. 68
Unification and the Consolidation of Civilization in Chinap. 74
Philosophical Remedies for the Prolonged Crisis of the Later Zhoup. 76
Document: Teachings of the Rival Chinese Schoolsp. 80
The Triumph of the Qin and Imperial Unityp. 80
The Han Dynasty and the Foundations of China's Classical Agep. 83
In Depth: Sunzi and the Shift from Ritual Combat to "Real" Warp. 84
Visualizing the Past: Capital Designs and Patterns of Political Powerp. 90
Global Connections: Classical China and the Worldp. 92
Further Readingsp. 93
On the Webp. 93
Classical Civilization in the Eastern Mediterranean: Persia and Greecep. 94
The Persian Empire: Parallel Power in the Middle Eastp. 96
The Political Character of Classical Greecep. 97
The Hellenistic Periodp. 102
Creativity in Greek and Hellenistic Culturep. 104
In Depth: Defining Social Historyp. 106
Document: The Power of Greek Dramap. 108
Patterns of Greek and Hellenistic Societyp. 110
Visualizing the Past: Commerce and Societyp. 112
Global Connections: Persia, Greece, and the Worldp. 114
Further Readingsp. 114
On the Webp. 114
Religious Rivalries and India's Golden Agep. 116
The Age of Brahman Dominancep. 118
In Depth: Inequality as the Social Normp. 122
Religious Ferment and the Rise of Buddhismp. 125
Visualizing the Past: The Pattern of Trade in the Ancient Eurasian Worldp. 130
Brahmanical Recovery and the Splendors of the Gupta Agep. 130
Document: A Guardian's Farewell Speech to a Young Woman About to Be Marriedp. 135
Global Connections: India and the Wider Worldp. 137
Further Readingsp. 138
On the Webp. 138
Rome and Its Empirep. 140
The Development of Rome's Republicp. 142
Roman Culturep. 146
Document: Rome and a Values Crisisp. 147
The Institutions of Empirep. 148
The Evolution of Rome's Economic and Social Structurep. 150
Visualizing the Past: Religions in Romep. 151
In Depth: The Classical Civilizations in Comparative Perspectivep. 153
The Origins of Christianityp. 154
The Decline of Romep. 156
Global Connections: Rome and the Worldp. 156
Further Readingsp. 156
On the Webp. 157
The Peoples and Civilizations of the Americasp. 158
Origins of American Societiesp. 161
Spread of Civilization in Mesoamericap. 165
Document: Deciphering the Maya Glyphsp. 169
The Peoples to the Northp. 171
In Depth: Different Times for Different Peoplesp. 172
The Andean Worldp. 175
Visualizing the Past: Ancient Agriculturep. 177
Global Connections: American Civilizations and the Worldp. 180
Further Readingsp. 180
On the Webp. 180
The Spread of Civilizations and the Movement of Peoplesp. 182
The Spread of Civilization in Africap. 185
Document: Myths of Originp. 190
In Depth: Language as a Historical Sourcep. 194
Nomadic Societies and Indo-European Migrationsp. 195
Visualizing the Past: Varieties of Human Adaptation and the Potential for Civilizationp. 200
The Spread of Chinese Civilization to Japanp. 200
The Scattered Societies of Polynesiap. 206
Global Connections: The Emerging Culturesp. 209
Further Readingsp. 210
On the Webp. 210
The End of the Classical Era: World History in Transition, 200-700 C.E.p. 212
Upheavals in Eastern and Southern Asiap. 214
Document: The Popularization of Buddhismp. 216
The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empirep. 218
In Depth: The Problem of Decline and Fallp. 222
The Development and Spread of World Religionsp. 222
Visualizing the Past: Religious Geographyp. 226
Global Connections: The Late Classical Period and the Worldp. 227
Further Readingsp. 227
On the Webp. 227
The Postclassical Period, 500-1450: New Faith and New Commercep. 230
The First Global Civilization: The Rise and Spread of Islamp. 236
Desert and Town: The Pre-Islamic Arabian Worldp. 238
The Life of Muhammad and the Genesis of Islamp. 242
The Arab Empire of the Umayyadsp. 246
In Depth: Civilization and Gender Relationshipsp. 250
From Arab to Islamic Empire: The Early Abbasid Erap. 253
Document: The Thousand and One Nights as a Mirror of Elite Society in the Abbasid Erap. 255
Visualizing the Past: The Mosque as a Symbol of Islamic Civilizationp. 256
Global Connections: Early Islam and the Worldp. 258
Further Readingsp. 258
On the Webp. 259
Abbasid Decline and the Spread of Islamic Civilization to South and Southeast Asiap. 260
The Islamic Heartlands in the Middle and Late Abbasid Erasp. 262
Document: Ibn Khaldun on the Rise and Decline of Empiresp. 266
An Age of Learning and Artistic Refinementsp. 267
The Coming of Islam to South Asiap. 270
Visualizing the Past: The Patterns of Islam's Global Expansionsp. 271
The Spread of Islam to Southeast Asiap. 277
In Depth: Conversion and Accommodation in the Spread of World Religionsp. 278
Global Connections: Islam: A Bridge Between Worldsp. 280
Further Readingsp. 280
On the Webp. 281
African Civilizations and the Spread of Islamp. 282
African Societies: Diversity and Similaritiesp. 284
Kingdoms of the Grasslandsp. 287
Document: The Great Oral Tradition and the Epic of Sundiatap. 290
Visualizing the Past: The Architecture of Faithp. 293
The Swahili Coast of East Africap. 294
Peoples of the Forest and Plainsp. 295
In Depth: Two Transitions in the History of World Populationp. 296
Global Connections: Internal Development and Global Contactsp. 301
Further Readingsp. 302
On the Webp. 302
Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europep. 304
The Byzantine Empirep. 307
Visualizing the Past: Women and Power in Byzantiump. 311
The Spread of Civilization in Eastern Europep. 313
Document: Russia Turns to Christianityp. 316
In Depth: Eastern and Western Europe: The Problem of Boundariesp. 318
Global Connections: Eastern Europe and the Worldp. 318
Further Readingsp. 319
On the Webp. 319
A New Civilization Emerges in Western Europep. 320
Stages of Postclassical Developmentp. 323
Western Culture in the Postclassical Erap. 331
Changing Economic and Social Forms in the Postclassical Centuriesp. 334
Visualizing the Past: Peasant Laborp. 335
Document: Changing Roles for Womenp. 338
The Decline of the Medieval Synthesisp. 339
In Depth: Western Civilizationp. 341
Global Connections: Medieval Europe and the Worldp. 342
Further Readingsp. 342
On the Webp. 342
The Americas on the Eve of Invasionp. 344
Postclassic Mesoamerica, 1000-1500 C.E.p. 346
Aztec Society in Transitionp. 351
Document: Aztec Women and Menp. 354
Twantinsuyu: World of the Incasp. 354
Visualizing the Past: Archeological Evidence of Political Practicesp. 357
In Depth: The "Troubling" Civilizations of the Americasp. 360
The Other Peoples of the Americasp. 362
Global Connections: The Americas and the Worldp. 364
Further Readingsp. 364
On the Webp. 365
Reunification and Renaissance in Chinese Civilization: The Era of the Tang and Song Dynastiesp. 366
Rebuilding the Imperial Edifice in the Sui-Tang Erap. 367
Document: Ties That Bind: Paths to Powerp. 371
Tang Decline and the Rise of the Songp. 373
Tang and Song Prosperity: The Basis of a Golden Agep. 377
Visualizing the Past: The Great Ships of the Tang and Song Erasp. 380
In Depth: Artistic Expression and Social Valuesp. 383
Global Connections: China's World Rolep. 386
Further Readingsp. 386
On the Webp. 387
The Spread of Chinese Civilization: Japan, Korea, and Vietnamp. 388
Japan: The Imperial Agep. 390
The Era of Warrior Dominancep. 395
In Depth: Comparing Feudalismsp. 396
Korea: Between China and Japanp. 400
Between China and Southeast Asia: The Making of Vietnamp. 403
Visualizing the Past: What Their Portraits Tell Us: Gatekeeper Elites and the Persistence of Civilizationsp. 406
Document: Literature as a Mirror of the Exchanges Between Civilized Centersp. 409
Global Connections: In the Orbit of China: The East Asian Corner of the Global Systemp. 410
Further Readingsp. 410
On the Webp. 411
The Last Great Nomadic Challenges: From Chinggis Khan to Timurp. 412
The Mongol Empire of Chinggis Khanp. 415
Document: A European Assessment of the Virtues and Vices of the Mongolsp. 419
The Mongol Drive to the Westp. 420
Visualizing the Past: The Mongol Empire as a Bridge Between Civilizationsp. 422
The Mongol Interlude in Chinese Historyp. 425
In Depth: The Eclipse of the Nomadic War Machinep. 428
Global Connections: The Mongol Linkagesp. 431
Further Readingsp. 432
On the Webp. 432
The West and the Changing Balance of World Powerp. 434
The Decline of the Old Orderp. 436
The Rise of the Westp. 438
Visualizing the Past: Population Trendsp. 439
Document: Italian Renaissance Culturep. 441
Western Expansion: The Experimental Phasep. 442
Outside the World Networkp. 445
In Depth: The Problem of Ethnocentrismp. 446
Global Connections: 1450 and the Worldp. 447
Further Readingsp. 448
On the Webp. 448
The Early Modern Period, 1450-1750: The World Shrinksp. 452
The World Economyp. 458
The West's First Outreach: Maritime Powerp. 460
In Depth: Causation and the West's Expansionp. 464
Toward a World Economyp. 465
Visualizing the Past: West Indian Slaveholdingp. 467
Colonial Expansionp. 469
Document: Western Conquerors: Tactics and Motivesp. 470
Global Connections: The World Economy-And the Worldp. 476
Further Readingsp. 476
On the Webp. 477
The Transformation of the West, 1450-1750p. 478
The First Big Changes: Culture and Commerce, 1450-1650p. 480
Science and Politics: The Next Phase of Changep. 486
Visualizing the Past: Versaillesp. 488
In Depth: Elites and Massesp. 491
The West by 1750p. 491
Document: Controversies About Womenp. 493
Global Connections: Europe and the Worldp. 496
Further Readingsp. 496
On the Webp. 496
The Rise of Russiap. 498
Russia's Expansionist Politics Under the Tsarsp. 500
Russia's First Westernization, 1690-1790p. 502
Document: The Nature of Westernizationp. 507
Themes in Early Modern Russian Historyp. 508
Visualizing the Past: Oppressed Peasantsp. 509
In Depth: Multinational Empiresp. 512
Global Connections: Russia and the Worldp. 512
Further Readingsp. 512
On the Webp. 513
Early Latin Americap. 514
Spaniards and Portuguese: From Reconquest to Conquestp. 517
Document: A Vision from the Vanquishedp. 521
The Destruction and Transformation of American Indian Societiesp. 523
In Depth: The Great Exchangep. 526
Colonial Economies and Governmentsp. 526
Brazil: The First Plantation Colonyp. 531
Multiracial Societiesp. 533
Visualizing the Past: Race or Culture? A Changing Societyp. 534
The 18th-Century Reformsp. 536
Global Connections: Latin American Civilization and the World Contextp. 539
Further Readingsp. 540
On the Webp. 540
Africa and the Africans in the Age of the Atlantic Slave Tradep. 542
The Atlantic Slave Tradep. 545
In Depth: Slavery and Human Societyp. 548
African Societies, Slavery, and the Slave Tradep. 550
Visualizing the Past: Symbols of African Kingshipp. 555
White Settlers and Africans in Southern Africap. 556
The African Diasporap. 558
Document: An African's Description of the Middle Passagep. 560
Global Connections: Africa and the African Diaspora in World Contextp. 563
Further Readingsp. 564
On the Webp. 564
The Muslim Empiresp. 566
The Ottomans: From Frontier Warriors to Empire Buildersp. 569
Document: An Islamic Traveler Laments the Muslims' Indifference to Europep. 574
The Shi'a Challenge of the Safavidsp. 576
In Depth: The Gunpowder Empires and the Shifting Balance of Global Powerp. 578
The Mughals and the Apex of Muslim Civilization in Indiap. 583
Visualizing the Past: The Basis of Imperial Power in the Rival Muslim Empiresp. 585
Global Connections: Gunpowder Empires and the Restoration of the Islamic Bridge Between Civilizationsp. 590
Further Readingsp. 590
On the Webp. 591
Asian Transitions in an Age of Global Changep. 592
The Asian Trading World and the Coming of the Europeansp. 594
Visualizing the Past: Intruders: The Pattern of Early European Expansion into Asiap. 598
Ming China: A Global Mission Refusedp. 601
Document: Exam Questions as a Mirror of Chinese Valuesp. 603
In Depth: Means and Motives for Overseas Expansion: Europe and China Comparedp. 606
Fending Off the West: Japan's Reunification and the First Challengep. 609
Global Connections: An Age of Eurasian Closurep. 612
Further Readingsp. 613
On the Webp. 613
The Dawn of the Industrial Age, 1750-1914p. 616
The Emergence of Industrial Society in the West, 1750-1914p. 622
The Age of Revolutionp. 623
Visualizing the Past: The French Revolution in Cartoonsp. 627
The Consolidation of the Industrial Order, 1850-1914p. 631
Document: Women in the Industrial Revolutionp. 634
Cultural Transformationsp. 637
Western Settler Societiesp. 639
In Depth: The United States in World Historyp. 642
Diplomatic Tensions and World War Ip. 644
Global Connections: Industrial Europe and the Worldp. 645
Further Readingsp. 646
On the Webp. 646
Industrialization and Imperialism: The Making of the European Global Orderp. 648
The Shift to Land Empires in Asiap. 651
In Depth: Western Education and the Rise of an African and Asian Middle Classp. 656
Industrial Rivalries and the Partition of the World, 1870-1914p. 659
Patterns of Dominance: Continuity and Changep. 662
Visualizing the Past: Capitalism and Colonialismp. 663
Document: Contrary Images: The Colonizer Versus the Colonized on the "Civilizing Mission"p. 665
Global Connections: A European-Dominated World Orderp. 670
Further Readingsp. 671
On the Webp. 671
The Consolidation of Latin America, 1830-1920p. 672
From Colonies to Nationsp. 674
New Nations Confront Old and New Problemsp. 678
Document: Confronting the Hispanic Heritage: From Independence to Consolidationp. 680
Latin American Economies and World Markets, 1820-1870p. 682
Societies in Search of Themselvesp. 689
In Depth: Explaining Underdevelopmentp. 692
Visualizing the Past Images of the Spanish-American Warp. 695
Global Connections: New Latin American Nations and the Worldp. 697
Further Readingsp. 698
On the Webp. 698
Civilizations in Crisis: The Ottoman Empire, the Islamic Heartlands, and Qing Chinap. 700
From Empire to Nation: Ottoman Retreat and the Birth of Turkeyp. 703
In Depth: Western Dominance and the Decline of Civilizationsp. 706
Western Intrusions and the Crisis in the Arab Islamic Heartlandsp. 707
Visualizing the Past: Mapping the Decline of Civilizationsp. 712
The Last Dynasty: The Rise and Fall of the Qing Empire in Chinap. 714
Document: Building a New Chinap. 721
Global Connections: Muslim and Chinese Decline and a Shifting Global Balancep. 721
Further Readingsp. 722
On the Webp. 723
Russia and Japan: Industrialization Outside the Westp. 724
Russia's Reforms and Industrial Advancep. 727
Document: Conditions for Factory Workers in Russia's Industrializationp. 731
Protest and Revolution in Russiap. 732
Japan: Transformation Without Revolutionp. 735
In Depth: The Separate Paths of Japan and Chinap. 737
Visualizing the Past: Two Faces of Western Influencep. 740
Global Connections: Russia and Japan in the Worldp. 742
Further Readingsp. 743
On the Webp. 743
The Newest Stage of World History: 1914-Presentp. 746
Descent into the Abyss: World War I and the Crisis of the European Global Orderp. 754
The Coming of the Great Warp. 757
A World at Warp. 759
Visualizing the Past: Trench Warfarep. 764
Failed Peacep. 765
The Nationalist Assault on the European Colonial Orderp. 767
Document: Lessons for the Colonized from the Slaughter in the Trenchesp. 768
In Depth: Women in Asian and African Nationalist Movementsp. 776
Global Connections: World War and Global Upheavalsp. 779
Further Readingsp. 779
On the Webp. 780
The World Between the Wars: Revolutions, Depression, and Authoritarian Responsep. 782
The Roaring Twentiesp. 783
Revolution: The First Wavesp. 789
In Depth: A Century of Revolutionsp. 794
The Global Great Depressionp. 800
The Authoritarian Responsep. 803
Visualizing the Past: Guernica and the Images of Warp. 805
Document: Socialist Realismp. 810
Global Connections: Economic Depression, Authoritarian Response, and Democratic Retreatp. 813
Further Readingsp. 813
On the Webp. 814
A Second Global Conflict and the End of the European World Orderp. 816
Old and New Causes of a Second World Warp. 819
Unchecked Aggression and the Coming of War in Europe and the Pacificp. 820
In Depth: Total Warp. 821
The Conduct of a Second Global Warp. 823
Document: Japan and the Loss of World War IIp. 828
War's End and the Emergence of the Superpower Standoffp. 829
Nationalism and Decolonizationp. 831
Visualizing the Past: On National Leadershipp. 835
Global Connections: Persisting Trends in a World Transformed by Warp. 839
Further Readingsp. 839
On the Webp. 840
Western Society and Eastern Europe in the Decades of the Cold Warp. 842
After World War II: A New International Setting for the Westp. 844
The Resurgence of Western Europep. 847
In Depth: The United States and Western Europe: Convergence and Complexityp. 852
Cold War Allies: The United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealandp. 853
Culture and Society in the Westp. 855
Visualizing the Past: Women at Work in France and the United Statesp. 857
Eastern Europe After World War II: A Soviet Empirep. 860
Soviet Culture: Promoting New Beliefs and Institutionsp. 863
Document: 1986: A New Wave of Soviet Reformp. 868
Global Connections: The Cold War and the Worldp. 869
Further Readingsp. 870
On the Webp. 870
Latin America: Revolution and Reaction into the 21st Centuryp. 872
Latin America After World War IIp. 875
Radical Options in the 1950sp. 877
Visualizing the Past: Murals and Posters: Art and Revolutionp. 878
The Search for Reform and the Military Optionp. 881
Document: The People Speakp. 882
In Depth: Human Rights in the 20th Centuryp. 886
Societies in Search of Changep. 888
Global Connections: Struggling Toward the Future in a Global Economyp. 891
Further Readingsp. 892
On the Webp. 892
Africa, the Middle East, and Asia in the Era of Independencep. 894
The Challenges of Independencep. 896
Document: Cultural Creativity in the Emerging Nations: Some Literary Samplesp. 903
In Depth: Artificial Nations and the Rising Tide of Communal Strifep. 904
Paths to Economic Growth and Social Justicep. 906
Visualizing the Past: Globalization and Postcolonial Societiesp. 917
Global Connections: Postcolonial Nations in the Cold War World Orderp. 917
Further Readingsp. 918
On the Webp. 918
Rebirth and Revolution: Nation-Building in East Asia and the Pacific Rimp. 920
East Asia in the Postwar Settlementsp. 922
Japan, Incorporatedp. 925
The Pacific Rim: New Japans?p. 929
Visualizing the Past: Pacific Rim Growthp. 931
In Depth: The Pacific Rim as a U.S. Policy Issuep. 932
Mao's China and Beyondp. 933
Document: Women in the Revolutionary Strugglep. 938
Colonialism and Revolution in Vietnamp. 940
Global Connections: East Asia and the Pacific Rim in the Contemporary Worldp. 945
Further Readingsp. 946
On the Webp. 946
The End of the Cold War and the Shape of a New Era: World History 1990-2006p. 948
The End of the Cold Warp. 949
Visualizing the Past: Symbolism in the Breakdown of the Soviet Blocp. 955
The Spread of Democracyp. 957
Document: Democratic Protest and Repression in Chinap. 958
The Great Powers and New Disputesp. 960
The United States as Sole Superpowerp. 963
In Depth: Terrorism, Then and Nowp. 964
Global Connections: New Global Standards, New Divisionsp. 967
Further Readingsp. 967
On the Webp. 968
Globalization and Resistancep. 970
Globalization: Causes and Processesp. 971
Document: Protests Against Globalizationp. 976
Resistance and Alternativesp. 978
In Depth: How Much Historical Change?p. 980
The Global Environmentp. 981
Visualizing the Past: Two Faces of Globalizationp. 984
Toward the Futurep. 985
Global Connections: Civilizations and Global Forcesp. 986
Further Readingsp. 986
On the Webp. 987
Document Analysis Questionsp. D-1
Glossaryp. G-1
Creditsp. C-1
Indexp. I-1
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