A Writer's Resource (spiral-bound) 2009 APA & MLA Update, Student Edition

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  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2009-10-14
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education
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As we wrote the first edition of The McGraw-Hill Handbook, our students were in our minds, acting as our chief consultants. We knew that their perspectives on college life were different from those of previous generations of students, and so were their expectations. We understood that they needed a handbook for the twenty-first century, with state-of-the-art resources on writing, researching, and graphic design. They might be using a handbook in an English composition class at 9:00 AM, but at 10:00 AM they might be preparing PowerPoints for a speech course, and at 11:00 AM they might need the handbook to help with a history assignment. More than any other textbook, their handbook was their guide, not just to writing, but also to learning in college. In revising the second edition, we have endeavored to make it an even stronger and more varied resource for achieving excellence in the ever-changing digital environment that students confront in college.

Table of Contents

*new to this edition

1. Learning across the Curriculum

1. Writing to Learn

a. Studying the world through a range of disciplines

b. Using writing as a tool for learning

c. Taking responsibility for reading, writing, and research

d. Recognizing that writing improves with practice

2. Learning in a Multimedia World

a. Becoming aware of the persuasive power of images

b. Making effective use of multimedia elements

c. Taking advantage of online and other electronic tools for learning

3. Learning in a Multilingual World

a. Becoming aware of cultural differences in communication

b. Using writing to learn more about English

c. Using learning tools that are available for multilingual students

2. Writing and Designing Papers

4. Reading, Thinking, Writing: The Critical Connection

a. Reading critically

b. Thinking critically

c. Writing critically

5. Planning and Shaping

a. Learning how to approach assignments

b. Exploring your ideas

c. Developing a working thesis

d. Planning a structure that suits your assignment

e. Considering visuals

6. Drafting Text and Visuals

a. Using online tools for drafting

b. Developing ideas and using visuals

c. Writing focused, clearly organized paragraphs

d. Integrating visuals effectively

7. Revising and Editing

a. Getting comments from readers

b. Using campus, Internet, and community resources

c. Using online tools for revising

d. Focusing on the purpose of your writing

e. Testing your thesis

f. Reviewing the structure of your paper as a whole

g. Revising for paragraph development, paragraph unity, and coherence

h. Revising visuals

i. Editing sentences

j. Proofreading carefully

k. Learning from one student’s revisions

8. Designing Academic Papers and Portfolios

a. Considering audience and purpose

b. Using computer toolbars

c. Thinking intentionally about design

d. Compiling a portfolio

3. Common Assignments across the Curriculum

9. Informative Reports

a. Understanding the assignment

b. Approaching writing an informative report as a process

c. Student paper: Informative report

d. Writing reviews of the literature

10. Interpretive Analyses and Writing about Literature

a. Understanding the assignment

b. Approaching writing an interpretive analysis as a process

c. Student paper: Interpretive analysis

11. Arguments

a. Understanding the assignment

b. Approaching writing an argument as a process

c. Student paper: Argument

12. Other Kinds of Writing Assignments

a. Personal essays

b. Lab reports in the experimental sciences

c. Case studies in the social sciences

d. Essays exams

e. Coauthored projects

13. Oral Presentations

a. Planning and shaping your presentation

b. Drafting your presentation

c. Preparing for your presentation

14. Multimedia Writing

a. Learning about tools for creating multimedia texts

b. Analyzing images

c. Creating a hypertext essay

d. Creating multimedia presentations

e. Creating a Web site

f. Creating and interacting with blogs

4. Writing beyond College

15. Service Learning and Community-Service Writing

a. Addressing the community on behalf of your organization or yourself

b. Designing brochures, posters, and newsletters

16. Letters to Raise Awareness and Share Concern

a. Writing about a public issue

b. Writing as a consumer

17. Writing to Get and Keep a Job

a. Exploring internship possibilities

b. Keeping an up-to-date résumé

c. Writing an application letter

d. Preparing for a job interview

e. Applying college writing to writing on the job

5. Researching

18. Understanding Research

a. Understanding primary and secondary research

b. Recognizing the connection between research and college writing

c. Understanding the research assignment

d. Choosing an interesting research question

e. Creating a research plan

19. Finding and Managing Print and Online Sources

a. Using the library in person and online

b. Consulting various kinds of sources

c. Understanding keywords and keyword searches

d. Using printed and online reference works

e. Using print indexes and online databases

f. Using search engines and subject directories to find Internet sources

g. Using your library’s online catalog or card catalog to find books

h. Taking advantage of printed and online government documents

i. Exploring online communication

20. Finding and Creating Effective Visuals

a. Finding quantitative data and displaying it visually

b. Searching for appropriate images in online and print sources

21. Evaluating Sources

a. Questioning print sources

b. Questioning Internet sources

c. Evaluating a source’s arguments

22. Doing Research in the Archive, Field, and Lab

a. Adhering to ethical principles

b. Preparing yourself for archival research

c. Planning your field research carefully

d. Keeping a notebook when doing lab research

*23. Plagiarism, Copyright Infringement, and Intellectual Property

a. Understanding how plagiarism relates to copyright and intellectual property

b. Avoiding inadvertent and deliberate plagiarism

c. Using copyrighted materials fairly

24. Working with Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism

a. Maintaining a working bibliography

b. Creating an annotated bibliography

c. Taking notes on your sources

d. Taking stock of and synthesizing what you have learned

e. Integrating quotations, paraphrases, and summaries

25. Writing the Paper

a. Planning and drafting your paper

b. Revising your draft

c. Documenting your sources

6. MLA Documentation Style

(Foldout) Resources for Writers: MLA Documentation

26. MLA Style: In-Text Citations

MLA In-Text Citations: Directory to Sample Types

27. MLA Style: List of Works Cited

MLA Works-Cited Entries: Directory to Sample Types

28. MLA Style: Explanatory Notes

29. MLA Style: Paper Format

30. Student Paper in MLA Style

7. APA Documentation Style

(Foldout) Resources for Writers: APA Documentation

31. APA Style: In-Text Citations

APA In-Text Citations: Directory to Sample Types

32. APA Style: References

APA Reference Entries: Directory to Sample Types

33. APA Style: Paper Format

34. Student Paper in APA Style

8. Chicago and CSE Documentation Styles

35. Chicago Documentation Style

a. Chicago style: In-text citations and notes

b. Chicago style: Bibliography

c. Sample Chicago-style notes and bibliography entries

36. Sample from a student paper in Chicago style

37. CSE Documentation

a. In-text citations

b. List of references

CSE style: Directory to Sample Types

c. CSE name-year style: Sample references list

d. CSE citation-name style: Sample references list

9. Editing for Clarity

*(Foldout)Resources for Writers: Identifying and Editing Common Problems/Resources for Multilingual Writers

38. Wordy Sentences

a. Eliminating redundancies

b. Avoiding unnecessary repetition

c. Replacing wordy phrases

d. Reducing clauses and phrases

e. Combining sentences

f. Making sentences straightforward

39. Missing Words

a. Adding words needed in compound structures

b. Including that when it is needed for clarity

c. Making comparisons clear

d. Adding articles (a, an, the) where necessary

40. Mixed Constructions

a. Untangling mixed-up sentence structures

b. Making sure predicates fit subjects

c. Editing sentences with is when, is where, the reason . . . is because

41. Confusing Shifts

a. Making your point of view consistent in person and number

b. Keeping verb tenses consistent

c. Avoiding unnecessary shifts in mood and voice

d. Avoiding shifts between direct and indirect quotations and questions

42. Faulty Parallelism

a. Making items in a series parallel

b. Making paired ideas parallel

c. Repeating function words as needed

43. Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers

a. Putting modifiers close to the words they modify

b. Clarifying ambiguous modifiers

c. Moving disruptive modifiers

d. Checking split infinitives for ambiguity

e. Fixing dangling modifiers

44. Coordination and Subordination

a. Using coordination to express equal ideas

b. Using subordination to express unequal ideas

c. Avoiding subordination of major ideas

d. Combining short, choppy sentences

e. Avoiding excessive subordination

45. Sentence Variety

a. Varying sentence openings

b. Varying sentence length and structure

c. Including cumulative and periodic sentences and rhetorical questions

d. Trying inversions

46. Active Verbs

a. Considering alternatives to be verbs

b. Preferring the active voice

47. Appropriate Language

a. Avoiding slang, regionalisms, and nonstandard English

b. Using an appropriate level of formality

c. Avoiding jargon

d. Avoiding euphemisms and doublespeak

e. Removing biased or sexist language

48. Exact Language

a. Choosing words with suitable connotations

b. Including specific, concrete words

c. Using standard idioms

d. Avoiding clichés

e. Creating suitable figures of speech

f. Avoiding misuse of words

49. The Dictionary and the Thesaurus

a. Using the dictionary as a habit

b. Consulting a thesaurus

50. Glossary of Usage

10. Editing for Grammar Conventions

51. Sentence Fragments

a. Identifying sentence fragments

b. Editing sentence fragments

c. Phrases as fragments

d. Dependent clauses as fragments

52. Comma Splices and Run-on Sentences

a. Identifying commas splices and run-on sentences

b. Learning five ways to edit commas splices and run-on sentences

c. Joining two clauses with a comma and a coordinating conjunction

d. Joining two clauses with a semicolon

e. Separating the clauses into two sentences

f. Making one clause dependent

g. Transforming two clauses into one clause

53. Subject-Verb Agreement

a. Standard subject-verb combinations

b. A word group between subject and verb

c. Compound subjects connected by conjunctions (and, but, either . . .or)

d. Collective subjects (committee, jury)

e. Indefinite subjects (everybody, no one)

f. Subject following verb

g. Subject complements

h. Relative pronouns (who, which, that)

i. –ing phrases (gerund phrases) as subjects

j. Titles, company names, words considered as words

54. Problems with Verbs

a. Principal forms of regular and irregular verbs

b. Lay and lie, sit and set, rise and raise

c. –s or –es endings

d. –d or –ed endings

e. Complete verbs

f. Verb tenses

g. Past perfect tense

h. Special uses of the present tense

i. Tense with infinitives and participles

j. Mood

55. Problems with Pronouns

a. Pronoun-antecedent agreement

b. Pronoun reference

c. Making pronouns consistent

d. Pronoun case (for example, I vs. me)

e. Who vs. whom

56. Problems with Adjectives and Adverbs

a. Adverbs

b. Adjectives

c. Positive, comparative, and superlative adjectives and adverbs

d. Double negatives

11. Editing for Correctness: Punctuation, Mechanics, and Spelling

57. Commas

Common Uses of the Comma

a. Introductory word groups

b. Items in a series

c. Independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction

d. Series of adjectives

e. Nonessential additions to a sentence

f. Transitional and parenthetical expressions, contrasting comments, absolute phrases

g. Words of direct address, yes and no, mild interjections, tag questions

h. Direct quotations

i. Parts of dates, letters, addresses, people’s titles, and numbers

j. Omitted words or phrases, confusing combinations

Common Misuses of the Comma

k. To separate major elements in an independent clause

l. In front of the first or following the final item in a series

m. To separate compound word groups that are not independent clauses

n. To set off restrictive modifiers, appositives, or slightly parenthetical elements

o. Other common errors

58. Semicolons

a. Independent clauses

b. Independent clauses with transitional expressions

c. Items in a series that contain commas

d. Common errors

59. Colons

a. With lists, appositives, or quotations

b. With a second independent clause that elaborates on the first one

c. Other conventional uses

d. Common errors

60. Apostrophes

a. To indicate possession

b. For missing letters in contractions and for missing numbers

c. Distinguishing between possessive pronouns and contractions

d. To form plural numbers, letters, abbreviations, words used as words

e. Common errors

61. Quotation Marks

a. Exact words of a speaker or writer

b. Long quotations in indented blocks

c. A quotation within a quotation

d. Titles of short works

e. A word or phrase used in a special way

f. Other punctuation marks with quotation marks

g. Integrating quotations into sentences

h. Common errors

62. Other Punctuation Marks

a. Periods

b. Question marks

c. Exclamation points

d. A dash or dashes

e. Parentheses

f. Brackets

g. Ellipses

h. Slashes

63. Capitalization

a. Names of people and derived names, including brand names, certain abbreviations

b. Titles of persons

c. Titles of creative works

d. Names of areas and regions

e. Names of races, ethnic groups, and sacred things

f. First word of a quoted sentence

g. First word of a sentence

h. First word of an independent clause after a colon

64. Abbreviations and Symbols

a. Titles that precede or follow a person’s name

b. Familiar vs. unfamiliar abbreviations

c. Words typically used with times, dates, and numerals; units of measurement in charts and graphs

d. Latin abbreviations

e. Inappropriate abbreviations and symbols

65. Numbers

a. Numbers up to one hundred and round numbers over one hundred

b. Numbers that begin a sentence

c. Numbers in technical and business writing

d. Dates, times of day, addresses

66. Italics (Underlining)

a. Titles of lengthy works or separate publications

b. Names of ships, trains, aircraft, and spaceships

c. Foreign terms

d. Scientific names

e. Words, letters, and numbers referred to as themselves

f. Overuse

67. Hyphens

a. Compound words

b. Compound adjective or noun forms

c. Fractions and compound numbers

d. With some prefixes and suffixes

e. To divide words at the ends of lines

68. Spelling

a. Spelling rules and exceptions

b. Words pronounced alike but spelled differently

12. Basic Grammar Review with Tips for Multilingual Writers

69. Parts of Speech

Tip: Recognizing language differences

a. Verbs

Tip: Using verbs followed by gerunds or infinitives

Tip: Matching helping verbs (do, have, be) with the appropriate form of the main verb

Tip: Understanding the form and meaning of modal verbs

b. Nouns

Tip: Using quantifiers with count and noncount nouns

Tip: Using articles (a, an, the) appropriately

c. Pronouns

d. Adjectives

Tip: Using adjectives correctly

e. Adverbs

f. Prepositions

Tip: Using prepositions

g. Conjunctions

Tip: Using coordination and subordination appropriately

h. Interjections

70. Parts of Sentences

Tip: Putting sentence parts in the correct order for English

a. Subjects

Tip: Including a subject (but not two)

b. Verbs and their objects or complements

Tip: Including a complete verb

Tip: Including only one direct object

71. Phrases and Dependent Clauses

a. Noun phrases

b. Verb phrases and verbals

c. Appositive phrases

d. Absolute phrases

e. Dependent clauses

Tip: Understanding the purposes and constructions of if clauses

72. Types of Sentences

a. Sentence structures

b. Sentence purposes

13. Further Resources for Learning

Timeline of World History

Selected Terms from across the Curriculum

*(Foldout) Resources for Writers across the Curriculum/World Map


Index for Multilingual Writers

Abbreviations and Symbols for Editing and Proofreading

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