Writing Papers in Psychology

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  • Edition: 9th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2011-03-14
  • Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing

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WRITING PAPERS IN PSYCHOLOGY offers you frameworks, tips, guidelines, and sample illustrations for writing research reports or literature reviews that must conform to style recommendations of the American Psychological Association. It also is designed to cultivate your organizing, literature retrieval, critical reasoning, and communication skills under deadlines. For more than a decade, this brief, inexpensive, and easy-to-use manual has helped thousands of students in psychology and related fields with the task of writing term papers and reports.

Table of Contents

Preface for Instructorsp. X
Getting Startedp. 1
Where to Beginp. 1
Flowchart to walk yon through Writing Papersp. 2
Writing in APA Stylep. 3
Your Instructor's Expectationsp. 5
Focusing on Your Objectivep. 5
Differences between research reports and review papersp. 6
Scheduling Timep. 7
Choosing a Topicp. 10
Narrowing the Topicp. 11
Knowing Your Audience and Topicp. 13
Cultivating an Understandingp. 14
Finding and Retrieving Reference Materialsp. 15
Looking Over Maya's Shoulderp. 15
Common terms and jargon on the Webp. 16
Using the Online Catalogp. 18
Brief record from Library of Congress online catalogp. 19
Print Resources in the Libraryp. 20
Cataloging of psychological materialsp. 21
Using PsycINFOp. 22
PsycINFO record of journal articlep. 24
Tips on Using Other Electronic Databasesp. 27
Reference databases available electronicallyp. 28
Taking Notes in the Libraryp. 30
Source Credibilityp. 32
Additional Tips for Starting Your Literature Searchp. 33
Library and E-mail Etiquettep. 34
Developing a Proposalp. 35
Settling on an Objectivep. 35
Maya's perceived options for a research proposalp. 36
The Accepted Proposal as a ˘Letter of Agreement÷p. 36
How to Cite Source Materialsp. 38
Types of citations illustrated, in section 3.3p. 39
How to Reference Source Materialsp. 43
Types of references illustrated, in section 3.4p. 44
The Proposal for a Literature Reviewp. 57
Sample proposal for a literature reviewp. 58
The Proposal for a Research Projectp. 61
Sample proposal for a research projectp. 62
Ethical Considerationsp. 67
Tempus Fugit!p. 67
Planniing the Research Reportp. 69
Three Types of Research Orientationsp. 69
The Basic Structurep. 72
The Abstractp. 73
The Introductionp. 74
The Method Sectionp. 75
Uses of the term validity in research, and assessmentp. 77
The Results Sectionp. 78
The Discussion Sectionp. 80
The References Sectionp. 81
The End Materialp. 82
Organizing Your Thoughtsp. 82
Organizing the Review Paperp. 85
Why You Need, an Outlinep. 85
A Strategy That Will Get You Startedp. 86
The Rough Outlinep. 88
Making Ideas Parallelp. 88
Putting Ideas in Orderp. 89
Subdivision of the outlinep. 90
Detailed Outline for Writing and Note Takingp. 91
Techniques to Focus Your Thinkingp. 92
Cluster outline for John Smith's projectp. 92
Outlining After the Factp. 93
Communicating Statistical Informationp. 95
Knowing ˘How÷ and ˘What÷ to Communicatep. 95
Common statistical abbreviations and symbolsp. 97
Communicating Clearlyp. 99
Communicating Accuratelyp. 101
Communicating with Appropriate Precisionp. 102
Bar chart based on Jane Doe's Table 1 (in appendix A)p. 103
Communicating Enough Informationp. 104
Ethics and Principled Reporting Practicesp. 107
Suggested, Readingsp. 108
Writing the First Draftp. 111
Sorting Through Your Materialp. 111
Creating a Self-Motivator Statementp. 112
Writing the Opening Paragraph of Your Introductionp. 113
Settling Down to Writep. 114
Ethical Considerations Revisitedp. 115
steering Clear of Plagiarismp. 117
Not Falling Into Lazy Writingp. 119
Creating the Right Tonep. 119
The Problem of Sexist Languagep. 120
Subjects Versus Participantsp. 121
Achieving the Right Voicep. 121
Choosing an Appropriate Verb Tensep. 122
Making Sure That Subject and Verb Agreep. 123
Other Common Usage Errorsp. 124
Numbers, Numerals, Digits, Figuresp. 126
More on Punctuationp. 127
Uses of Punctuation in Quoted Passagesp. 130
Safeguarding the Draft Manuscriptp. 132
Producing the Final Manuscriptp. 133
Polishing the Draft Manuscriptp. 133
Formatting and Organizing Your Final Manascriptp. 134
Formatting the Title Pagep. 136
Formatting the Abstractp. 136
Formatting the Headingsp. 137
Other Uses of Italicsp. 138
Citations and References Revisitedp. 138
Postal abbreviations for states and territoriesp. 139
Footnotesp. 139
Formatting Tables and Figuresp. 140
Appendix in Student Papersp. 141
Proofing and Correctingp. 141
Preparing Posters and Concise Reportsp. 143
Posters and Handout Reportsp. 143
Guidelines for the Posterp. 144
APA, APS, and AAAS poster design standardsp. 145
Sample Content and Arrangementp. 145
APA sample poster arrangementsp. 146
Modified poster arrangementp. 147
Sample content for modified, posterp. 147
Further Guidelines for the Posterp. 150
Guidelines for the Concise Reportp. 151
Concise report for distributionp. 152
Jane Doe's Research. Reportp. 155
John Smith's Review Paperp. 171
Indexp. 191
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