Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science (College Version)

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  • Edition: 8th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2004-01-01
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
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For Introduction to Forensic Science courses offered by Forensic Science or Criminal Justice programs.Written by a renowned authority on forensic science, this text introduces the non-scientific student to the field of forensic science through an exploration of its applications to criminal investigations, and clear explanations of the techniques, abilities and limitations of the modern crime laboratory.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
About the Authorp. xvii
Introductionp. 1
Definition and Scope of Forensic Sciencep. 1
History and Development of Forensic Sciencep. 2
The Organization of a Crime Laboratoryp. 7
Services of the Crime Laboratoryp. 9
The Functions of the Forensic Scientistp. 12
Other Forensic Science Servicesp. 18
Review Questionsp. 23
Further Referencesp. 25
Case Readingp. 26
The Crime Scenep. 34
Processing the Crime Scenep. 34
Legal Considerations at the Crime Scenep. 50
Review Questionsp. 52
Further Referencesp. 53
Case Readingp. 54
Physical Evidencep. 62
Common Types of Physical Evidencep. 62
The Significance of Physical Evidencep. 63
Review Questionsp. 74
Further Referencesp. 75
Case Readingp. 75
Physical Properties: Glass and Soilp. 89
The Metric Systemp. 90
Physical Propertiesp. 92
Comparing Glass Fragmentsp. 99
Glass Fracturesp. 106
Collection and Preservation of Glass Evidencep. 109
Forensic Characteristics of Soilp. 111
Collection and Preservation of Soil Evidencep. 114
Review Questionsp. 116
Further Referencesp. 117
Organic Analysisp. 119
Elements and Compoundsp. 119
Selecting an Analytical Techniquep. 123
Chromatographyp. 124
Spectrophotometryp. 136
Mass Spectrometryp. 143
Review Questionsp. 147
Further Referencesp. 148
Inorganic Analysisp. 150
Evidence in the Assassination of President Kennedyp. 152
The Emission Spectrum of Elementsp. 154
Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometerp. 158
The Origin of Emission and Absorption Spectrap. 159
Neutron Activation Analysisp. 162
X-Ray Diffractionp. 165
Review Questionsp. 167
Further Referencesp. 168
The Microscopep. 169
The Compound Microscopep. 170
The Comparison Microscopep. 174
The Stereoscopic Microscopep. 175
The Polarizing Microscopep. 176
The Microspectrophotometerp. 178
The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)p. 179
Review Questionsp. 184
Further Referencesp. 185
Case Readingp. 186
Hairs, Fibers, and Paintp. 194
Morphology of Hairp. 194
Identification and Comparison of Hairp. 198
Collection and Preservation of Hair Evidencep. 204
Types of Fibersp. 205
Identification and Comparison of Man-Made Fibersp. 210
Collection and Preservation of Fiber Evidencep. 216
Forensic Examination of Paintp. 219
Collection and Preservation of Paint Evidencep. 228
Review Questionsp. 230
Further Referencesp. 231
Drugsp. 233
Drug Dependencep. 234
Narcotic Drugsp. 237
Hallucinogensp. 240
Depressantsp. 245
Stimulantsp. 247
Club Drugsp. 249
Anabolic Steroidsp. 250
Drug-Control Lawsp. 251
Drug Identificationp. 254
Collection and Preservation of Drug Evidencep. 260
Review Questionsp. 261
Further Referencesp. 263
Forensic Toxicologyp. 264
Toxicology of Alcoholp. 265
The Role of the Toxicologistp. 283
Techniques Used in Toxicologyp. 284
The Significance of Toxicological Findingsp. 288
The Drug Recognition Expertp. 289
Review Questionsp. 293
Further Referencesp. 295
Forensic Aspects of Arson and Explosion Investigationsp. 296
The Chemistry of Firep. 296
Searching the Fire Scenep. 303
Collection and Preservation of Arson Evidencep. 305
Analysis of Flammable Residuesp. 307
Types of Explosivesp. 311
Collection and Analysis of Explosivesp. 316
Review Questionsp. 324
Further Referencesp. 327
Forensic Serologyp. 328
The Nature of Bloodp. 329
Immunoassay Techniquesp. 333
Forensic Characterization of Bloodstainsp. 336
Stain Patterns of Bloodp. 342
Principles of Heredityp. 346
Forensic Characterization of Semenp. 348
Collection of Rape Evidencep. 352
Review Questionsp. 358
Further Referencesp. 360
DNA: The Indispensable Forensic Science Toolp. 361
What Is DNA?p. 361
DNA at Workp. 364
Replication of DNAp. 366
Recombinant DNA: Cutting and Splicing DNAp. 368
DNA Typingp. 368
Mitochondrial DNAp. 382
The Combined DNA Index System (CODIS)p. 389
The Collection and Preservation of Biological Evidence for DNA Analysisp. 390
Review Questionsp. 397
Further Referencesp. 399
Case Readingp. 399
Fingerprintsp. 406
History of Fingerprintingp. 406
Fundamental Principles of Fingerprintsp. 408
Classification of Fingerprintsp. 414
Automated Fingerprint Identification Systemsp. 415
Methods of Detecting Fingerprintsp. 417
Preservation of Developed Printsp. 425
Digital Imaging for Fingerprint Enhancementp. 426
Review Questionsp. 430
Further Referencesp. 431
Firearms, Tool Marks, and Other Impressionsp. 432
Bullet Comparisonsp. 432
Cartridge Casesp. 439
Automated Firearm Search Systemsp. 440
Gunpowder Residuesp. 444
Primer Residues on the Handsp. 448
Serial Number Restorationp. 451
Collection and Preservation of Firearm Evidencep. 452
Tool Marksp. 454
Other Impressionsp. 457
Review Questionsp. 464
Further Referencesp. 465
Document and Voice Examinationp. 466
Handwriting Comparisonsp. 467
Collection of Handwriting Exemplarsp. 469
Typescript Comparisonsp. 471
Photocopier, Printer, and Fax Examinationp. 472
Alterations, Erasures, and Obliterationsp. 474
Other Document Problemsp. 478
Voice Examinationp. 480
Review Questionsp. 487
Further Referencesp. 488
Forensic Science on the Internetp. 489
What Is the Internet?p. 490
Where to Go on the Internetp. 491
Exploring Forensic Science on the WWWp. 496
Web Sites You May Wish to Explorep. 497
Review Questionsp. 502
Further Referencesp. 503
The Futurep. 504
Further Referencesp. 510
Case Readingsp. 511
Guides to the Collection of Physical Evidence--FBIp. 543
Instructions for Collecting Gunshot Residue (GSR)p. 558
FBI Policy for Submitting DNA Evidencep. 560
Chromatographic and Spectrophotometric Parameters for Figures Contained within the Textp. 562
Chemical Formulas for Latent Fingerprint Developmentp. 564
Chemical Formulas for Development of Footwear Impressions in Bloodp. 569
Answersp. 573
Indexp. 579
Table of Contents provided by Rittenhouse. All Rights Reserved.


Few could have envisioned just a few years ago how ingrained the subject of forensic science would become in our television culture. Perhaps we can attribute our obsession with forensic science to the yearnings of a society bent on apprehending criminals but desirous of a system of justice that ensures the correctness of its verdicts. The level of sophistication that forensic science has brought to criminal investigations is awesome. This eighth edition ofCriminalisticsand its predecessors have aimed to make the subject comprehensible to a wide variety of readers who are or plan to be aligned with the forensic science profession, as well as to those who have a curiosity about the subject's underpinnings. One of the constants of forensic science is how frequently its applications become front-page news. Whether the story is sniper shootings or the tragic consequences of the terrorist attacks of 9/11/01, forensic science is at the forefront of the public response. The horror of the terrorist attacks exemplified the critical role DNA has come to play in identifying victims of mass disaster. In this new century, the science of DNA profiling has altered the complexion of criminal investigation. DNA collected from saliva on a cup or from dandruff or sweat on a hat exemplifies the emergence of nontraditional forms of evidence collection at crime scenes. Currently the criminal justice system is creating vast DNA data banks designed to snare the criminal who is unaware of the consequence of leaving the minutest quantity of biological material behind at a crime scene. During the highly publicized O. J. Simpson criminal and civil trials, forensic scientists systematically placed Simpson at the crime scene through DNA analyses, hair and fiber comparisons, and footwear impressions. As millions of Americans watched the case unfold, they, in a sense, became students of forensic science. Intense media coverage of the crime-scene search and investigation, as well as the ramifications of findings of physical evidence at the crime scene, all became the subject of study, commentary, and conjecture. For those of us who have taught forensic science in the classroom, it comes as no surprise that forensic science can grab and hold the attention of those who otherwise would have no interest in any area of science. The 0. J. Simpson case amply demonstrates how intertwined criminal investigation has become with forensic science. Through eight editions,Criminalisticshas striven to depict the role of the forensic scientist in the criminal justice system. The current edition builds on the content of its predecessors and updates the reader on the latest technologies available to crime laboratory personnel. Like all facets of modern life, forensic science has been touched by the Internet. This new edition introduces the reader to basic concepts of Internet use and encourages exploration of Web sites particularly relevant to forensic science and criminal investigation. Making science relevant and pertinent to the interests and goals of the student is a desirable but often elusive goal of educators.Criminalisticsstrives to meet this goal by, first and foremost, explaining the techniques, skills, and limitations of the modern crime laboratory to a reader who has no background in the forensic sciences. The nature of physical evidence is defined, and the limitations that technology and current knowledge impose on its individualization and characterization are examined. A major portion of the text centers on discussions of the common items of physical evidence encountered at crime scenes. These chapters include descriptions of forensic analysis, as well as updated techniques for the proper collection and preservation of evidence at crime scenes. Particular attention is paid to the meaning and role of probability in interpreting the evidential significance of scientifically evaluated evidence. The implicat

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