Foundations of Criminal Justice

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  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2011-11-18
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
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What is law? What is deviance? What is justice? How is justice achieved through law, punishment, and criminal justice agencies?Foundations of Criminal Justiceaddresses these issues utilizing a distinctive "foundations" approach. This unique approach provides students with the framework and the intellectual tools they need in order to critically analyze and evaluate the nature, sources, scope, purposes, and practical limitations of the criminal justice system. The only introductory survey text that moves beyond a description of the criminal justice system,Foundations of CriminalJusticehelps students understand the role of criminal justice in their lives as criminal justice practitioners and as active citizens. DISTINCTIVE FEATURES * Provides practical, real-world examples that allow students to connect theoretical ideas to actual practice in criminal justice agencies * Draws on an interdisciplinary body of theory and current research,employing concepts from sociology, policy theory, psychology, legal theory, and philosophy * Explores key issuesincluding the role of morality and legal philosophy in the construction of law; the nature of deviance, social control, and criminal behavior; perspectives on the concept of justice (criminal, civil, social, and individual); the role of criminal procedure, criminal law, and criminal punishment; and the operations and limitations * Offers rich pedagogical featuresincluding a "Case Study" feature at the beginning of each chapter exploring real-life situations; a "Focus Question" at the opening of each section that provides a framework for the forthcoming chapters; end-of-chapter "Criminal Justice Problem Solving" features examining issues and ongoing struggles within the field; and a "Photo Essay" at the opening of each unit that draws students into the material in an exciting, visual format SUPPLEMENTS * Instructor's Resource CD:Contains a computerized Test Bank, PowerPoint-based lecture slides, questions for use with "clicker" technology, suggestions for assignments and in-class activities, sample syllabi, semester-length projects, teaching tips, and suggestions for how to use the book in a variety of contexts * Companion Website(www.oup.com/us/owen): Provides a variety of resources including self-quizzes for students, brief chapter summaries, links to all the court decisions mentioned in the text, further readings, glossary flashcards, and related links

Author Biography

Stephen S. Owen is Professor of Criminal Justice at Radford University.

Henry F. Fradella is Professor of Law, Criminal Justice, and Forensic Studies at California State University, Long Beach.

Tod W. Burke is Professor of Criminal Justice at Radford University and Associate Dean for the College of Humanities and Behavioral Sciences.

Jerry W. Joplin is Professor of Justice and Policy Studies at Guilford College.

Table of Contents

Each Unit opens with a Photo Essay
Each Chapter closes with a "Criminal Justice Problem-Solving" feature
Introducing Crime and Criminal Justice
Case Study: How Would You Spend $10,000,000?
Introducing Criminal Justice
Perspectives on Criminal Justice
Criminal Justice as System
Criminal Justice as Profession
Criminal Justice as Bureaucracy
Criminal Justice as Moral Agent
Criminal Justice as Academic Discipline
Defining Crime
What Is Crime?
What Crime Is Not
The Extent of Crime
Official Crime Data
Other Sources of Crime Data
Looking Ahead
Chapter 1 Appendix: The Criminal Justice System
Perspectives on Law
Concepts in Law and Morality
Case Study: Justice on Lover's Lane
Criminal Justice and Society
Criminal Justice: Popular Conceptions vs. Academic Scholarship
Morality and Justice Studies
Choosing Strategies and Tactics
Three Tendencies of Idealists and Pragmatists
The Mind/Body Connection
Five Concepts of Morality
Applying Philosophy and Morality to Criminal Justice
Concepts of Legal Philosophy
Case Study: Working the Corner
Studying Approaches to the Law
Analyzing the Law
Patrick Devlin's Legal Moralism
Devlin and the Six Concepts of Law
H.L.A. Hart's Legal Positivism
Hart and the Six Concepts of Law
Other Schools of Legal Philosophy
Theories of Legal Idealism
Legal Naturalism
Rights and Interpretative Jurisprudence
Critical Theories of Law
Legal Paternalism
Theories of Legal Pragmatism
Legal Realism
Everyday Pragmatism
Perspectives on Deviance and Crime
Deviance and Social Control
Case Study: Mental Illness
An Overview of Deviance
The Social Control of Deviance
Informal vs. Formal Social Control
Agents of Social Control
Styles of Social Control
The Medicalization of Deviance
Types of Medical Social Control
Medical Technologies
Medical Collaboration
Medical Ideology
Social Consequences of Medicalization
Negative Consequences of Medicalization
Medicalization and Public Policy
Shifts in the Style of Social Control
Putative Backlash
Medicine as Social Control
Deviance and Criminal Behavior
Case Study: The Case of Carl PanzramConceptualizing Deviance
Crime, Sin, and Taste as a Form of Deviance
Deviance in Society
Some Explanations of Criminal Deviance
Historical Perspectives on Criminology
Modern Biological Perspectives on Crime and Criminality
The Classical School of Criminology
Psychological Theories on Crime and Criminality
Psychodynamic Theories
Differential Association
Techniques of Neutralization
Personality and Crime
Socio-Cultural Theories of Crime and Criminality
Social Disorganization Theory
Strain and Delinquent Subcultures
Social Control theory
Labeling Theory
Conflict Criminology
The Study of Deviance in Criminal Justice
Perspectives on Justice
Concepts of Justice
Case Study: Sexting
Justice: Fact or Fiction?
The Justice in Criminal Justice
Restorative Justice
Ideological Justice
Transitional Justice
Postmodern Justice
A Focus on Distributive Justice
A Classic Approach: Aristotle's Commutative Justice
An Economic Approach: Bentham's Utilitarian Justice
Outside the System: A Vigilante Approach
But Is It Fair? Rawls on Justice
Individual and Community Interests in Distributive Justice
Mechanical Criminal Justice
Authoritarian Criminal Justice
Compassionate Criminal Justice
Participatory Criminal Justice
Toward Justice
Concepts of Justice Policy
Case Study: The Quagmire of State Marijuana Policy
Criminal Justice and Civil Justice
Criminal Justice
Civil Justice
Social Justice and American Values
The Development of Criminal Justice Policy
State and Federal Policy
Separation of Powers
Forces Shaping Criminal Justice Policy
Mass Media
Interest Groups
Concepts of Criminal Procedure
Case Study: SUNY, New Paltz
Concepts of Procedural Justice
Three Philosophical Models of Procedural Justice
Perfect Procedural Justice: The Accuracy Model
Imperfect Procedural Justice: The Balancing Model
Pure Procedural Justice: The Participation Model
Social Psychological Factors
Two Models of the Criminal Process
Procedural Justice and the Constitution
Procedural Rights in the Original U.S. Constitution
Habeas Corpus
Bills of Attainder
Ex Post Facto Laws
Trial by Jury
Trial for Treason
Procedural Rights in the Bill of Rights
The Fourth Amendment
The Fifth Amendment
The Sixth Amendment
The Fourteenth Amendment
Penal Social Control
Criminal Law
Case Study: Copyright Infringement
The History of Criminal Law
Criminal Law in Ancient Civilizations
Criminal Law in Ancient Greece and Rome
Criminal Law Changes in Early Christendom
Criminal Law in Early England
From English Common Law to Modern Penal Laws
Common Elements of Modern Criminal Law
Actus Reus
Mens Rea
Attendant Circumstances
Causation of Result
Types of Crimes
Defenses to Crimes
Constitutional Limitations on Criminalization
The First Amendment
Due Process Concerns
Criminal Punishment
Case Study: Three Strikes Laws
Conceptualizing Punishment
Justifications for Criminal Punishment
Restitution and Restoration
The Politics of Whom We Punish
Limitations on Criminal Punishment
Culpability: A Fairness Principle Requiring Blameworthiness
Notice and the Principle of Legality
Proportionality and the Eighth Amendment
The Future of Punishment
Overview of Criminal Justice Institutions
Core Concepts of U.S. Policing
Case Study: Housing Development
Philosophies of Policing
Policing in England
The Political Era (1830s - Early 1900s)
The Professional Era (1930s - 1970s)
The Community Era (1970s - present)
Developmental Theories of Policing
The Culture of Policing
Wilson's Styles of Police Behavior
Police Officer Personalities
The Structure of American Law Enforcement
Local Police Agencies
State Police
Federal Agencies
Ethical Issues in Policing
Levels of Corruption
Types of Corruption
The Dirty Harry Problem
Controlling Unethical Behavior
Policing Strategies
Myths about Policing
Team Policing
Community-Oriented Policing
Problem-Oriented Policing
Core Concepts of the U.S. Court Systems
Case Study: Shipwreck
The Structure of the U.S. Court System
Hierarchical Jurisdiction
Other Forms of Jurisdiction
The Courtroom Workgroup
Defense Attorneys
Criminal Pretrial Processes
Initial Appearance
Plea Bargaining
Pretrial Motions
Criminal Trial Processes
Jury Selection
Presumptions and Evidence
Post-Conviction Review
Judicial Review
Legal Reasoning
Philosophies of Legal Reasoning
The Process of Legal Reasoning
Core Concepts of U.S. Correctional Theory and Practice
Case Study: Weightlifting in Prison
The Scope and Purpose of American Corrections
Four Essential Tensions Underlying Correctional Philosophy and Policy
The Essential Tension of Finance
The Essential Tension of Research
The Essential Tension of Discretion
The Essential Tension of Invisibility
Summary of the Concept of Essential Tensions
History and Practice of Institutional Corrections
A Historical Survey of Correctional Institutions
Current Practice in Correctional Institutions
Theoretical Perspectives on Prison Life
History and Practice of Community Corrections
A History of Community Corrections
Current Practice in Community Corrections
References by Chapter
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

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