9781319102784

A Pocket Guide to Public Speaking

by ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9781319102784

  • ISBN10:

    1319102786

  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Spiral Bound
  • Copyright: 2018-10-17
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

This best-selling brief introduction to public speaking offers practical coverage of every topic typically covered in a full-sized text, from invention, research and organization, practice and delivery, to the different speech types. Its concise, inexpensive format makes it perfect not only for the public speaking course, but also for any setting across the curriculum, on the job, or in the community.

The Sixth Edition is filled with new examples, research, handy tools, and digital support to help students master the basics of public speaking in the classroom and beyond. New speeches and examples from people like Will Ferrell, Emma Watson, and students from Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School engage students in current issues, demonstrate the impact of speech, and provide successful models. Practical advice on topics like how to determine which organizational pattern to use when, how to adapt to an audience, and how to incorporate inclusive language provide easy-to-apply guidance.



The book’s LaunchPad has been greatly expanded with an eBook; new, professionally shot videos; unit quizzes; and a new video assessment program that makes recording video and providing instructor and peer feedback a breeze.

Table of Contents



PART 1: Getting Started


Chapter 1: Becoming a Public Speaker


Gain a Vital Life Skill


Advance Your Professional Goals


Enhance Your Career as a Student


Find New Opportunities for Civic Engagement


The Classical Roots of Public Speaking


Learning to Speak in Public


Draw on Conversational Skills


Draw on Skills in Composition


Develop an Effective Oral Style


Demonstrate Respect for Difference


Public Speaking as a Form of Communication


Public Speaking as an Interactive Communication Process


Chapter 2: From A to Z: Overview of a Speech


Analyze the Audience


Select a Topic


Determine the Speech Purpose


Compose a Thesis Statement


Develop the Main Points


Gather Supporting Materials


Arrange the Speech into Its Major Parts


Outline the Speech


Consider Presentation Aids


Practice Delivering the Speech


Chapter 3: Managing Speech Anxiety


Identify What Makes You Anxious


Lack of Positive Experience


Feeling Different


Being the Center of Attention


Pinpoint the Onset of Anxiety


Pre-Preparation Anxiety


Preparation Anxiety


Pre-Performance Anxiety


Performance Anxiety


Use Proven Strategies to Build Your Confidence


Prepare and Practice


Modify Thoughts and Attitudes


Visualize Success


Activate the Relaxation Response


Briefly Meditate


Use Stress-Control Breathing


Stage One


Stage Two


Use Movement to Minimize Anxiety


Learn from Feedback


Chapter 4: Ethical Public Speaking


Demonstrate Competence and Character


Respect Your Listeners’ Values


Contribute to Positive Public Discourse


Use Your Rights of Free Speech Responsibly


Observe Ethical Ground Rules


Be Trustworthy


Demonstrate Respect


Make Responsible Speech Choices


Demonstrate Fairness


Be Civic-Minded


Avoid Plagiarism


Orally Acknowledge Your Sources


Citing Quotations, Paraphrases, and Summaries


Fair Use, Copyright, and Ethical Speaking


Chapter 5: Listeners and Speakers


Recognize the Centrality of Listening


Recognize That We Listen Selectively


Anticipate Obstacles to Listening


Minimize External and Internal Distractions


Refrain from Multitasking


Guard against Scriptwriting and Defensive Listening


Beware of Laziness and Overconfidence


Work to Overcome Cultural Barriers


Practice Active Listening


Set Listening Goals


Listen for Main Ideas


Strive for the Open and Respectful Exchange of Ideas


Evaluate Evidence and Reasoning


Offer Constructive and Compassionate Feedback


PART 2: Development


Chapter 6: Analyzing the Audience


Adapt to Audience Psychology: Who Are Your Listeners?


"If the Value Fits, Use It"


Gauge Listeners’ Feelings toward the Topic


Gauge Listeners’ Feelings toward You as the Speaker


Gauge Listeners’ Feelings toward the Occasion


Adapt Your Message to Audience Demographics


Age


Ethnic or Cultural Background


Socioeconomic Status


Income


Occupation


Education


Religion


Political Affiliation


Gender and Sexual Orientation


Group Affiliations


Adapt to Diverse Audiences


Adapt to Cross-Cultural Values


Focus on Universal Values


Tools for Learning About Your Audience


Conduct Interviews


Survey the Audience


Consult Published Sources


Analyze the Speech Setting and Context


Chapter 7: Selecting a Topic and Purpose


Explore Topics for Your Speech


Identify Personal Interests


Consider Current Events and Controversial Issues


Survey Grassroots Issues: Engage the Community


Steer Clear of Overused and Trivial Topics


Try Brainstorming to Generate Ideas


Use Internet Tools


Identify the General Purpose of Your Speech


Refine the Topic and Purpose


Narrow Your Topic


Form a Specific Speech Purpose


Compose a Thesis Statement


Example 1


Example 2


From Source to Speech: Narrowing Your Topic to Fit Your Audience


Chapter 8: Developing Supporting Material


Offer Examples


Share Stories


Draw on Testimony


Provide Facts and Statistics


Use Statistics Accurately


Use Frequencies to Indicate Counts


Use Percentages to Express Proportion


Use Types of Averages Accurately


Use Statistics Selectively—and Memorably


Present Statistics Ethically


Chapter 9: Finding Credible Sources in Print and Online


Assess Your Research Needs


Use Library Databases to Access Credible Sources


Recognize Propaganda, Misinformation, and Disinformation


Investigate a Mix of Primary and Secondary Sources


Explore Primary Sources


Consider Personal Knowledge and Experience


Access Government Information


Explore Digital Collections


Access Blogs


Conduct Interviews


Distribute Surveys


Explore Secondary Sources


Wikipedia—Dos and Don’ts


From Source to Speech: Evaluating Web Sources


Chapter 10: Citing Sources in Your Speech


Alert Listeners to Key Source Information


Establish the Source’s Trustworthiness


Qualify the Source


Avoid a Mechanical Delivery


Vary the Wording


Vary the Order


Types of Sources and Sample Oral Citations


Book


Reference Work


Article in a Journal, Newspaper, or Magazine


Website


Blog


Television or Radio Program


Online Video


Testimony (Lay or Expert)


Interview and Other Personal Communication


PART 3: Organization


Chapter 11: Organizing the Body of the Speech


Use Main Points to Make Your Major Claims


Restrict the Number of Main Points


Restrict Each Main Point to a Single Idea


Use the Purpose and Thesis Statements as Guides


Use Supporting Points to Substantiate Your Claims


Pay Close Attention to Coordination and Subordination


Principles of Coordination and Subordination


Strive for a Unified, Coherent, and Balanced Organization


Use Transitions to Give Direction to the Speech


Use Transitions between Speech Points


Use Internal Previews and Summaries as Transitions


From Point to Point: Using Transitions to Guide Your Listeners


Chapter 12: Selecting an Organizational Pattern


Arranging Speech Points Chronologically


Arranging Speech Points Using a Spatial Pattern


Arranging Speech Points Using a Causal (Cause-Effect) Pattern


Arranging Speech Points Using a Problem-Solution Pattern


Arranging Speech Points Topically


Arranging Speech Points Using a Narrative Pattern


Chapter 13: Preparing Outlines for the Speech


Plan on Creating Two Outlines


Use Sentences, Phrases, or Key Words


Use a Key-Word Outline for Optimal Eye Contact


Create a Working Outline First


Sample Working Outline


Prepare a Speaking Outline for Delivery


Sample Speaking Outline


PART 4: Starting, Finishing, and Styling


Chapter 14: Developing the Introduction and Conclusion


Preparing the Introduction


Gain Audience Attention


Use a Quotation


Tell a Story


Establish Common Ground


Offer Unusual Information


Pose Questions


Use Humor—Perhaps


Preview the Topic, Purpose, and Main Points


Establish Credibility as a Speaker


Motivate the Audience to Accept Your Goals


Preparing the Conclusion


Signal the End of the Speech and Provide Closure


Summarize the Key Points


Reiterate the Topic and Speech Purpose


Challenge the Audience to Respond


Make the Conclusion Memorable


Chapter 15: Using Language


Use an Oral Style


Strive for Simplicity


Make Frequent Use of Repetition


Use Personal Pronouns


Choose Concrete Language and Vivid Imagery


Offer Vivid Imagery


Use Figures of Speech


Avoid Clichés, Mixed Metaphors, and Faulty Analogies


Choose Words That Build Credibility


Use Words Appropriately


Use Words Accurately


Use the Active Voice


Use Inclusive, Unbiased Language


Choose Words That Create a Lasting Impression


Use Repetition to Create Rhythm


Use Alliteration for a Poetic Quality


Experiment with Parallelism


PART 5: Delivery


Chapter 16: Methods of Delivery


Keys to Effective Delivery


Select a Method of Delivery


Speaking from Manuscript


Speaking from Memory


Speaking Impromptu


Speaking Extemporaneously


Chapter 17: Your Voice in Delivery


Adjust Your Speaking Volume


Vary Your Intonation


Adjust Your Speaking Rate


Use Strategic Pauses


Strive for Vocal Variety


Carefully Pronounce and Articulate Words


Use Dialect (Language Variation) with Care


Chapter 18: Your Body in Delivery


Pay Attention to Body Language


Animate Your Facial Expressions


Maintain Eye Contact


Use Gestures That Feel Natural


Create a Feeling of Immediacy


Maintain Good Posture


Practice the Delivery


Focus on the Message


Plan Ahead and Practice Often


From Weak to Confident Delivery: Enhancing Your Delivery with Body Language


PART 6: Presentation Aids


Chapter 19: Speaking with Presentation Aids


Select an Appropriate Aid


Props and Models


Pictures


Graphs, Charts, and Tables


Audio, Video, and Multimedia


Options for Showing Presentation Aids


Flip Charts


Chalkboards and Whiteboards


Chapter 20: Designing Presentation Aids


Keep the Design Simple


Use Design Elements Consistently


Select Appropriate Type Styles and Fonts


Use Color Carefully


Consider Subjective Interpretations of Color


Chapter 21: Using Presentation Software


Give a Speech, Not a Slide Show


Develop a Plan


Avoid Technical Glitches


Find Media for Presentations


Avoid Copyright Infringement


From Slide Show to Presentation: Getting Ready to Deliver a PowerPoint, Keynote, or Prezi Presentation


PART 7: Types of Speeches


Chapter 22: Informative Speaking


Use Audience Analysis


Present New and Interesting Information


Look for Ways to Increase Understanding


Subject Matter of Informative Speeches


Decide How to Communicate Your Information


Definition


Description


Demonstration


Explanation


Take Steps to Reduce Confusion


Use Analogies to Build on Prior Knowledge


Appeal to Different Learning Styles


Arrange Points in a Pattern


Sample Informative Speech: Going Carbon Neutral on Campus


Chapter 23: Principles of Persuasive Speaking


Persuasive Speeches Appeal to Human Psychology


Classical Persuasive Appeals: Ethos, Pathos, and Logos


Appeal to Reason


Appeal to Emotion


Appeal to Credibility


Contemporary Persuasive Appeals: Needs and Motivations


Appeal to What Motivates Audience Members


Appeal to Audience Members’ Needs


Encourage Mental Engagement


Demonstrate Speaker Credibility


Stages in Speaker Credibility


Consider Cultural Orientation


Chapter 24: Constructing the Persuasive Speech


Identify the Nature of Your Claims


Use Convincing Evidence


Offer Secondary Sources ("External Evidence")


Offer Speaker Expertise as Evidence


Offer Evidence That Appeals to Audience Needs and Motivations


Select Warrants


Counterarguments: Addressing the Other Side


Avoid Fallacies in Reasoning


Strengthen Your Case with Organization


What Do Your Claims and Evidence Suggest?


What Response Do You Seek?


What is the Audience’s Disposition?


Problem-Solution Pattern of Arrangement


Comparative Advantage Pattern of Arrangement


Monroe’s Motivated Sequence


Step 1: Attention


Step 2: Need


Step 3: Satisfaction


Step 4: Visualization


Step 5: Action


Refutation Pattern of Arrangement


Sample Persuasive Speech: Becoming a Socially Conscious Consumer


Chapter 25: Speaking on Special Occasions


Functions of Special Occasion Speeches


Types of Special Occasion Speeches


Speeches of Introduction


Speeches of Acceptance


Speeches of Presentation


Roasts and Toasts


Eulogies and Other Tributes


After-Dinner Speeches


Speeches of Inspiration


Sample Special Occasion Speech: 2017


University of Southern California Commencement Address by Will Ferrell


PART 8: Online, Group, and Business Contexts


Chapter 26: Preparing Online Presentations


Apply Your Knowledge of Face-to-Face Speaking


Plan for the Unique Demands of Online Delivery


Know the Equipment


Focus on Vocal Variety


Provide Superior Visual Aids


Plan the Delivery Mode


Real-Time Presentations


Recorded Presentations


Choose an Online Presentation Format


Video


Podcasts and Vodcasts


Webinars


Chapter 27: Communicating in Groups


Focus on Goals


Plan on Assuming Dual Roles


Center Disagreements around Issues


Resist Groupthink


Adopt an Effective Leadership Style


Set Goals


Encourage Active Participation


Use Reflective Thinking


Chapter 28: Delivering Group Presentations


Use Group Communication Guidelines


Analyze the Audience and Set Goals


Establish Information Needs


Assign Roles and Tasks


Establish Transitions between Speakers


Consider the Presenters’ Strengths


Coordinate the Presentation Aids


Rehearse the Presentation Several Times


Presenting in Panels, Symposia, and Forums


Panel Discussions


Symposia


Public Forums


Chapter 29: Business and Professional Presentations


Become Familiar with Reports and Proposals


The Sales Proposal


Audience


Organization


The Staff Report


Audience


Organization


The Progress Report


Audience


Organization


PART 9: Speaking in Other College Courses


Chapter 30: Presentations Assigned across the Curriculum


Journal Article Review


The Service Learning Presentation


The Poster Presentation


The Debate


Debate Sides, Resolutions, and Formats


Advance Strong Arguments


The Case Study


Prepare for Different Types of Audiences


Chapter 31: Science and Mathematics Courses


Preparing Effective Presentations in Science and Mathematics


Research Presentation


Process Analysis Presentation


Field Study Presentation


Chapter 32: Technical Courses


Preparing Effective Technical Presentations


Engineering Design Review


Architecture Design Review


Request for Funding


Chapter 33: Social Science Courses


Preparing Effective Presentations in the Social Sciences


Review of the Literature Presentation


Program Evaluation Presentation


Policy Proposal Presentation


Chapter 34: Arts and Humanities Courses


Preparing Effective Arts and Humanities Presentations


Presentations of Interpretation and Analysis


Presentations That Compare and Contrast


Debates


Chapter 35: Education Courses


Preparing Effective Education Presentations


Delivering a Lecture


Facilitating a Group Activity


Facilitating a Classroom Discussion


Chapter 36: Nursing and Allied Health Courses


Preparing Effective Presentations in Nursing and Allied Health Courses


Evidence-Based Practice Presentation


Clinical Case Study Presentation


Quality Improvement Proposal


Treatment Plan Report


Appendices


Appendix A: Citation Guidelines


Chicago Documentation


APA Documentation


MLA Documentation


CSE Documentation


IEEE Documentation


Appendix B: Question-and-Answer Sessions


Protocol during the Session


Handling Hostile and Otherwise Troubling Questions


Ending the Session


Appendix C: Preparing for TV and Radio Communication


Speaking on Television


Eye Contact, Body Movements, and Voice


Dress and Makeup


Speaking on Radio: The Media Interview


Appendix D: Tips for Non-Native Speakers of English


Think Positively


Consider Your Context and Audience


Capitalize on Your Language Uniqueness


Practice, Practice, Practice


Focus on Your Pronunciation


Final Suggestions


Glossary


Index

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