9780470029589

Textbook of in vivo Imaging in Vertebrates

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  • ISBN13:

    9780470029589

  • ISBN10:

    0470029587

  • Format: eBook
  • Copyright: 2007-10-01
  • Publisher: Wiley-Interscience
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Summary

This book describes the new imaging techniques being developed to monitor physiological, cellular and subcellular function within living animals. This exciting field of imaging science brings together physics, chemistry, engineering, biology and medicine to yield powerful and versatile imaging approaches. By combining advanced non-invasive imaging technologies with new mechanisms for visualizing biochemical events and protein and gene function, non-invasive vertebrate imaging enables the in vivo study of biology and offers rapid routes from basic discovery to drug development and clinical application. Combined with the availability of an increasing number of animal models of human disease, and the ability to perform longitudinal studies of disease evolution and of the long-term effects of therapeutic procedures, this new technology offers the next generation of tools for biomedical research. Well illustrated, largely in colour, the book reviews the most common and technologically advanced methods for vertebrate imaging, presented in a clear, comprehensive format. The basic principles are described, followed by several examples of the use of imaging in the study of living multicellular organisms, concentrating on small animal models of human diseases. The book illustrates: The types of information that can be obtained with modern in vivo imaging; The substitution of imaging methods for more destructive histological techniques; The advantages conferred by in vivo imaging in building a more accurate picture of the response of tissues to stimuli over time while significantly reducing the number of animals required for such studies. Part 1 describes current techniques in in vivo imaging, providing specialists and laboratory scientists from all disciplines with clear and helpful information regarding the tools available for their specific research field. Part 2 looks in more detail at imaging organ development and function, covering the brain, heart, lung and others. Part 3 describes the use of imaging to monitor various new types of therapy, following the reaction in an individual organism over time, e.g. after gene or cell therapy. Most chapters are written by teams of physicists and biologists, giving a balanced coherent description of each technique and its potential applications.

Table of Contents

Contributors
Introduction
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy
Introduction
Magnets and magnetic field
Nuclear magnetization
Excitation and return to equilibrium of nuclear magnetization
The NMR hardware: RF coils and gradient coils (more technology)
NMR spectroscopy: the chemical encoding
How to build NMR images: the spatial encoding
MRI and contrast
Sensitivity, spatial resolution and temporal resolution
Contrast agents for MRI
Imaging of 'other' nuclei
More parameters contributing to MRI contrast
More about applications
High Resolution X-ray Microtomography: Applications in Biomedical Research
Introduction
Principles of tomography
Implementation
Contribution of microtomography to biomedical imaging
Ultrasound ImagingA A
Principles of ultrasonic imaging and its adaptation to small laboratory animals
Pulse-echo transmission
Ultrasonic transducers
From echoes to images
Blood flow and tissue motion
Non-linear and contrast imaging
Discussion
In Vivo Radiotracer Imaging
Introduction
Radioactivity
Interaction of gamma rays with matter
Radiotracer imaging with gamma emitters
Detection of positron emitters
Image properties and analysis
Radiochemistry of gamma-emitting radiotracers
Radiochemistry of positron-emitting radiotracers
Major radiotracers and imaging applications
Optical Imaging and Tomography
Introduction
Light - tissue interactions
Light propagation in tissues
Reconstruction and inverse problem
Fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT)
Optical Microscopy in Small Animal Research
Introduction
Confocal laser scanning microscopy
Multiphoton laser scanning microscopy
Variants for in vivo imaging
Surgical preparations
Applications
New Radiotracers, Reporter Probes and Contrast Agents
Introduction
New radiotracers
Multimodal constructs for magnetic resonance imaging
Fluorescence reporters for biomedical imaging
New contrast agents for NMR
Imaging techniques - reporter gene imaging agents
Multi-Modality Imaging
Introduction
Concurrent imaging versus computer-assisted registration
Combination of SPECT and CT
FMT registration with MRI
Brain Imaging
Introduction
Bringing amyloid into focus with
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

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