Vold's Theoretical Criminology

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  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2009-04-14
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
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Vold's Theoretical Criminology, Sixth Edition, presents the most precise, up-to-date, and comprehensive overview of criminological theory available, building on the foundation of George B. Vold's Theoretical Criminology, which paved the way for a generation of criminological theorists. Coupled with new, student-friendly features, the sixth edition features expanded discussions of: empirical research within specific theories; the "biosocial" approach; theoretical explanations for gendered differences in crime; low self-control and the general theory of crime; Control Balance Theory; and General Strain Theory. In addition, the text covers such new topical areas as Lonnie Athens's Theory of "Violentization;" Agnew's General Theory; Zimbardo's "Lucifer Effect;" the Cambridge Youth Violence Study; and Coercion and Social Support. Offering improved pedagogy--including new Key Terms lists and end-of-chapter Discussion Questions--this new edition also presents additional material on policy implications.

Author Biography

Thomas J. Bernard is Professor of Sociology and Criminal Justice at Pennsylvania State University.
Jeffrey B. Snipes is Associate Professor of Criminal Justice Studies at San Francisco State University.
Alex B. Gerould is a full-time faculty member in the Criminal Justice Studies Department at San Francisco State University.
The late George B. Vold was Professor of Sociology at the University of Minnesota.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. ix
Theory and Crimep. 1
Spiritual Explanationsp. 1
Natural Explanationsp. 3
Scientific Theoriesp. 4
Causation in Scientific Theoriesp. 4
Three Frames of Referencep. 7
Relationships Among the Three Frames of Referencep. 8
Key Termsp. 10
Discussion Questionsp. 10
Classical Criminologyp. 14
The Social and Intellectual Background of Classical Criminologyp. 14
Beccaria and the Classical Schoolp. 16
From Classical Theory to Deterrence Researchp. 18
Three Types of Deterrence Researchp. 20
Rational Choice and Offendingp. 24
Routine Activities and Victimizationp. 26
Conclusionsp. 28
Key Termsp. 28
Discussion Questionsp. 29
Biological Factors and Criminal Behaviorp. 37
Background: Physical Appearance and Defectivenessp. 37
Lombroso, the "Born Criminal" and Positivist Criminologyp. 38
Goring's Refutation of the "Born Criminal"p. 40
Body Type Theoriesp. 41
Family Studiesp. 43
Twin and Adoption Studiesp. 44
Neurotransmittersp. 47
Hormonesp. 48
The Central Nervous Systemp. 49
The Autonomic Nervous Systemp. 50
Environmentally Induced Biological Components of Behaviorp. 52
Implications and Conclusionsp. 55
Key Termsp. 56
Discussion Questionsp. 56
Psychological Factors and Criminal Behaviorp. 65
Intelligence and Crime: Background Ideas and Conceptsp. 66
IQ Tests and Criminal Behaviorp. 66
Delinquency, Race, and IQp. 69
Interpreting the Association between Delinquency and IQp. 71
Personality and Criminal Behaviorp. 72
Psychopathy and Antisocial Personality Disorderp. 74
Clinical Prediction of Future Dangerousnessp. 75
Actuarial Prediction of Later Crime and Delinquencyp. 76
Depression and Delinquencyp. 77
Impulsivity and Crimep. 78
Policy Implications of Personality Researchp. 81
Conclusionsp. 82
Key Termsp. 83
Discussion Questionsp. 83
Crime and Povertyp. 93
Historical Background: Guerry and Queteletp. 93
Research on Crime and Poverty: Contradictions and Disagreementsp. 97
Crime and Unemployment: A Detailed Look at Researchp. 99
Problems Interpreting Research on Crime and Economic Conditionsp. 101
Implications and Conclusionsp. 106
Key Termsp. 107
Discussion Questionsp. 107
Durkheim, Anomie, and Modernizationp. 115
Emile Durkheimp. 116
Crime as Normal in Mechanical Societiesp. 117
Anomie as a Pathological State in Organic Societiesp. 120
Durkheim's Theory of Crimep. 123
Conclusionp. 127
Key Termsp. 128
Discussion Questionsp. 129
Neighborhoods and Crimep. 133
The Theory of Human Ecologyp. 133
Research in the "Delinquency Areas" of Chicagop. 136
Policy Implicationsp. 139
Residential Succession, Social Disorganization, and Crimep. 141
Sampson's Theory of Collective Efficacyp. 142
Expanding Interest in Neighborhood Social Processesp. 146
Implications and Conclusionsp. 147
Key Termsp. 148
Discussion Questionsp. 149
Strain Theoriesp. 154
Robert K. Merton and Anomie in American Societyp. 154
Strain as the Explanation of Gang Delinquencyp. 159
1960s Strain-Based Policiesp. 162
The Decline and Resurgence of Strain Theoriesp. 162
Strain in Individualsp. 164
Strain in Societiesp. 167
Conclusionp. 170
Key Termsp. 171
Discussion Questionsp. 171
Learning Theoriesp. 177
Basic Psychological Approaches to Learningp. 178
Sutherland's Differential Association Theoryp. 179
Research Testing Sutherland's Theoryp. 182
The Content of Learning: Cultural and Subcultural Theoriesp. 184
The Learning Process: Social Learning Theoryp. 189
Athens's Theory of "Violentization"p. 191
Implicationsp. 193
Conclusionsp. 194
Key Termsp. 195
Discussion Questionsp. 196
Control Theoriesp. 203
Early Control Theories: Reiss to Nyep. 203
Matza's Delinquency and Driftp. 206
Hirschi's Social Control Theoryp. 208
Assessing Social Control Theoryp. 211
Gottfredson and Hirschi's A General Theory of Crimep. 213
Assessing Gottfredson and Hirschi's General Theoryp. 214
Implications and Conclusionsp. 218
Key Termsp. 219
Discussion Questionsp. 220
The Meaning of Crimep. 226
The Meaning of Crime to the Self: Labeling Theoryp. 227
The Meaning of Crime to the Criminal: Katz's Seductions of Crimep. 231
The Situational Meaning of Crime: Zimbardo's Lucifer Effectp. 233
The Meaning of Crime to the Larger Society: Deviance and Social Reactionp. 235
State Power and the Meaning of Crime: Controlologyp. 237
Implications and Conclusionsp. 239
Key Termsp. 240
Discussion Questionsp. 240
Conflict Criminologyp. 246
Early Conflict Theories: Sellin and Voldp. 247
Conflict Theories in a Time of Conflict: Turk, Quinney, and Chambliss and Seidmanp. 249
Black's Theory of the Behavior of Lawp. 253
A Unified Conflict Theory of Crimep. 256
Testing Conflict Criminologyp. 258
Implications and Conclusionsp. 261
Key Termsp. 262
Discussion Questionsp. 262
Marxism and Postmodern Criminologyp. 267
Overview of Marx's Theoryp. 268
Marx on Crime, Criminal Law, and Criminal Justicep. 269
The Emergence of Marxist Criminologyp. 271
Marxist Theory and Research on Crimep. 272
Overview of Postmodernismp. 275
Postmodern Criminologyp. 277
Conclusionp. 279
Key Termsp. 280
Discussion Questionsp. 280
Gender and Crimep. 287
The Development of Feminist Criminologyp. 287
Schools of Feminist Criminologyp. 289
Gender in Criminologyp. 291
Why are Women's Crime Rates So Low?p. 293
Why are Men's Crime Rates So High?p. 295
Conclusionsp. 298
Key Termsp. 299
Discussion Questionsp. 299
Developmental Theoriesp. 305
The Great Debate: Criminal Careers, Longitudinal Research, and the Relationship Between Age and Crimep. 306
Criminal Propensity Versus Criminal Careerp. 308
The Transition to Developmental Criminologyp. 311
Three Developmental Directionsp. 314
Thornberry's Interactional Theoryp. 314
Sampson and Laub's Age-Graded Theory of Informal Social Controlp. 316
Tremblay's Developmental Origins of Physical Aggressionp. 319
Conclusionsp. 320
Key Termsp. 321
Discussion Questionsp. 321
Integrated Theoriesp. 327
Elliott's Integrated Theory of Delinquency and Drug Usep. 327
The Falsification versus Integration Debatep. 329
Braithwaite's Theory of Reintegrative Shamingp. 330
Tittle's Control Balance Theoryp. 332
Coercion and Social Supportp. 335
Bernard and Snipes's Approach to Integrating Criminology Theoriesp. 337
Agnew's General Theoryp. 340
Conclusionp. 341
Key Termsp. 342
Discussion Questionsp. 342
Assessing Criminology Theoriesp. 346
Science, Theory, Research, and Policyp. 346
Individual Difference Theoriesp. 348
Structure/Process Theoriesp. 354
Theories of the Behavior of Criminal Lawp. 360
Conclusionp. 364
Indexp. 367
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